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Article

Anxiety, Low Self-Esteem and a Low Happiness Index Are Associated with Poor School Performance in Chilean Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

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Escuela de Educación, Universidad de Concepción, Los Ángeles 4440000, Chile
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Centro de Vida Saludable, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción 4030000, Chile
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Departamento de Educación Física, Deporte y Recreación, Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación, Santiago 7760197, Chile
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Doctorado en Psicología, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción 4030000, Chile
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Centro de Investigación de Estudios Avanzados del Maule (CIEAM), Universidad Católica del Maule, Talca 3460000, Chile
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Laboratorio de Rendimiento Humano, Grupo de Estudios en Educación, Actividad Física y Salud (GEEAFyS), Universidad Católica del Maule, Talca 3460000, Chile
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Escuela de Nutrición y Dietética, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Santo Tomás, Los Ángeles 4440000, Chile
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Facultad de Educación, Departamento de Ciencias del Deporte y Acondicionamiento Físico, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción 4030000, Chile
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Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago 8370068, Chile
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Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences & Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8TA, UK
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Department of Health Psychology, Faculty of Social and Health Sciences, Campus of Elche, Miguel Hernandez University (UMH), 03202 Elche, Spain
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Escuela de Kinesiología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Santo Tomás, Los Ángeles 4440000, Chile
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Zuzana Dankulincova
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11685; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182111685
Received: 15 September 2021 / Revised: 3 November 2021 / Accepted: 3 November 2021 / Published: 7 November 2021
Objective: To analyze the relationship between anxiety, self-esteem, happiness index and primary school students’ academic performance in Chilean adolescents from the Biobío province. Methodology: 733 (46.1% girls; 12 (1.3 years)) public primary school students that completed the 2018 Health and School Performance Survey carried out in the Biobío province were included in this cross-sectional analysis. The BECK Anxiety Inventory (BAI) was used to measure anxiety while happiness index and self-esteem were measured using the subjective happiness scale and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, respectively. School performance was measured by grade point average (GPA) of language, math, physical education and cumulative GPA, and behavior associated with cognition in the school context was also considered. The relationship between mental health indicators and school performance was investigated using a one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Results: In comparison to students with low anxiety levels and high self-esteem and happiness levels, students with higher anxiety levels, lower self-esteem and happiness levels perceived themselves as having memory problems. They were also slower to solve math problems, had a shorter attention span in class and presented more difficulties in solving complex tasks, as well as being more nervous during testing. These students also got the lowest grade point average in math, language and physical education. Conclusions: High anxiety levels, low self-esteem and low happiness levels were associated with lower school performance and weaker behavior associated with cognition in Chilean adolescents. Implementing plans of emotional education and mental health could improve academic achievement. View Full-Text
Keywords: mental health; anxiety; self-esteem; happiness; subjective well-being; school performance; teenage students mental health; anxiety; self-esteem; happiness; subjective well-being; school performance; teenage students
MDPI and ACS Style

Zapata-Lamana, R.; Sanhueza-Campos, C.; Stuardo-Álvarez, M.; Ibarra-Mora, J.; Mardones-Contreras, M.; Reyes-Molina, D.; Vásquez-Gómez, J.; Lasserre-Laso, N.; Poblete-Valderrama, F.; Petermann-Rocha, F.; Parra-Rizo, M.A.; Cigarroa, I. Anxiety, Low Self-Esteem and a Low Happiness Index Are Associated with Poor School Performance in Chilean Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 11685. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182111685

AMA Style

Zapata-Lamana R, Sanhueza-Campos C, Stuardo-Álvarez M, Ibarra-Mora J, Mardones-Contreras M, Reyes-Molina D, Vásquez-Gómez J, Lasserre-Laso N, Poblete-Valderrama F, Petermann-Rocha F, Parra-Rizo MA, Cigarroa I. Anxiety, Low Self-Esteem and a Low Happiness Index Are Associated with Poor School Performance in Chilean Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(21):11685. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182111685

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zapata-Lamana, Rafael, Cristian Sanhueza-Campos, Marcia Stuardo-Álvarez, Jessica Ibarra-Mora, Marcela Mardones-Contreras, Daniel Reyes-Molina, Jaime Vásquez-Gómez, Nicole Lasserre-Laso, Felipe Poblete-Valderrama, Fanny Petermann-Rocha, Maria A. Parra-Rizo, and Igor Cigarroa. 2021. "Anxiety, Low Self-Esteem and a Low Happiness Index Are Associated with Poor School Performance in Chilean Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Analysis" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 21: 11685. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182111685

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