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Article

Social and Built Environments Related to Cognitive Function of Older Adults: A Multi-Level Analysis Study in Taiwan

by 1,2,* and 1,2,3
1
School of Public Health, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, 11031 Taipei, Taiwan
2
Research Center of Health Equity, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, 11031 Taipei, Taiwan
3
Department of Public Health, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lilah Besser, Willa D. Brenowitz and Oanh Le Meyer 
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 2820; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18062820
Received: 10 February 2021 / Revised: 5 March 2021 / Accepted: 7 March 2021 / Published: 10 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Built Environments and Healthy Brain Aging)
The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cognitive function, the city’s social environment, and individual characteristics of older adults. The individual data of older people were from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2013–2016. The participants who were aged 65 and above were included in the analysis (n = 1356). City-level data were obtained for twenty cities in Taiwan. The data of city-level indicators were from governmental open data and Taiwan’s Age Friendly Environment Monitor Study. A multilevel mixed-effect model was applied in the analysis. Population density, median income, safety in the community, barrier-free sidewalks, high education rate of the population, low-income population rate, household income inequality, and elderly abuse rate were related to cognitive function in the bivariate analysis. When controlling for individual factors, the city’s low-income population rate was still significantly related to lower cognitive function. In addition, the participants who were at younger age, had a higher education level, had a better financial satisfaction, had worse self-rated health, had higher numbers of disease, and had better physical function had better cognitive function. Social and built environments associated with cognitive function highlight the importance of income security and the age friendliness of the city for older adults. Income security for older people and age-friendly city policies are suggested. View Full-Text
Keywords: age friendly city; built environment; cognitive function; social environment; older adults age friendly city; built environment; cognitive function; social environment; older adults
MDPI and ACS Style

Hsu, H.-C.; Bai, C.-H. Social and Built Environments Related to Cognitive Function of Older Adults: A Multi-Level Analysis Study in Taiwan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2820. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18062820

AMA Style

Hsu H-C, Bai C-H. Social and Built Environments Related to Cognitive Function of Older Adults: A Multi-Level Analysis Study in Taiwan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(6):2820. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18062820

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hsu, Hui-Chuan, and Chyi-Huey Bai. 2021. "Social and Built Environments Related to Cognitive Function of Older Adults: A Multi-Level Analysis Study in Taiwan" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 6: 2820. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18062820

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