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Article

Stability of Executive Functioning of Moderately-Late Preterm and Full-Term Born Children at Ages 11 and 19: The TRAILS Cohort Study

1
Department of Health Sciences, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands
2
Siza Location’s Koonings Jaght, 6816TK Arnhem, The Netherlands
3
Faculty of Social and Behavioral Science, Utrecht University, 3584CS Utrecht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Desirée Valera-Gran
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4161; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18084161
Received: 24 February 2021 / Revised: 9 April 2021 / Accepted: 12 April 2021 / Published: 14 April 2021
Moderately-late preterm-born children (MLPs, 32–36 weeks gestational age, GA) have poorer executive functioning (EF) at primary school age than full-term children (FTs). Evidence is lacking on their EF in adolescence, but for early preterm-born children, this has been shown to be much poorer. We, therefore, compared EF of MLPs and FTs at ages 11 and 19 and assessed development between these ages. We obtained data from TRAILS, a community-based prospective cohort study in the northern Netherlands, on 98 MLPs and 1832 FTs. We assessed EF by the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT) at ages 11 and 19 years and computed gender-specific z-scores on reaction time and accuracy. We compared baseline speed, pattern search, working memory, sustained attention, inhibition, and attentional flexibility of MLPs and FTs crude, and adjusted for small-for-GA status, socioeconomic status, and estimated intelligence. MLPs and FTs performed similarly on all EF components at ages 11 and 19, except for the speed, but not the accuracy measure of attentional flexibility. This was slightly poorer for MLPs than FTs at age 19 (adjusted B 0.25; 95% confidence interval: 0.00 to 0.50; p = 0.047), but not at age 11 (adjusted B −0.02; −0.19 to 0.22; p = 0.87). Differences in EF between MLPs and FTs did not change significantly from age 11 to 19. MLPs had comparable EF on most components as FTs, with only attentional flexibility at age 19 developing slightly poorer for MLPs than for FTs. These findings suggest the effects of MLP birth on long-term EF to be small. View Full-Text
Keywords: preterm birth; executive functioning; longitudinal; adolescence preterm birth; executive functioning; longitudinal; adolescence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Reijneveld, S.A.; Hornman, J.; Boelema, S.R.; de Winter, A.F. Stability of Executive Functioning of Moderately-Late Preterm and Full-Term Born Children at Ages 11 and 19: The TRAILS Cohort Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4161. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18084161

AMA Style

Reijneveld SA, Hornman J, Boelema SR, de Winter AF. Stability of Executive Functioning of Moderately-Late Preterm and Full-Term Born Children at Ages 11 and 19: The TRAILS Cohort Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(8):4161. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18084161

Chicago/Turabian Style

Reijneveld, Sijmen A., Jorijn Hornman, Sarai R. Boelema, and Andrea F. de Winter. 2021. "Stability of Executive Functioning of Moderately-Late Preterm and Full-Term Born Children at Ages 11 and 19: The TRAILS Cohort Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 8: 4161. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18084161

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