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Article

Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus Is Omnipresent in Elephants in European Zoos and an Asian Elephant Range Country

1
Section Virology, Division Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Biomolecular Health Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3584 CL Utrecht, The Netherlands
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Section Immunology, Division Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Biomolecular Health Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3584 CL Utrecht, The Netherlands
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Veterinary Advisor EAZA Elephant TAG, Rotterdam Zoo, 3041 JG Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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Center for Functional and Evolutionary Ecology (CEFE), Univ. Montpellier, CNRS, EPHE, IRD, Univ. Paul Valéry Montpellier 3, 34090 Montpellier, France
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Zooparc de Beauval & Beauval Nature, 41110 Saint-Aignan, France
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ViroScience Lab, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015 CN Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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Zoological Society of London, ZSL Whipsnade Zoo, Dunstable LU6 2LF, Bedfordshire, UK
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École Nationale Vétérinaire d’Alfort, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France
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Antwerp Zoo Centre for Research and Conservation, Antwerp Zoo Society, 2018 Antwerp, Belgium
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Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shafiqul Chowdhury
Received: 22 January 2021 / Revised: 5 February 2021 / Accepted: 6 February 2021 / Published: 11 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Herpesviruses Pathogenesis and Immunity)
Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) may cause acute, often lethal, hemorrhagic disease (EEHV-HD) in young elephants. Prevalence of EEHV in different elephant populations is still largely unknown. In order to improve diagnostic tools for the detection of EEHV infections and to obtain insight into its spread among elephants, we developed novel ELISAs based on EEHV1A gB and gH/gL. Performance of the ELISAs was assessed using sera from 41 European zoo elephants and 69 semi-captive elephants from Laos, one of the Asian elephant range countries. Sera from all (sub)adult animals tested (≥5 years of age) showed high reactivity with both gB and gH/gL, indicating that EEHV prevalence has been highly underestimated so far. Reactivity towards the antigens was generally lower for sera of juvenile animals (1 > 5 years). Only one (juvenile) animal, which was sampled directly after succumbing to EEHV-HD, was found to be seronegative for EEHV. The two other EEHV-HD cases tested showed low antibody levels, suggesting that all three cases died upon a primary EEHV infection. In conclusion, our study suggests that essentially all (semi-)captive (sub)adult elephants in European zoos and in Laos carry EEHV, and that young elephants with low antibody levels are at risk of dying from EEHV-HD. View Full-Text
Keywords: EEHV; herpesviruses; elephant; immunoserology; gB; gH/gL EEHV; herpesviruses; elephant; immunoserology; gB; gH/gL
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hoornweg, T.E.; Schaftenaar, W.; Maurer, G.; van den Doel, P.B.; Molenaar, F.M.; Chamouard-Galante, A.; Vercammen, F.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.; de Haan, C.A.M. Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus Is Omnipresent in Elephants in European Zoos and an Asian Elephant Range Country. Viruses 2021, 13, 283. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13020283

AMA Style

Hoornweg TE, Schaftenaar W, Maurer G, van den Doel PB, Molenaar FM, Chamouard-Galante A, Vercammen F, Rutten VPMG, de Haan CAM. Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus Is Omnipresent in Elephants in European Zoos and an Asian Elephant Range Country. Viruses. 2021; 13(2):283. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13020283

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hoornweg, Tabitha E., Willem Schaftenaar, Gilles Maurer, Petra B. van den Doel, Fieke M. Molenaar, Alexandre Chamouard-Galante, Francis Vercammen, Victor P.M.G. Rutten, and Cornelis A.M. de Haan 2021. "Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus Is Omnipresent in Elephants in European Zoos and an Asian Elephant Range Country" Viruses 13, no. 2: 283. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13020283

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