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Article

Variation of the Main Alkaloid Content in Equisetum palustre L. in the Light of Its Ontogeny

1
Group Grassland and Forage Science, University of Rostock, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, 18159 Rostock, Germany
2
Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, Technical University of Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 1, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 September 2020 / Revised: 29 October 2020 / Accepted: 4 November 2020 / Published: 9 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Toxins Affecting Animal Health and Production)
Marsh horsetail (Equisetum palustre L.) is one of the most poisonous plants of wet grasslands in the northern hemisphere, which poses a major health threat to livestock. Available data on the levels of its main alkaloids are currently contradictory due to the inadequate analytical methods and the wide variation in toxicity levels reported. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the ontogenetic stage of plant development may explain a significant part of the variations in the main Equisetum-type alkaloids. Two populations of marsh horsetail were sampled over two growing seasons. The plant material was classified according to their developmental stages and subsequently the main alkaloids were determined by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis. ANOVA revealed significant effects of the ontogenetic stage but not the site on the main Equisetum-type alkaloids (sum of palustrine and palustridiene) ranging from 213 to 994 mg/kg dry matter (DM). The highest alkaloid content was found in the stages of early development. Not the season itself, but the growth temperature co-influenced the alkaloid content. Our results help to resolve the seemingly contradictory information provided by previous studies on the toxicity of E. palustre and are of practical relevance for the prevention of contamination risks in wet grassland use. View Full-Text
Keywords: marsh horsetail; palustrine; palustridiene; forage toxicity; livestock poisoning; wet grassland management marsh horsetail; palustrine; palustridiene; forage toxicity; livestock poisoning; wet grassland management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Müller, J.; Puttich, P.M.; Beuerle, T. Variation of the Main Alkaloid Content in Equisetum palustre L. in the Light of Its Ontogeny. Toxins 2020, 12, 710. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12110710

AMA Style

Müller J, Puttich PM, Beuerle T. Variation of the Main Alkaloid Content in Equisetum palustre L. in the Light of Its Ontogeny. Toxins. 2020; 12(11):710. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12110710

Chicago/Turabian Style

Müller, Jürgen, Philipp M. Puttich, and Till Beuerle. 2020. "Variation of the Main Alkaloid Content in Equisetum palustre L. in the Light of Its Ontogeny" Toxins 12, no. 11: 710. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12110710

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