Next Article in Journal
A Calibration Curve Implanted Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Simultaneously Quantitative Determination of Multiplex Mycotoxins in Cereal Samples, Soybean and Peanut
Next Article in Special Issue
Botulinum Toxin Type A to Improve Facial Symmetry in Facial Palsy: A Practical Guideline and Clinical Experience
Previous Article in Journal
Association between Uremic Toxin Concentrations and Bone Mineral Density after Kidney Transplantation

Toxemia in Human Naturally Acquired Botulism

Unité des Toxines Bactériennes, UMR CNRS 2001, Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 October 2020 / Revised: 7 November 2020 / Accepted: 10 November 2020 / Published: 13 November 2020
Human botulism is a severe disease characterized by flaccid paralysis and inhibition of certain gland secretions, notably salivary secretions, caused by inhibition of neurotransmitter release. Naturally acquired botulism occurs in three main forms: food-borne botulism by ingestion of preformed botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in food, botulism by intestinal colonization (infant botulism and intestinal toxemia botulism in infants above one year and adults), and wound botulism. A rapid laboratory confirmation of botulism is required for the appropriate management of patients. Detection of BoNT in the patient’s sera is the most direct way to address the diagnosis of botulism. Based on previous published reports, botulinum toxemia was identified in about 70% of food-borne and wound botulism cases, and only in about 28% of infant botulism cases, in which the diagnosis is mainly confirmed from stool sample investigation. The presence of BoNT in serum depends on the BoNT amount ingested with contaminated food or produced locally in the intestine or wound, and the timeframe between serum sampling and disease onset. BoNT levels in patient’s sera are most frequently low, requiring a highly sensitive method of detection. Mouse bioassay is still the most used method of botulism identification from serum samples. However, in vitro methods based on BoNT endopeptidase activity with detection by mass spectrometry or immunoassay have been developed and depending on BoNT type, are more sensitive than the mouse bioassay. These new assays show high specificity for individual BoNT types and allow more accurate differentiation between positive toxin sera from botulism and autoimmune neuropathy patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: botulism; botulinum neurotoxin; Clostridium botulinum; toxemia; serum botulism; botulinum neurotoxin; Clostridium botulinum; toxemia; serum
MDPI and ACS Style

Rasetti-Escargueil, C.; Lemichez, E.; Popoff, M.R. Toxemia in Human Naturally Acquired Botulism. Toxins 2020, 12, 716.

AMA Style

Rasetti-Escargueil C, Lemichez E, Popoff MR. Toxemia in Human Naturally Acquired Botulism. Toxins. 2020; 12(11):716.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rasetti-Escargueil, Christine, Emmanuel Lemichez, and Michel R. Popoff 2020. "Toxemia in Human Naturally Acquired Botulism" Toxins 12, no. 11: 716.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop