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Article

Reducing Ochratoxin A Content in Grape Pomace by Different Methods

Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC 27411, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 May 2020 / Revised: 24 June 2020 / Accepted: 25 June 2020 / Published: 27 June 2020
Grape pomace (GP) is the residue of grapes after wine making and is a valuable source of dietary polyphenol and fiber for health promotion. However, studies found the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in GP at very high concentrations, which raises a safety issue in the value-added utilization of GP. This study evaluated the effects of thermal pressure, baking, acid and enzymatic treatments on OTA content in GP. Thermal pressure treatment was conducted with wet GP at 121 °C for 10–30 min in an autoclave; acid treatments were conducted with hydrochloric acid, acetic acid, citric acid, and lactic acid, respectively, at 50 °C for 24 h. Baking was conducted using a cookie model. For enzymatic treatment, purified OTA solution was treated with carboxypeptidase A, alcalase, flavourzyme, pepsin, and lipase, respectively, and the effective enzymes were selected to treat GP. Results show that autoclaving for 10–30 min reduced 19–80% of OTA, varying with treatment time and GP variety. The effectiveness of acid treatment was similar to that of autoclaving and varied with acid type and GP variety. Baking increased the detectable OTA. Among all tested enzymes, carboxypeptidase A was the most effective in reducing OTA, followed by lipase and flavourzyme, but their effects were significantly lower in GP samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: ochratoxin A; OTA reduction; thermal pressure treatment; acid treatment; enzymatic treatment ochratoxin A; OTA reduction; thermal pressure treatment; acid treatment; enzymatic treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yu, J.; Smith, I.N.; Mikiashvili, N. Reducing Ochratoxin A Content in Grape Pomace by Different Methods. Toxins 2020, 12, 424. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12070424

AMA Style

Yu J, Smith IN, Mikiashvili N. Reducing Ochratoxin A Content in Grape Pomace by Different Methods. Toxins. 2020; 12(7):424. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12070424

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yu, Jianmei, Ivy N. Smith, and Nona Mikiashvili. 2020. "Reducing Ochratoxin A Content in Grape Pomace by Different Methods" Toxins 12, no. 7: 424. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12070424

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