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Article

Cell Death and Metabolic Stress in Gymnodinium catenatum Induced by Allelopathy

1
Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas (IPN-CICIMAR), Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional s/n, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, La Paz 23096, Mexico
2
Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste (CIBNOR), S.C. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 195, Col. Playa Palo Santa Rita, La Paz 23096, Mexico
3
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología-Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas (CONACyT, IPN-CICIMAR), Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, La Paz 23096, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 May 2021 / Revised: 5 July 2021 / Accepted: 8 July 2021 / Published: 20 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivity and Chemical Ecological Interactions of Marine Toxins)
Allelopathy between phytoplankton species can promote cellular stress and programmed cell death (PCD). The raphidophyte Chattonella marina var. marina, and the dinoflagellates Margalefidinium polykrikoides and Gymnodinium impudicum have allelopathic effects on Gymnodinium catenatum; however, the physiological mechanisms are unknown. We evaluated whether the allelopathic effect promotes cellular stress and activates PCD in G. catenatum. Cultures of G. catenatum were exposed to cell-free media of C. marina var. marina, M. polykrikoides and G. impudicum. The mortality, superoxide radical (O2●−) production, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, protein content, and caspase-3 activity were quantified. Mortality (between 57 and 79%) was registered in G. catenatum after exposure to cell-free media of the three species. The maximal O2●− production occurred with C. marina var. marina cell-free media. The highest TBARS levels and SOD activity in G. catenatum were recorded with cell-free media from G. impudicum. The highest protein content was recorded with cell-free media from M. polykrikoides. All cell-free media caused an increase in the activity of caspase-3. These results indicate that the allelopathic effect in G. catenatum promotes cell stress and caspase-3 activation, as a signal for the induction of programmed cell death. View Full-Text
Keywords: allelopathy; apoptosis; caspase-3; harmful algae; reactive oxygen species allelopathy; apoptosis; caspase-3; harmful algae; reactive oxygen species
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fernández-Herrera, L.J.; Band-Schmidt, C.J.; Zenteno-Savín, T.; Leyva-Valencia, I.; Hernández-Guerrero, C.J.; Muñoz-Ochoa, M. Cell Death and Metabolic Stress in Gymnodinium catenatum Induced by Allelopathy. Toxins 2021, 13, 506. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13070506

AMA Style

Fernández-Herrera LJ, Band-Schmidt CJ, Zenteno-Savín T, Leyva-Valencia I, Hernández-Guerrero CJ, Muñoz-Ochoa M. Cell Death and Metabolic Stress in Gymnodinium catenatum Induced by Allelopathy. Toxins. 2021; 13(7):506. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13070506

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fernández-Herrera, Leyberth J., Christine J. Band-Schmidt, Tania Zenteno-Savín, Ignacio Leyva-Valencia, Claudia J. Hernández-Guerrero, and Mauricio Muñoz-Ochoa. 2021. "Cell Death and Metabolic Stress in Gymnodinium catenatum Induced by Allelopathy" Toxins 13, no. 7: 506. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13070506

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