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Article

Effect of Ink and Pretreatment Conditions on Bioethanol and Biomethane Yields from Waste Banknote Paper

1
Department of Wood and Paper Engineering, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Km 9 Farah Abad Road, Sari 66996-48181, Mazandaran Province, Iran
2
Chair of Biosystems Engineering, Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
3
Institute of Technology, University of Tartu, 50411 Tartu, Estonia
4
Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 5, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
5
Department of Bio-Refinery Engineering, Faculty of New Technologies Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Zirab P.O. Box 47815-168, Mazandaran, Iran
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 11 December 2020 / Revised: 7 January 2021 / Accepted: 7 January 2021 / Published: 12 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Cellulose-Based Polymers from Textile Wastes)
Waste banknote paper is a residue from the banking industry that cannot be recycled due to the presence of ink, microbial load and special coating that provides protection against humidity. As a result, waste banknote paper ends up being burned or buried, which brings environmental impacts, mainly caused by the presence of heavy metals in its composition. To minimize the environmental impacts that come from the disposal of waste banknote paper, this study proposes to produce value-added products (bioethanol and biogas) from waste banknote paper. For this, the effect of ink and pretreatment conditions on bioethanol and biomethane yields were analyzed. Waste banknote paper provided by the Central Bank of Iran was used. The raw material with ink (WPB) and without ink (WPD) was pretreated using sulfuric acid at different concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%) and the nitrogen explosive decompression (NED) at different temperatures (150 °C, 170 °C, 190 °C, and 200 °C). The results show that the use of NED pretreatment in WPD resulted in the highest glucose concentration of all studies (13 ± 0.19 g/L). The acid pretreatment for WPB showed a correlation with the acid concentration. The highest ethanol concentration was obtained from the fermentation using WPD pretreated with NED (6.36 ± 0.72 g/L). The maximum methane yields varied between 136 ± 5 mol/kg TS (2% acid WPB) and 294 ± 4 mol/kg TS (3% acid WPD). Our results show that the presence of ink reduces bioethanol and biogas yields and that the chemical-free NED pretreatment is more advantageous for bioethanol and biogas production than the acid pretreatment method. Waste banknote paper without ink is a suitable feedstock for sustainable biorefinery processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: anaerobic digestion; biofuel; biomass; cotton-based waste; closed-loop; lignocellulose anaerobic digestion; biofuel; biomass; cotton-based waste; closed-loop; lignocellulose
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aghmashhadi, O.Y.; Rocha-Meneses, L.; Bonturi, N.; Orupõld, K.; Asadpour, G.; Garmaroody, E.R.; Zabihzadeh, M.; Kikas, T. Effect of Ink and Pretreatment Conditions on Bioethanol and Biomethane Yields from Waste Banknote Paper. Polymers 2021, 13, 239. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13020239

AMA Style

Aghmashhadi OY, Rocha-Meneses L, Bonturi N, Orupõld K, Asadpour G, Garmaroody ER, Zabihzadeh M, Kikas T. Effect of Ink and Pretreatment Conditions on Bioethanol and Biomethane Yields from Waste Banknote Paper. Polymers. 2021; 13(2):239. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13020239

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aghmashhadi, Omid Y., Lisandra Rocha-Meneses, Nemailla Bonturi, Kaja Orupõld, Ghasem Asadpour, Esmaeil R. Garmaroody, Majid Zabihzadeh, and Timo Kikas. 2021. "Effect of Ink and Pretreatment Conditions on Bioethanol and Biomethane Yields from Waste Banknote Paper" Polymers 13, no. 2: 239. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13020239

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