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J. Pers. Med., Volume 12, Issue 5 (May 2022) – 197 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): New systemic approaches for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, as the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the world, are urgently required. Here, the two novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors Thio-Iva and Thio-Dam are shown to effectively attack cellular processes and features in HCC cells acquired during carcinogenesis that are referred to as hallmarks of cancer. Thus, Thio-Iva and Thio-Dam are promising novel compounds for the medical treatment of HCC. View this paper
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Review
Paucigranulocytic Asthma: Potential Pathogenetic Mechanisms, Clinical Features and Therapeutic Management
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 850; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050850 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 508
Abstract
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease usually characterized by chronic airway inflammation, in which several phenotypes have been described, related to the age of onset, symptoms, inflammatory characteristics and treatment response. The identification of the inflammatory phenotype in asthma is very useful, since it [...] Read more.
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease usually characterized by chronic airway inflammation, in which several phenotypes have been described, related to the age of onset, symptoms, inflammatory characteristics and treatment response. The identification of the inflammatory phenotype in asthma is very useful, since it allows for both the recognition of the asthmatic triggering factor as well as the optimization of treatment The paucigranulocytic phenotype of asthma (PGA) is characterized by sputum eosinophil levels <1–3% and sputum neutrophil levels < 60%. The precise characteristics and the pathobiology of PGA are not fully understood, and, in some cases, it seems to represent a previous eosinophilic phenotype with a good response to anti-inflammatory treatment. However, many patients with PGA remain uncontrolled and experience asthmatic symptoms and exacerbations, irrespective of the low grade of airway inflammation. This observation leads to the hypothesis that PGA might also be either a special phenotype driven by different kinds of cells, such as macrophages or mast cells, or a non-inflammatory phenotype with a low grade of eosinophilic inflammation. In this review, we aim to describe the special characteristics of PGA and the potential therapeutic interventions that could be offered to these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Asthma: From Phenotypes to Personalized Medicine)
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Article
Gender-Specific Differences in the Intensive Care Treatment of COVID-19 Patients
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 849; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050849 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 439
Abstract
Background: Gender-specific differences in the outcome of COVID-19 patients requiring intensive care treatment have been reported. However, a potential association with ICU therapy remains elusive. Methods: A total of 224 consecutive patients (63 women) treated for severe COVID-19 disease requiring mechanical ventilation were [...] Read more.
Background: Gender-specific differences in the outcome of COVID-19 patients requiring intensive care treatment have been reported. However, a potential association with ICU therapy remains elusive. Methods: A total of 224 consecutive patients (63 women) treated for severe COVID-19 disease requiring mechanical ventilation were screened for the study. After propensity score matching for gender, 40 men and 40 women were included in the study. Comparative analysis was conducted for laboratory parameters, ICU therapy and complications (pulmonary embolism, thrombosis, stroke, and ventricular arrhythmias), and outcome (mortality). Results: Male patients had significantly higher levels of CRP (p = 0.012), interleukin-6 (p = 0.020) and creatinine (p = 0.027), while pH levels (p = 0.014) were significantly lower compared to females. Male patients had longer intubation times (p = 0.017), longer ICU stays (p = 0.022) and higher rates of catecholamine dependence (p = 0.037). Outcome, complications and ICU therapy did not differ significantly between both groups. Conclusion: The present study represents the first matched comparison of male and female COVID-19 patients requiring intensive care treatment. After propensity matching, male patients still displayed a higher disease severity. This was reflected in higher rates of vasopressors, duration of ICU stay and duration of intubation. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in mortality rates, organ replacement therapy and complications during ICU stay. Full article
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Article
Cardiovascular Risk Assessment by SCORE2 Predicts Risk for Colorectal Neoplasia and Tumor-Related Mortality
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 848; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050848 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 399
Abstract
Objectives: The European Society of Cardiology endorsed SCORE2 to assess cardiovascular risk. The aim of this observational, retrospective study was to assess whether SCORE2 is associated with colorectal neoplasia in an asymptomatic screening population. Further, we evaluated if SCORE2 predicts tumor-related mortality. Methods: [...] Read more.
Objectives: The European Society of Cardiology endorsed SCORE2 to assess cardiovascular risk. The aim of this observational, retrospective study was to assess whether SCORE2 is associated with colorectal neoplasia in an asymptomatic screening population. Further, we evaluated if SCORE2 predicts tumor-related mortality. Methods: We included 3408 asymptomatic patients who underwent a screening colonoscopy. We calculated SCORE2 for each participant and stratified patients according to their predicted 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease: SCORE2 0–4.9%, SCORE2 5–9.9%, and SCORE2 ≥ 10%. We assessed the association between SCORE2 as a continuous variable, the presence of colorectal neoplasia using multilevel logistic regression, and SCORE2 and mortality using Cox regression. Results: In total, 1537 patients had a SCORE2 of 0–4.9%, 1235 a SCORE2 of 5–9.9%, and 636 a SCORE2 ≥ 10%. The respective rates of colorectal neoplasia were 20%, 37%, and 44%. SCORE2 was associated with the presence of any (OR 1.11 95%CI 1.09–1.12; p < 0.001) and advanced colorectal neoplasia (OR 1.06 95%CI 1.08–1.13; p < 0.001) in univariate analysis. After multivariable adjustment (age, sex, family history, and metabolic syndrome) a higher SCORE2 remained associated with higher odds for any (aOR 1.04 95%CI 1.02–1.06; p = 0.001) and advanced (aOR 1.06 95%CI 1.03–1.10; p < 0.001) colorectal neoplasia. SCORE2 was associated with both all-cause (HR 1.11 95%CI 1.09–1.14; p < 0.001) and tumor-related mortality (HR 1.10 95%CI 1.05–1.14; p < 0.001). Conclusions: We found that SCORE2 is associated with the presence of colorectal neoplasia. Clinicians could kill two birds with one stone calculating SCORE2. In patients with a high SCORE2, screening colonoscopy aside from cardiovascular risk mitigation could improve outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology)
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Article
Characterization of Retinal Drusen in Subjects at High Genetic Risk of Developing Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease: An Exploratory Analysis
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 847; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050847 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Having a family history (FH+) of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and being a carrier of at least one ɛ4 allele of the ApoE gene are two of the main risk factors for the development of AD. AD and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) share one [...] Read more.
Having a family history (FH+) of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and being a carrier of at least one ɛ4 allele of the ApoE gene are two of the main risk factors for the development of AD. AD and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) share one of the main risk factors, such as age, and characteristics including the presence of deposits (Aβ plaques in AD and drusen in AMD); however, the role of apolipoprotein E isoforms in both pathologies is controversial. We analyzed and characterized retinal drusen by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in subjects, classifying them by their AD FH (FH- or FH+) and their allelic characterization of ApoE ɛ4 (ApoE ɛ4- or ApoE ɛ4+) and considering cardiovascular risk factors (hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus). In addition, we analyzed the choroidal thickness by OCT and the area of the foveal avascular zone with OCTA. We did not find a relationship between a family history of AD or any of the ApoE isoforms and the presence or absence of drusen. Subjects with drusen show choroidal thinning compared to patients without drusen, and thinning could trigger changes in choroidal perfusion that may give rise to the deposits that generate drusen. Full article
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Review
Personalized Management of Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps in Clinical Practice: A Multidisciplinary Consensus Statement
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 846; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050846 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 559
Abstract
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a sino-nasal chronic inflammatory disease, occurring in 5–15% of the general population. CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is present in up to 30% of the CRS population. One-third of CRSwNP patients suffer from disease that is uncontrolled by current [...] Read more.
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a sino-nasal chronic inflammatory disease, occurring in 5–15% of the general population. CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is present in up to 30% of the CRS population. One-third of CRSwNP patients suffer from disease that is uncontrolled by current standards of care. Biologics are an emerging treatment option for patients with severe uncontrolled CRSwNP, but their positioning in the treatment algorithm is under discussion. Effective endotyping of CRSwNP patients who could benefit from biologics treatment is required, as suggested by international guidelines. Other issues affecting management include comorbidities, such as allergy, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug–exacerbated respiratory disease, and asthma. Therefore, the choice of treatment in CRSwNP patients depends on many factors. A multidisciplinary approach may improve CRSwNP management in patients with comorbidities, but currently there is no shared management model. We summarize the outcomes of a Delphi process involving a multidisciplinary panel of otolaryngologists, pulmonologists, and allergist-immunologists involved in the management of CRSwNP, who attempted to reach consensus on key statements relating to the diagnosis, endotyping, classification and management (including the place of biologics) of CRSwNP patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in Otorhinolaryngology)
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Review
The Impact of Hypoglycemic Therapy on the Prognosis for Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 845; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050845 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 522
Abstract
The article discusses particular circumstances of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In addition, the available literature data and clinical guidelines reflecting the role of hypoglycemic therapy as a cardioprotection factor in ACS are analyzed. The article considers [...] Read more.
The article discusses particular circumstances of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In addition, the available literature data and clinical guidelines reflecting the role of hypoglycemic therapy as a cardioprotection factor in ACS are analyzed. The article considers possible protective molecular mechanisms of various groups of drugs in ischemic cardiomyocytes. Full article
Protocol
TMS Database Registry Consortium Research Project in Japan (TReC-J) for Future Personalized Psychiatry
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 844; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050844 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 470
Abstract
The registry project led by the Japanese Society for Clinical Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) Research aims to establish a centralized database of epidemiological, clinical, and biological data on TMS therapy for refractory psychiatric disorders, including treatment-resistant depression, as well as to contribute to [...] Read more.
The registry project led by the Japanese Society for Clinical Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) Research aims to establish a centralized database of epidemiological, clinical, and biological data on TMS therapy for refractory psychiatric disorders, including treatment-resistant depression, as well as to contribute to the elucidation of the therapeutic mechanism of TMS therapy and to the validation of its efficacy by analyzing and evaluating these data in a systematic approach. The objective of this registry project is to collect a wide range of complex data linked to patients with various neuropsychiatric disorders who received TMS therapy throughout Japan, and to make effective use of these data to promote cross-sectional and longitudinal exploratory observational studies. Research utilizing this registry project will be conducted in a multicenter, non-invasive, retrospective, and prospective observational research study design, regardless of the framework of insurance medical care, private practice, or clinical research. Through the establishment of the registry, which aims to make use of data, we will advance the elucidation of treatment mechanisms and identification of predictors of therapeutic response to TMS therapy for refractory psychiatric disorders on a more real-world research basis. Furthermore, as a future vision, we aim to develop novel neuromodulation medical devices, algorithms for predicting treatment efficacy, and digital therapeutics based on the knowledge generated from this TMS registry database. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Current State of Psychiatry: Personalized Medicine and Treatment)
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Article
In Vivo Accuracy of a New Digital Planning System in Terms of Jaw Relation, Extent of Surgical Movements and the Hierarchy of Stability in Orthognathic Surgery
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 843; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050843 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 421
Abstract
This retrospective cohort study compares the virtual planned and postoperative jaw positions in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery. Surgery was virtually planned with the Digital Münster Model Surgery system (DMMS). Primary outcome: Spatial difference in the maxillo-mandibulo relation between virtual planning and postoperative result. [...] Read more.
This retrospective cohort study compares the virtual planned and postoperative jaw positions in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery. Surgery was virtually planned with the Digital Münster Model Surgery system (DMMS). Primary outcome: Spatial difference in the maxillo-mandibulo relation between virtual planning and postoperative result. Secondary outcome: Possible relationship between the measured differences and surgical movements as well as the postoperative stability according to Proffit. Ninety female and sixty-one male patients were included in the study. The average translation errors were 0.54 ± 0.50 mm (anteroposterior), 0.37 ± 0.33 mm (mediolateral), and 0.33 ± 0.28 mm (superoinferior). Orientation errors were 0.86 ± 0.79 degrees (yaw), 0.54 ± 0.48 degrees (roll), and 0.90 ± 0.72 degrees (pitch). The surgical procedures do not differ with respect to their error sizes. Maxilla forward and class II maxilla up with mandible forward are the most precise procedures. Most significant differences were found in the anteroposterior direction, whereby the extent of the surgical movement has no effect on the magnitude of the error. The process of planning with the DMMS followed by surgery is highly accurate and shows error values well below the clinically accepted limit of two millimeters in translation and four degrees in rotation. Full article
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Article
CD44 Mediates Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma-Promoting Activity of MRE11 via AKT Signaling
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 841; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050841 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 489
Abstract
Oral cancer is one of the highest-incidence malignancies worldwide, with the occurrence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) being the most frequently diagnosed form. A barrier for oral cancer management may arise from tumor cells that possess properties of cancer stemness, which has [...] Read more.
Oral cancer is one of the highest-incidence malignancies worldwide, with the occurrence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) being the most frequently diagnosed form. A barrier for oral cancer management may arise from tumor cells that possess properties of cancer stemness, which has been recognized as a crucial factor in tumor recurrence and metastasis. As such, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these tumor cells may provide insights for improving cancer treatment. MRE11 is the core protein of the RAD50/MRE11/NBS1 complex with a primary role in DNA damage repair, and it has been diversely associated with tumor development including OSCC. In this study, we aimed to investigate the engagement of CD44, a cancer stemness marker functioning in the control of cell growth and motility, in OSCC malignancy under the influence of MRE11. We found that overexpression of MRE11 enhanced CD44 expression and tumorsphere formation in OSCC cells, whereas knockdown of MRE11 reduced these phenomena. In addition, the MRE11-promoted tumorsphere formation or cell migration ability was compromised in OSCC cells carrying siRNA that targets CD44, as was the MRE11-promoted AKT phosphorylation. These were further supported by analyzing clinical samples, where higher CD44 expression was associated with lymph node metastasis. Additionally, a positive correlation between the expression of MRE11 and CD44, or that of CD44 and phosphorylated AKT, was observed in OSCC tumor tissues. Finally, the expression of CD44 was found to be higher in the metastatic lung nodules from mice receiving tail vein-injection with MRE11-overexpressing OSCC cells compared with control mice, and a positive correlation between CD44 and phosphorylated AKT was also observed in these metastatic lung nodules. Altogether, our current study revealed a previously unidentified mechanism linking CD44 and AKT in MRE11-promoted OSCC malignancy, which may shed light to the development of novel therapeutic strategies in consideration of this new pathway in OSCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in Oral Cancer)
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Systematic Review
The Impact of Concomitant Proton Pump Inhibitors on Immunotherapy Efficacy among Patients with Urothelial Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 842; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050842 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 478
Abstract
Background. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have recently represented a breakthrough in urothelial carcinoma (UC). Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are routinely used for extended time periods in UC patients, with these agents having potentially and frequently undervalued effects on ICIs efficacy. Methods. We performed [...] Read more.
Background. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have recently represented a breakthrough in urothelial carcinoma (UC). Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are routinely used for extended time periods in UC patients, with these agents having potentially and frequently undervalued effects on ICIs efficacy. Methods. We performed a meta-analysis aimed at investigating the impact of concomitant PPI administration on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) among patients receiving immunotherapy for metastatic UC. Results. Two studies encompassing a total of 1015 patients were included. The pooled Hazard Ratios (HRs) for OS and PFS were 1.55 (95% CI, 1.31–1.84) and 1.43 (95% CI, 1.23–1.66), respectively, suggesting that the administration of PPIs was negatively associated with PFS and with OS in UC patients treated with ICIs. Conclusions. The current meta-analysis represents the first study to provide a systematic evaluation of the impact of concomitant PPI use in UC patients treated with ICIs. Further studies are warranted on this topic to clarify the relationship between gut microbiome, antiacid exposure, and cancer immunotherapy. In the current era of medical oncology, progress in this setting will require the collaboration of basic science and clinical research to optimize systemic treatment and to improve the outcomes of UC patients receiving ICIs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Medicine and Molecular Diagnosis for Urogenital Cancer)
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Review
Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma: Molecular Landscape, Evolving Treatment Strategies and Emerging Clinical Trials
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 840; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050840 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 620
Abstract
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a type of intrinsic brainstem glial tumor that occurs primarily in the pediatric population. DIPG is initially diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and the characteristic location on imaging. Histologically, these tumors are characterized by a heterogenous population [...] Read more.
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a type of intrinsic brainstem glial tumor that occurs primarily in the pediatric population. DIPG is initially diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and the characteristic location on imaging. Histologically, these tumors are characterized by a heterogenous population of cells with multiple genetic mutations and high infiltrative capacity. The most common mutation seen in this group is a lysine to methionine point mutation seen at position 27 (K27M) within histone 3 (H3). Tumors with the H3 K27M mutation, are considered grade 4 and are now categorized within the H3 K27-altered diffuse midline glioma category by World Health Organization classification. Due to its critical location and aggressive nature, DIPG is resistant to the most eradicative treatment and is universally fatal; however, modern advances in the surgical techniques resulting in safe biopsy of the lesion have significantly improved our understanding of this disease at the molecular level. Genomic analysis has shown several mutations that play a role in the pathophysiology of the disease and can be targeted therapeutically. In this review, we will elaborate on DIPG from general aspects and the evolving molecular landscape. We will also review innovative therapeutic options that have been trialed along with new promising treatments on the horizon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in Brain Tumors)
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Article
Associations between Choriocapillaris Flow on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Cardiovascular Risk Profiles of Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 839; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050839 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 382
Abstract
We evaluated the association between macular perfusion assessed via optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and the cardiovascular risk profiles of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Patients with AMI who underwent comprehensive ophthalmological examinations and retinal OCTA were evaluated retrospectively. Retinal OCTA was [...] Read more.
We evaluated the association between macular perfusion assessed via optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and the cardiovascular risk profiles of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Patients with AMI who underwent comprehensive ophthalmological examinations and retinal OCTA were evaluated retrospectively. Retinal OCTA was performed for each patient within 3 days of admission. Quantitative analyses of the vessel density (VD) of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) layers, deep capillary plexus layers (DCP), and choriocapillaris were performed after image processing. The 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score, reduction of atherothrombosis for continued health (REACH) score, and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score were assessed. Sixty patients were included. VD in SCP and DCP was not associated with a 10-year ASCVD risk; however, choriocapillaris flow void features were significantly correlated with the 10-year ASCVD risk: decreased count, increased average size, and increased signal void area were correlated with increased 10-year ASCVD risk, GRACE score, REACH score, and TIMI risk score. In the multivariate analysis, a 10-year ASCVD risk (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–1.08) and brain natriuretic peptide (adjusted OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 1.00–1.01) were significantly associated with the highest tertile of the average size of the choriocapillaris. Choriocapillaris flow void features measured using OCTA were associated with cardiovascular risk profiles in patients with AMI. OCTA may be used as an indicator of cardiovascular risk profiles and could improve cardiovascular risk assessments. Full article
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Article
Constipation Symptoms in Multiple System Atrophy Using Rome Criteria and Their Impact on Personalized Medicine
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 838; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050838 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 451
Abstract
Constipation is one of the most common non-motor symptoms in multiple system atrophy (MSA); however, it has not been evaluated according to the standard diagnostic criteria for constipation in patients with MSA. We evaluated the characteristics of constipation in patients with MSA by [...] Read more.
Constipation is one of the most common non-motor symptoms in multiple system atrophy (MSA); however, it has not been evaluated according to the standard diagnostic criteria for constipation in patients with MSA. We evaluated the characteristics of constipation in patients with MSA by using Rome criteria (Rome III), which has been validated and the widely used for gastrointestinal disorders. Fifty-one patients with MSA (29 female) were enrolled in the study. Based on the Rome III criteria, constipation was diagnosed in 29 patients (56.9%); irritable bowel syndrome was not detected. Thirty-seven patients (72.5%) were aware of their constipation. The most common constipation symptom was the sensation of anorectal obstruction (68.6%). Patients’ self-awareness of constipation was most strongly correlated to the sensation of incomplete evacuation (odds ratio: 7.377, 95% confidence interval: 1.402–38.817). The number of constipation-related symptoms was correlated with the total levodopa equivalent dose (p < 0.05). Rome criteria, which can detect various constipation symptoms, are useful for evaluating constipation in MSA, and these findings may greatly impact personalized medicine. Full article
Article
Studies in Rats of Combined Muscle and Liver Perfusion and of Muscle Extract Indicate That Contractions Release a Muscle Hormone Directly Enhancing Hepatic Glycogenolysis
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 837; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050837 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 466
Abstract
Background: Established neuroendocrine signals do not sufficiently account for the exercise-induced increase in glucose production. Using an innovative, yet classical cross-circulation procedure, we studied whether contracting muscle produces a factor that directly stimulates hepatic glycogenolysis. Methods: Isolated rat hindquarters were perfused in series [...] Read more.
Background: Established neuroendocrine signals do not sufficiently account for the exercise-induced increase in glucose production. Using an innovative, yet classical cross-circulation procedure, we studied whether contracting muscle produces a factor that directly stimulates hepatic glycogenolysis. Methods: Isolated rat hindquarters were perfused in series with isolated livers. Results: Stimulation of the sciatic nerve of one or both legs resulted in an increase in force, which rapidly waned. During one-legged contractions, hepatic glucose production increased initially (from −0.9 ± 0.5 (mean ± SE) to 3.3 ± 0.7 µmol/min, p < 0.05). The peak did not differ significantly from that seen after 20 nM of epinephrine (5.1 ± 1.2 µmol/min, p > 0.05). In response to two-legged contractions, the increase in hepatic glucose production (to 5.4 ± 1.3 µmol/min) was higher (p < 0.05) and lasted longer than that seen during one-legged contractions. During contractions, peak hepatic glucose output exceeded concomitant hepatic lactate uptake (p < 0.05), and glucose output decreased to basal levels, while lactate uptake rose to a plateau. Furthermore, in separate experiments an increase in lactate supply to isolated perfused livers increased lactate uptake, but not glucose output. In intact rats, intra-arterial injection of extract made from mixed leg muscle elicited a prolonged increase (p < 0.05) in plasma glucose concentration (from 5.2 ± 0.1 mM to 8.3 ± 1.5 mM). In perfused livers, muscle extract increased glucose output dose dependently. Fractionation by chromatography of the extract showed that the active substance had a MW below 2000. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that contracting skeletal muscle may produce a hormone with a MW below 2000, which enhances hepatic glycogenolysis according to energy needs. Further chemical characterization is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanisms of Diseases)
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Systematic Review
BMI at Discharge from Treatment Predicts Relapse in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Scoping Review
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 836; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050836 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 413
Abstract
Background: Anorexia nervosa (AN) has high rates of enduring disease and mortality. Currently, there is insufficient knowledge on the predictors of relapse after weight normalization and this is why a systematic literature review was performed. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychInfo, and Cochrane databases were [...] Read more.
Background: Anorexia nervosa (AN) has high rates of enduring disease and mortality. Currently, there is insufficient knowledge on the predictors of relapse after weight normalization and this is why a systematic literature review was performed. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychInfo, and Cochrane databases were searched for literature published until 13 July 2021. All study designs were eligible for inclusion if they focused on predictors of relapse after weight normalization in AN. Individual study definitions of relapse were used, and in general, this was either a drop in BMI and/or reccurrence of AN symptoms. Results: The database search identified 11,507 publications, leaving 9511 publications after the removal of duplicates and after a review of abstracts and titles; 191 were selected for full-text review. Nineteen publications met the criteria and included 1398 AN patients and 39 healthy controls (HC) from adults and adolescents (ages range 11–73 years). The majority used a prospective observational study design (12 studies), a few used a retrospective observational design (6 studies), and only one was a non-randomized control trial (NRCT). Sample sizes ranged from 16 to 191 participants. BMI or measures of body fat and leptin levels at discharge were the strongest predictors of relapse with an approximate relapse rate of 50% at 12 months. Other predictors included signs of eating disorder psychopathology at discharge. Conclusions: BMI at the end of treatment is a predictor of relapse in AN, which is why treatment should target a BMI well above 20. Together with the time to relapse, these outcomes are important to include in the evaluation of current and novel treatments in AN and for benchmarking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers and Clinical Research in Eating Disorders)
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Article
Association of a Common NOS1AP Variant with Attenuation of QTc Prolongation in Men with Heroin Dependence Undergoing Methadone Treatment
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 835; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050835 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 354
Abstract
Background: The effects of methadone-induced severe prolongation of the corrected QT interval (QTc) and sudden cardiac death appear unpredictable and sex-dependent. Genetic polymorphisms in the nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein (NOS1AP) have been implicated in QTc prolongation in general populations. [...] Read more.
Background: The effects of methadone-induced severe prolongation of the corrected QT interval (QTc) and sudden cardiac death appear unpredictable and sex-dependent. Genetic polymorphisms in the nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein (NOS1AP) have been implicated in QTc prolongation in general populations. We investigated whether common NOS1AP variants interact with methadone in relation to QTc prolongation in patients with heroin dependence. Methods: We genotyped 17 NOS1AP variants spanning the entire gene in heroin-dependent patients who received a 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) examination both at baseline and during maintenance methadone treatment in Cohort 1 and only during maintenance methadone treatment in Cohort 2. The QT interval was measured automatically by the Marquette 12SL program, and was corrected for heart rate using Bazett’s formula. Results: Cohort 1 consisted of 122 patients (age: 37.65 ± 8.05 years, 84% male, methadone dosage: 42.54 ± 22.17 mg/day), and Cohort 2 comprised of 319 patients (age: 36.9 ± 7.86 years, 82% male, methadone dosage: 26.08 ± 15.84 mg/day), with complete genotyping data for analyses. Before methadone, the QTc intervals increased with increasing age (r = 0.3541, p < 0.001); the age-adjusted QTc showed dose-dependent prolongation in men (r = 0.6320, p < 0.001), but abbreviation in women (r = −0.5348, p = 0.018) in Cohort 1. The pooled genotype-specific analysis of the two cohorts revealed that the QTc interval was significantly shorter in male carriers of the rs164148 AA variant than in male carriers of the reference GG genotype (GG: n = 262, QTc = 423 ± 1.4 ms; AA: n = 10, QTc = 404.1 ± 7 ms, p = 0.009), according to univariate analysis. The QTc remained shorter in male carriers of the rs164148 AA variant compared to GG genotype (423 ± 1.4 ms vs. 405.9 ± 6.9 ms, p = 0.016) in multivariate analysis after adjusting for age and methadone dosage. A cut-off QTc interval of <410 ms identifies 100% of AA carriers compared to none of GG carriers when receiving a daily methadone dosage of 30.6 ± 19.3 mg. There was no significant gene-drug interaction in contributing to the adjusted QTc (p = 0.2164) in male carriers of the rs164148 variants. Conclusions: Carriers of a common NOS1AP rs164148 AA genotype variant were associated with a shorter QTc interval in men receiving maintenance methadone treatment. This genetic polymorphism attenuates the QTc-prolonging effect by methadone, and thus may explain at least in part the unpredictable and heterogeneous risks for severe QTc prolongation and sudden cardiac death in patients on methadone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Challenges and Prospects in Cardiology)
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Article
Three-Dimensional Evaluation of Isodose Radiation Volumes in Cases of Severe Mandibular Osteoradionecrosis for the Prediction of Recurrence after Segmental Resection
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 834; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050834 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 369
Abstract
Background: Pre-operative margin planning for the segmental resection of affected bone in mandibular osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is difficult. The aim of this study was to identify a possible relation between the received RT dose, exposed bone volume and the progression of ORN after segmental [...] Read more.
Background: Pre-operative margin planning for the segmental resection of affected bone in mandibular osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is difficult. The aim of this study was to identify a possible relation between the received RT dose, exposed bone volume and the progression of ORN after segmental mandibular resection. Method: Patients diagnosed with grade 3-4 ORN for which a segmental resection was performed were included in the study. Three-dimensional reconstructions of RT isodose volumes were fused with postoperative imaging. The primary outcome was the recurrence of ORN after segmental resection. Subsequently, RT exposed mandibular bone volumes were calculated and the location of the bone cuts relative to the isodose volumes were assessed. Results: Five out of thirty-three patients developed recurrent ORN after segmental mandibular resection. All cases with recurrent ORN were resected inside an isodose volume of ≥56 Gy. The absolute mandibular volume radiated with 56 Gy was significantly smaller in the recurrent group (10.9 mL vs. 30.7 mL, p = 0.006), as was the proportion of the mandible radiated with 56 Gy (23% vs. 45%, p = 0.013). Conclusion: The volume of radiated bone was not predictive for risk of progression. The finding that recurrent ORN occurred with bone resection margins within the 56 Gy isodose volume suggests that this could serve as a starting point for the pre-operative planning of reducing the risk of ORN recurrence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Innovations in Personalized Surgery)
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Article
Interplay between Comprehensive Inflammation Indices and Redox Biomarkers in Testicular Germ-Cell Tumors
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 833; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050833 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 588
Abstract
Sustained and dysregulated inflammation, concurrent tumor-induced immune suppression, and oxidative stress are profoundly involved in cancer initiation, presentation, and perpetuation. Within this prospective study, we simultaneously analyzed the preoperative indices of systemic inflammatory response and the representative byproducts of oxidative DNA, protein, and [...] Read more.
Sustained and dysregulated inflammation, concurrent tumor-induced immune suppression, and oxidative stress are profoundly involved in cancer initiation, presentation, and perpetuation. Within this prospective study, we simultaneously analyzed the preoperative indices of systemic inflammatory response and the representative byproducts of oxidative DNA, protein, and lipid damage with the aim of evaluating their clinical relevance among patients diagnosed with testicular germ-cell tumors (GCT). In the analytical cohort (n = 88, median age 34 years), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), systemic inflammation response index (SIRI), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly altered in patients with a higher tumor stage (p < 0.05). Highly suggestive correlations were found between NLR, dNLR, and SII and modified nucleoside 8-OHdG. CRP and albumin-to-globulin ratio (AGR) significantly correlated with thiols group level and maximal tumor dimension (p < 0.05). Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses, all the evaluated pre-orchiectomy inflammation markers demonstrated strong performance in predicting metastatic disease; optimal cut-off points were determined for each indicator. Although further large-scale studies are warranted, inflammatory and redox indices may both complement the established tumor markers and standard clinicopathological prognostic variables and contribute to enhanced personalized risk-assessment among testicular GCT patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Medicine and Molecular Diagnosis for Urogenital Cancer)
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Article
Maritime Telemedicine: Design and Development of an Advanced Healthcare System Called Marine Doctor
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 832; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050832 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 765
Abstract
Background: The availability of better healthcare services is critical for onboard seafarers. The development of expert systems can help ships with limited medical facilities, which allow the shipside doctors to properly refer symptoms to remote doctors. This allows clinicians to make a correct [...] Read more.
Background: The availability of better healthcare services is critical for onboard seafarers. The development of expert systems can help ships with limited medical facilities, which allow the shipside doctors to properly refer symptoms to remote doctors. This allows clinicians to make a correct diagnosis from there, which leads to proper treatment. A software named Marine Doctor (M Doc) has been developed by incorporating computing technologies to address this objective. Methods: With the help of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) this application can support the provision of appropriate medical assistance to seafarers. The system was developed with Python Tkinter (frontend) and PHP (backend) languages. MySQL was used as a server database. Results: Seafarers can use M Doc to benefit from medical advice that can reduce complications due to misdiagnosis and help doctors to make better-informed decisions. By automatically collecting appropriate sequences of symptoms, doctors will be able to generate proper information for referral of patient symptoms and subsequent advice based on the data. Conclusions: Technology that supports experts on board ships in better interacting with Telemedical Maritime Assistance Services (TMAS) could define the future of medical assistance at sea. Full article
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Review
Tailored Treatment Options for Cerebral Cavernous Malformations
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 831; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050831 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 375
Abstract
The diagnosis and treatment of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs), or cavernomas, continues to evolve as more data and treatment modalities become available. Intervention is necessary when a lesion causes symptomatic neurologic deficits, seizures, or has high risk of continued hemorrhage. Future medical treatment [...] Read more.
The diagnosis and treatment of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs), or cavernomas, continues to evolve as more data and treatment modalities become available. Intervention is necessary when a lesion causes symptomatic neurologic deficits, seizures, or has high risk of continued hemorrhage. Future medical treatment directions may specifically target the pathogenesis of these lesions. This review highlights the importance of individualized treatment plans based on specific CCM characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Precision Medicine for Cerebrovascular Diseases)
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Article
Usability Testing of a Social Media Chatbot for Increasing Physical Activity Behavior
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 828; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050828 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 607
Abstract
Digital interventions for increasing physical activity behavior have shown great potential, especially those with social media. Chatbots, also known as conversational agents, have emerged in healthcare in relation to digital interventions and have proven effective in promoting physical activity among adults. The study’s [...] Read more.
Digital interventions for increasing physical activity behavior have shown great potential, especially those with social media. Chatbots, also known as conversational agents, have emerged in healthcare in relation to digital interventions and have proven effective in promoting physical activity among adults. The study’s objective is to explore users’ experiences with a social media chatbot. The concept and the prototype development of the social media chatbot MYA were realized in three steps: requirement analysis, concept development, and implementation. MYA’s design includes behavior change techniques effective in increasing physical activity through digital interventions. Participants in a usability study answered a survey with the Chatbot Usability Questionnaire (CUQ), which is comparable to the Systems Usability Scale. The mean CUQ score was below 68, the benchmark for average usability. The highest mean CUQ score was 64.5 for participants who thought MYA could help increase their physical activity behavior. The lowest mean CUQ score was 40.6 for participants aged between 50 and 69 years. Generally, MYA was considered to be welcoming, very easy to use, realistic, engaging, and informative. However, some technical issues were identified. A good and diversified user experience promotes prolonged chatbot use. Addressing identified issues will enhance users’ interaction with MYA. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Temperature and Pain Changes between the Drip and Topical Methods of Administering the Transnasal Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 830; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050830 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 383
Abstract
The objective of this study was to compare facial temperatures and the visual analogue scale (VAS) between the drip method and the topical method of transnasal sphenopalatine ganglion block (SPGB). The transnasal SPGB is administered to patients with facial or head and neck [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to compare facial temperatures and the visual analogue scale (VAS) between the drip method and the topical method of transnasal sphenopalatine ganglion block (SPGB). The transnasal SPGB is administered to patients with facial or head and neck pain. In the transnasal approach, the drip and topical methods are frequently used. We compared facial temperatures and VAS after transnasal SPGB. Medical records of 74 patients who visited the pain clinic and underwent transnasal SPGB were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 156 transnasal SPGB were performed. The patients were divided into the drip-method and topical-method groups. Facial temperatures were measured in six areas of the right and left forehead, maxilla, and mandible before and 30 min after completion of the transnasal SPGB. Temperatures were compared before and 30 min after SPGB in each group and between the two groups. VAS scores were compared at the same times of SPGB in each group and between the two groups. In the drip-method group, there were significant increases at four areas of the face in temperature changes at 30 min after SPGB. In the topical-method group, there was no significant difference in the temperature changes at 30 min after SPGB. There were statistically significant differences in the facial temperature changes between the two groups in the right forehead (p = 0.001), left forehead (p = 0.015), and right maxillary area (p = 0.046). In herpes zoster, there were statistically significant differences in the VAS scores between before and 30 min after SPGB in both groups (p < 0.001, p = 0.008) and between two groups (p < 0.001). In migraine, there were statistically significant differences in VAS scores between before and 30 min after SPGB in both groups (p < 0.001, p = 0.004) and between two groups (p = 0.014). Transnasal SPGB using two methods showed different temperature changes and VAS scores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Personalized Therapy and Drug Delivery)
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Article
A Single Session of Virtual Reality Improved Tiredness, Shortness of Breath, Anxiety, Depression and Well-Being in Hospitalized Individuals with COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 829; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050829 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 592
Abstract
Background: In 2020, the world was surprised by the spread and mass contamination of the new Coronavirus (COVID-19). COVID-19 produces symptoms ranging from a common cold to severe symptoms that can lead to death. Several strategies have been implemented to improve the well-being [...] Read more.
Background: In 2020, the world was surprised by the spread and mass contamination of the new Coronavirus (COVID-19). COVID-19 produces symptoms ranging from a common cold to severe symptoms that can lead to death. Several strategies have been implemented to improve the well-being of patients during their hospitalization, and virtual reality (VR) has been used. However, whether patients hospitalized for COVID-19 can benefit from this intervention remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether VR contributes to the control of pain symptoms, the sensation of dyspnea, perception of well-being, anxiety, and depression in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Methods: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial was designed. Patients underwent a single session of VR and usual care. The experimental group (n = 22) received VR content to promote relaxation, distraction, and stress relief, whereas the control group (n = 22) received non-specific VR content. Results: The experimental group reported a significant decrease in tiredness, shortness of breath, anxiety, and an increase in the feeling of well-being, whereas the control group showed improvement only in the tiredness and anxiety. Conclusions: VR is a resource that may improve the symptoms of tiredness, shortness of breath, anxiety, and depression in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Future studies should investigate the effect of multiple VR sessions on individuals with COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine for Covid-19 Patients-Clinical Considerations)
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Article
Altered TIMP-3 Levels in the Cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma of Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 827; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050827 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 386
Abstract
Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) is a component of the extracellular environment and is suggested to play an indirect role in regulating Aβ production and the pathophysiology of Aβ deposition in brains. However, studies on the amount of TIMP-3 in bodily fluids of [...] Read more.
Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) is a component of the extracellular environment and is suggested to play an indirect role in regulating Aβ production and the pathophysiology of Aβ deposition in brains. However, studies on the amount of TIMP-3 in bodily fluids of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients have not been conducted. Here, we investigated the relationship between fluid TIMP-3 levels and AD pathology. We first showed that the fluid levels of TIMP-3 were lower in AD dementia patients compared with in non-AD patients. ELISA results revealed that plasma levels of TIMP-3 in 65 patients with AD were significantly lower than those in 115 healthy control subjects and 71 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects. Furthermore, we found that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) level of TIMP-3 was decreased in AD compared with that in healthy control. These data suggest that fluid TIMP-3 levels negatively correlated with progress of cognitive decline. Collectively, our study suggests that alterations of fluid TIMP-3 levels might be associated with AD pathology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Biomarkers and Precision Medicine for Alzheimer)
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Article
Smartphone-Based Body Location-Independent Functional Mobility Analysis in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: A Step towards Precise Medicine
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 826; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050826 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 470
Abstract
Ecological evaluation of gait using mobile technologies provides crucial information regarding the evolution of symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the reliability and validity of such information may be influenced by the smartphone’s location on the body. This study analyzed how the smartphone [...] Read more.
Ecological evaluation of gait using mobile technologies provides crucial information regarding the evolution of symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the reliability and validity of such information may be influenced by the smartphone’s location on the body. This study analyzed how the smartphone location affects the assessment of PD patients’ gait in a free-living environment. Twenty PD patients (mean ± SD age, 64.3 ± 10.6 years; 9 women (45%) performed 3 trials of a 250 m outdoor walk using smartphones in 5 different body locations (pants pocket, belt, hand, shirt pocket, and a shoulder bag). A method to derive gait-related metrics from smartphone sensors is presented, and its reliability is evaluated between different trials as well as its concurrent validity against optoelectronic and smartphone criteria. Excellent relative reliability was found with all intraclass correlation coefficient values above or equal to 0.85. High absolute reliability was observed in 21 out of 30 comparisons. Bland-Altman analysis revealed a high level of agreement (LoA between 4.4 and 17.5%), supporting the use of the presented method. This study advances the use of mobile technology to accurately and reliably quantify gait-related metrics from PD patients in free-living walking regardless of the smartphone’s location on the body. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Care Personalization in Parkinson Disease)
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Article
Association between Statin Use and Risk of Parkinson’s Disease: Evidence from 18 Observational Studies Comprising 3.7 Million Individuals
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 825; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050825 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 408
Abstract
The potential impact of statins on the risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is still controversial; therefore, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of observational studies to examine the effect of statin use on the risk of PD. We searched electronic databases, such as PubMed, [...] Read more.
The potential impact of statins on the risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is still controversial; therefore, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of observational studies to examine the effect of statin use on the risk of PD. We searched electronic databases, such as PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Web of Science, for articles published between 1 January 2000 and 15 March 2022. Cohort studies which examined the association between statins and PD risk in the general population were also included. Two authors assessed the data and extracted all potential information for analysis. Random effects meta-analyses were performed to measure the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Eighteen cohort studies including 3.7 million individuals with 31,153 PD participants were identified. In statin users, compared with non-users, the RR for PD was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.68–0.91). In a subgroup analysis of PD, this association was observed with medium and high quality, and the studies were adjusted for age, gender, and smoking status. When the data were stratified according to the duration of exposure, long-duration statin use was associated with a decreased risk of PD (RR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.26–0.92). There was no significant decrease in the risk of PD in short-term statin users (RR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.67–1.31). Moreover, no significant difference in the reduction in the risk of PD was observed between men (RR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.75–0.86) and women (RR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.75–0.86). Although our findings confirm a reduction in the PD risk associated with statin treatment and suggest that statins play a clinically favorable role, these findings should be interpreted with caution. Future randomized control trials with an ad hoc design are needed to confirm the potential utility of statins in reducing the risk of PD. Full article
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Article
Exposure to Proton Pump Inhibitors and the Risk of Incident Asthma in Patients with Coronary Artery Diseases: A Population-Based Cohort Study
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12050824 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 398
Abstract
We aimed to determine the association between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and incident asthma in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This nationwide cohort study collected claims data from the Taiwanese Bureau of National Health Insurance from 2004 to 2013. The primary [...] Read more.
We aimed to determine the association between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and incident asthma in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This nationwide cohort study collected claims data from the Taiwanese Bureau of National Health Insurance from 2004 to 2013. The primary outcome, i.e., the risk of incident asthma, was assessed by estimating hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The adjusted HR of asthma development was estimated using the Cox regression model. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were also conducted. A total of 8894 PPI users and 12,684 H2-receptor antagonist (H2RA) users were included in patients with CAD. Compared with H2RA use, an increased risk of incident asthma was found between PPI use and the risk of incident asthma in patients with CAD after adjusting for sex, age, urbanization, and low income (HR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.04–1.89). The sensitivity analysis results were consistent with the main analysis results. However, the subgroup analysis revealed no association of incident asthma in patients with diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, stroke, allergic rhinitis, pneumonia, cancer, or depression in the PPI group compared with those in the H2RA group. In conclusion, PPI use increased the risk of asthma development in patients with CAD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in Cardiovascular Diseases)
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Article
Evaluation of Pharmacogenetics of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes and Drug Efflux Transporter in Renal Transplants Receiving Immunosuppressants
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 823; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050823 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 339
Abstract
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, such as CYP3A4, and CYP3A5, P450 oxidoreductase (POR), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha), and drug transporter (ABCB1) were observed to influence concentrations of immunosuppressants (cyclosporine, everolimus, sirolimus, and tacrolimus) and outcomes in renal transplants. We carried out [...] Read more.
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, such as CYP3A4, and CYP3A5, P450 oxidoreductase (POR), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha), and drug transporter (ABCB1) were observed to influence concentrations of immunosuppressants (cyclosporine, everolimus, sirolimus, and tacrolimus) and outcomes in renal transplants. We carried out the present study to evaluate the prevalence and impact of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in adult renal transplants. SNPs were evaluated using commercial TaqMan® assays. Serum drug concentrations were estimated using immunoassays. One hundred and forty-six patients were recruited. SNPs in CYP3A5*3 were significantly associated with greater dose-adjusted cyclosporine and tacrolimus concentrations. SNPs in POR*28 were observed with significantly lower dose-adjusted concentrations, particularly with cyclosporine and tacrolimus. ABCB1 homozygous polymorphisms were observed with significantly lower time spent in the therapeutic range with cyclosporine and everolimus/sirolimus. Cyclosporine was observed in a significantly greater proportion of patients with elevated GGT, and SNPs in PPAR-alpha were significantly associated with an increased risk of this adverse event. Hypertriglyceridemia with everolimus was significantly associated with POR*28 polymorphisms. There is a need to validate the influence of these SNPs in a prospective study and develop an algorithm predicting the achievement of target concentrations. Full article
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Editorial
Personalized Approaches to Stroke: One Step Forward for Functional Recovery of Stroke Patients
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 822; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050822 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 314
Abstract
Recent advances in diagnoses, management, and rehabilitation have had a significant impact to reduce mortality and functional recovery in stroke patients. In spite of these medical advances, many stroke survivors still suffer from significant disabilities. Stroke is a complex disease caused by a [...] Read more.
Recent advances in diagnoses, management, and rehabilitation have had a significant impact to reduce mortality and functional recovery in stroke patients. In spite of these medical advances, many stroke survivors still suffer from significant disabilities. Stroke is a complex disease caused by a combination of multiple risk factors. Therefore, personalized medicine is more important than any other field to overcome the limitations of current stroke management and rehabilitation. It is necessary to apply accurate evaluation for functions and a personalized approach in consideration of various characteristics of each stroke patient to improve function. The objective of this Special Issue is to inform the recent scientific knowledge, current limitations, and challenges for an individually tailored strategy in the areas of diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of stroke. A multidisciplinary approach and research will be strongly encouraged for personalized medicine in the field of stroke treatment and rehabilitation. Full article
Article
A Network Analysis of Depressive Symptoms in the Elderly with Subjective Memory Complaints
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 821; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm12050821 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 321
Abstract
(1) Background: Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are common among the elderly and are important because they can indicate early cognitive impairment. The factor with the greatest correlation with SMCs is depression. The purpose of this study is to examine depressive symptoms among elderly [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are common among the elderly and are important because they can indicate early cognitive impairment. The factor with the greatest correlation with SMCs is depression. The purpose of this study is to examine depressive symptoms among elderly individuals with SMCs through a network analysis that can analyze disease models between symptoms; (2) Methods: A total of 3489 data collected from elderly individuals in the community were analyzed. The Subjective Memory Complaints Questionnaire and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 were evaluated. For statistical analysis, we investigated the features of the depressive symptoms network, including centrality and clustering; (3) Results: Network analysis of the SMC group showed strong associations in the order of Q1–Q2 (r = 0.499), Q7–Q8 (r = 0.330), and Q1–Q6 (r = 0.239). In terms of centrality index, Q2 was highest in strength and expected influence, followed by Q1 in all of betweenness, strength, and expected influence; (4) Conclusions: The network analysis confirmed that the most important factors in the subjective cognitive decline group were depressed mood and anhedonia, which also had a strong correlation in the network pattern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Treatment and Management of Psychiatric Disorders)
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