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Societies, Volume 10, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 29 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Global citizenship education (GCE) is an educational framework that can be characterized as transformative since it aims to foster reflective citizens who contribute to building a more inclusive, just, and peaceful world. Thus, GCE allows educators to take a critical approach to their teaching, thereby articulating a clear social justice orientation toward citizenship education. However, recent studies indicate that most interpretations and thus implementations of GCE do not translate into a social action approach. Therefore, this article conceptualizes an intersectional approach to GCE, to make a critical approach of GCE more likely by practitioners. Intersectionality allows for recognizing resilience in marginalized communities, while developing a sense of shared responsibility in the continuation of global structures of oppression and domination. View this paper.
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Open AccessReview
Barriers to Tobacco Control in China: A Narrative Review
Societies 2020, 10(4), 101; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040101 - 16 Dec 2020
Viewed by 432
Abstract
This research chooses the method of narrative literature review to analyze the barriers in implementing tobacco regulatory policies in China and explore the strategies that can overcome these challenges. China is the world’s largest producer and consumer of tobacco products. Although the prevalence [...] Read more.
This research chooses the method of narrative literature review to analyze the barriers in implementing tobacco regulatory policies in China and explore the strategies that can overcome these challenges. China is the world’s largest producer and consumer of tobacco products. Although the prevalence of cigarette smoking declined from 34.5% to 27.7% between 1984 and 2015, the reduction over the 30 years has been slow. Therefore, effective tobacco regulatory policies are necessary. However, as the tobacco industry is one of the major sources of government revenue and an indispensable part of the national economy, the implementation of tobacco regulatory policies faces many challenges. In terms of the institutional dimension, the ambiguous attitude of national institutions and tobacco companies’ development strategies impede the enforcement of tobacco policies. In addition, the primary economic barrier to tobacco control is the unwillingness of the government to raise value-added tax on tobacco. Finally, the social customs of exchanging individual cigarettes and gifting packaged cigarettes among adults and juveniles in China hinder the implementation of tobacco regulatory policies. In this case, a combined strategy of top-down and bottom-up approaches can remove these barriers, such as using the authoritative power to control tobacco use and raising non-smokers’ awareness of smoking risks and public education. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
COVID-19 and Social Sciences
Societies 2020, 10(4), 100; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040100 - 16 Dec 2020
Viewed by 431
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic (caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2) is having profound effects on all dimensions of life, such as the individual, social, cultural, public health, and economic dimensions [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 and Social Sciences) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
A Survey of Applied Behaviour Analysis Practitioners in Australia: Education, Training, and Barriers to Professional Practice
Societies 2020, 10(4), 99; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040099 - 14 Dec 2020
Viewed by 505
Abstract
In Australia, the prevalence of autism has increased over the past decade. This has resulted in increased demand for safe and effective interventions and supports. Many evidence-based interventions for individuals with autism have been derived from the scientific discipline of Applied Behaviour Analysis [...] Read more.
In Australia, the prevalence of autism has increased over the past decade. This has resulted in increased demand for safe and effective interventions and supports. Many evidence-based interventions for individuals with autism have been derived from the scientific discipline of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA). However, the professional practice of ABA is not yet formally regulated in Australia, and there are no national practice standards or qualification requirements for practitioners providing ABA-based interventions. In addition, very little is known about the qualifications and experiences of those in Australia who currently design and implement ABA intervention programs, information that would assist in developing practice standards and regulations for the profession. These regulatory and knowledge gaps have the potential to impact the safety of both consumers and practitioners. The aim of the current study, therefore, was to survey those who categorised themselves as ABA practitioners and, based on the analysis of the data, answer relevant questions about the status of the profession and provide recommendations for the development of ABA as a profession in Australia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Behaviour Analysis and Autism)
Open AccessConcept Paper
Responding to Social Distancing in Conducting Stakeholder Workshops in COVID-19 Era
Societies 2020, 10(4), 98; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040098 - 13 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 776
Abstract
In March 2020, COVID-19 disrupted global society. Impacts as a result of COVID-19 were seen in all industries, including higher education research, which was paused in order to accommodate newly imposed restrictions. Social science research, specifically stakeholder engagement research, was one area that [...] Read more.
In March 2020, COVID-19 disrupted global society. Impacts as a result of COVID-19 were seen in all industries, including higher education research, which was paused in order to accommodate newly imposed restrictions. Social science research, specifically stakeholder engagement research, was one area that was potentially impacted given its need for person-to-person interaction. Here, we describe how we successfully adjusted our stakeholder engagement methodology to accommodate for socially distant requirements. Initially, we planned to host in-person workshops to assess stakeholder perceptions of microplastics impacts on oysters in Boston Harbor and coastal Massachusetts using the deliberative multicriteria evaluation (DMCE) methodology. To transfer these workshops online, we used familiar, open-access platforms, Zoom and GoogleDrive, to enable dialogue among participants and evaluate preferences. While modifications to length (5 to 3 h) and order (participants were asked to watch expert videos before their participation date) of the workshop were necessary, most other elements of the methodology remained the same for the online format. The main element that was lacking was the in-person interactions. However, with video conferencing tools available, this element was not completely lost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 and Social Sciences) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Better Decisions for Children with “Big Data”: Can Algorithms Promote Fairness, Transparency and Parental Engagement?
Societies 2020, 10(4), 97; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040097 - 09 Dec 2020
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Most countries operate procedures to safeguard children, including removal from parents in serious cases. In England, care applications and numbers have risen sharply, however, with wide variations not explained by levels of socio-economic deprivation alone. Drawing on extensive research, it is asserted that [...] Read more.
Most countries operate procedures to safeguard children, including removal from parents in serious cases. In England, care applications and numbers have risen sharply, however, with wide variations not explained by levels of socio-economic deprivation alone. Drawing on extensive research, it is asserted that actuarial decision tools more accurately estimate risks to children and are needed to achieve consistency, transparency, and best outcomes for children. To date, however, child protection has not achieved gains made within comparable professions through statistical methods. The reasons are examined. To make progress requires understanding why statistical tools exert effect and how professionals use them in practice. Deep-rooted psychological factors operating within uncertainty can frustrate processes implemented to counter those forces. Crucially, tools constitute evidence; their use and interpretation should not fall to one practitioner or professional body and modifications must be open to scrutiny and adjudication. We explore the potential of novel big data technology to address the difficulties identified through tools that are accurate, simple, and universally applied within child protection. When embraced by all parties to proceedings, especially parents and their advisors, despite societal fears, big data may promote transparency of social work and judicial decisions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Recognition and Justice? Conceptualizing Support for Women Whose Children Are in Care or Adopted
Societies 2020, 10(4), 96; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040096 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 656
Abstract
This paper examines the views of mothers who have experienced (or are judged to be at risk of) recurrent removal of children into care or adoption. Drawing on their accounts of working with an intensive 18 month support program called Pause, we argue [...] Read more.
This paper examines the views of mothers who have experienced (or are judged to be at risk of) recurrent removal of children into care or adoption. Drawing on their accounts of working with an intensive 18 month support program called Pause, we argue for the relevance of conceptualizing policy and practice with reference to Honneth’s theory of recognition and Fraser’s arguments about the need to address misrecognition through redistribution, attending to gendered political and economic injustice. The analysis draws on qualitative longitudinal interviews with 49 women, conducted as part of a national UK Department for Education (DfE)-funded evaluation of Pause. Each woman was interviewed up to four times over a period of up to 20 months, both during and after the Pause intervention. Case-based longitudinal analysis illuminates how stigma can obscure women’s rights and needs—including welfare entitlements and health, as well as rights to family life—and shows how support can act to enable both redistribution, advocating to ensure women’s rights in a context of diminishing public welfare, and recognition, challenging stigmatization through recognition of women’s motherhood, and of their rights to care, solidarity, respect and fun. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Vegan Food Experience: Searching for Happiness in the Norwegian Foodscape
Societies 2020, 10(4), 95; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040095 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 584
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to go beyond an oversimplified representation of the vegan food experience and approach the investigation of such experience, in particular of happiness deriving from food choices, including factors at the macro and micro level. Broadening the concept [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to go beyond an oversimplified representation of the vegan food experience and approach the investigation of such experience, in particular of happiness deriving from food choices, including factors at the macro and micro level. Broadening the concept of foodscape to emphasize the experiential aspect of food, this study explored how the vegan food experience can be described as a situated story about vegans searching for hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Veganism in a Norwegian context was investigated through analysis of various secondary and primary data sources, including newspapers, social media, websites, interviews, and observation. The findings suggested that the story framing the vegan food experience is characterized by a fundamental lack of interest and knowledge about plant-based food and veganism at the macro level. At the micro level, the story concerns vegans experiencing sensuous gratification, enjoyment, conviviality, and meaningfulness in limited groups, but also isolation and frustration. This study contributes to an approach to vegan food experiences that takes into consideration contextual factors, as well as relevant well-being related emotions at the individual level. From a practical point of view, this study provides an opportunity, in particular for government bodies, to improve information about the potential benefits and challenges of plant-based diets and confront possible discriminatory attitudes towards vegans. Full article
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Open AccessConcept Paper
Flowing between the Personal and Collective: Being Human beyond Categories of Study
Societies 2020, 10(4), 94; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040094 - 27 Nov 2020
Viewed by 498
Abstract
Caught between different structures of identity hierarchies, queer and trans Asian American experiences have been systematically erased, forgotten, or purposely buried; as such, their experiences have often been minimized. In this paper, we seek to reimagine personhood in psychology through the perspectives of [...] Read more.
Caught between different structures of identity hierarchies, queer and trans Asian American experiences have been systematically erased, forgotten, or purposely buried; as such, their experiences have often been minimized. In this paper, we seek to reimagine personhood in psychology through the perspectives of queer and trans Asian American subjectivities. Beginning with a brief discussion on the impacts of coloniality on conventional conceptualizations of who counts as human, we then consider how this is taken up in psychology, especially for multiply marginalized folx. Moving beyond the possibilities of representational politics, we explore possible decolonial frameworks and alternative methodologies in psychology to center queer and trans Asian American personhoods and to see them as more than just research participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Studies/Perspectives on Migration and the Migrant Experience)
Open AccessArticle
Parental Non-Engagement within Child Protection Services—How Can Understandings of Complex Trauma and Epistemic Trust Help?
Societies 2020, 10(4), 93; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040093 - 26 Nov 2020
Viewed by 708
Abstract
Building on the findings from the national study of mothers in recurrent care proceedings in England, this paper proposes that the concepts of complex trauma and epistemic trust may help explain parents’ difficulties in engaging with child protection services. With the aim of [...] Read more.
Building on the findings from the national study of mothers in recurrent care proceedings in England, this paper proposes that the concepts of complex trauma and epistemic trust may help explain parents’ difficulties in engaging with child protection services. With the aim of advancing theoretical knowledge, qualitative data drawn from interviews with 72 women who have experienced repeat care proceedings are revisited, with a focus on women’s developmental histories and accounts of engagement with professionals, to probe the issue of service engagement. The article starts with a succinct review of the literature on parental non-engagement in child protection, highlighting strengths and potential limitations of current knowledge. This is followed by an introduction to the theoretical concepts of complex trauma and epistemic trust, outlining how these concepts provide an alternative framing of the reasons why parents may resist, or are reluctant to engage with, professionals. Drawing on women’s first-person accounts, we argue that high levels of maltreatment and adversity in women’s own childhoods shape adult relationships, particularly in relation to vulnerability to harm in adult lives but also mistrust of professional help. Extracts from women’s first-person accounts, chosen for their typicality against the core themes derived from the data, indicate that acts of resistance or rejection of professional help can be seen as adaptive—given women’s childhoods and relationship histories. The authors conclude that parents’ social histories need to be afforded far closer attention in child protection practice, if preventative services are to reach those with histories of developmental trauma. Full article
Open AccessArticle
COVID-19 as a Global Risk: Confronting the Ambivalences of a Socionatural Threat
Societies 2020, 10(4), 92; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040092 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 647
Abstract
On the face of it, the COVID-19 pandemic seems to fit into the risk society framework as a danger that is produced by the modernization process in its global stage. However, coronaviruses are a very particular kind of risk which risk theory does [...] Read more.
On the face of it, the COVID-19 pandemic seems to fit into the risk society framework as a danger that is produced by the modernization process in its global stage. However, coronaviruses are a very particular kind of risk which risk theory does not properly explain. In fact, there is no single perspective on risk that offers a fully satisfactory account of the SARS-CoV-2, despite all of them having something valuable to contribute to the task. This paper attempts to categorize the COVID-19 pandemic as a particular kind of risk that is not adequately explained with reference to the risk society or the new epoch of the Anthropocene. On the contrary, it combines premodern and modern features: it takes place in the Anthropocene but is not of the Anthropocene, while its effects are a manifestation of the long globalization process that begins in antiquity with the early representations of the planet as a sphere. If the particular identity of the disease is considered, COVID-19 emerges as the first truly global illness and thus points to a new understanding of the vulnerability of the human species qua species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 and Social Sciences) Printed Edition available
Open AccessConcept Paper
Enacting Critical Citizenship: An Intersectional Approach to Global Citizenship Education
Societies 2020, 10(4), 91; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040091 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 623
Abstract
Global citizenship is a popular concept that was fully embraced by UNESCO in 2015 with a framework for Global Citizenship Education (GCE). This pedagogical guidance can be characterized as transformative since it aims to foster reflective citizens who contribute to building a more [...] Read more.
Global citizenship is a popular concept that was fully embraced by UNESCO in 2015 with a framework for Global Citizenship Education (GCE). This pedagogical guidance can be characterized as transformative since it aims to foster reflective citizens who contribute to building a more inclusive, just, and peaceful world. Thus, GCE allows educators to take a critical approach to their teaching, hereby articulating a clear social justice orientation towards citizenship education. However, recent studies indicate that most interpretations and thus implementations of GCE do not translate into a social action approach. Therefore, this article conceptualizes an intersectional approach to GCE, to make a critical approach of GCE more likely by practitioners. Intersectionality was developed by Black feminists in the US, to highlight structural oppressions and privileges on the basis of analytical categories. Intersectionality, furthermore, allows for opportunities to recognize resilience and resistance in marginalized communities. Therefore, an intersectional approach to GCE would develop sensibilities among students to understand global structures of oppression and domination on the basis of analytical categories like race, gender, and class. This knowledge would lead to an awareness of one’s own complicity and shared responsibility, resulting in deliberations and eventually political actions. The overall aim is to provide practitioners with a concrete suggestion of a critical interpretation of GCE, to show its potential as a social justice-orientated framework for educators in especially continental Europe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Citizenship Education and Civil Society)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Importance of Sport Event on Hotel Performance for Restarting Tourism After COVID-19
Societies 2020, 10(4), 90; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040090 - 25 Nov 2020
Viewed by 768
Abstract
The aim of this study was to illustrate the importance of major sports events, such as marathons, and their economic impact on hotel performance during these unpredictable times for the events and tourism industry. The analysis was focused on the economic impact of [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to illustrate the importance of major sports events, such as marathons, and their economic impact on hotel performance during these unpredictable times for the events and tourism industry. The analysis was focused on the economic impact of the marathon event on hotel performance in the area hosting the race. For that purpose, we selected the Vienna City Marathon, held yearly in April, as a case. We hypothesized that there will be a higher impact of hotel performance a day prior to the marathon in regard to the hotel performance in multiple nonmarathon occasions. As indicators for hotel performance we have chosen hotel occupancy, revenue per available room, average daily rate and total revenue recorded for: day (always Saturday) prior to the marathon, year average, April average and average Saturday in April. Results from this study revealed significant effects of a marathon on three major hotel performance indicators (i.e., hotel occupancy, revenue per available room and total revenue). Findings from this study could serve the local government or event planners after the current crisis to justify financial investments in hosting a marathon or similar sports events for restarting tourism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
“I Had No Hope, I Had No Help at All”: Insights from a First Study of Fathers and Recurrent Care Proceedings
Societies 2020, 10(4), 89; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040089 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1246
Abstract
This article presents data from the first large-scale study of fathers involved in repeat (or recurrent) care proceedings in England. The project complements important research on mothers and recurrence. It consisted of three elements: an analysis of population-level administrative data from the Child [...] Read more.
This article presents data from the first large-scale study of fathers involved in repeat (or recurrent) care proceedings in England. The project complements important research on mothers and recurrence. It consisted of three elements: an analysis of population-level administrative data from the Child and Family Court Advisory and Support Service (CAFCASS), a survey of fathers in pre-proceedings and care proceedings, and a qualitative longitudinal (QL) study of recurrent fathers. Here we report findings from the survey and the QL study, offering an expanded definition and description of fathers and recurrence. Elsewhere, we reported that a significant number of fathers appear in recurrent care proceedings and that the majority return with the same partner. Alongside this, there is also a notable pattern of “missing” fathers demonstrated by the proportion of lone mothers reappearing before the court. Our survey indicates a certain profile of recurrent fathers, but also that recurrent fathers are not straightforwardly a homogenous group. We report on the significance of recurrent fathers’ early lives, on the phenomenon of enduring couple relationships and on the prevalence of issues affecting parenting, such as poor mental health, substance use and domestic abuse. Insights from the QL study in particular reveal legacies of harm, loss, and a lack of emotional and relational resources in childhood, which have debilitating and far-reaching consequences. We argue the importance of understanding the vulnerabilities of recurrent fathers and of challenging certain assumptions in child welfare and family justice practices. There is much to be learnt from existing services for recurrent mothers, but also a need for bespoke or adapted services that may be more responsive to particular circumstances of recurrent fathers and couples. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Reducing Recurrent Care Proceedings: Building a Local Evidence Base in England
Societies 2020, 10(4), 88; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040088 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 587
Abstract
Recent studies of public law care proceedings within the family justice system in England and Wales suggest that up to a quarter of all mothers who appear in such proceedings will reappear within a subsequent—or recurrent—set of such proceedings within seven years. In [...] Read more.
Recent studies of public law care proceedings within the family justice system in England and Wales suggest that up to a quarter of all mothers who appear in such proceedings will reappear within a subsequent—or recurrent—set of such proceedings within seven years. In the last decade, new interdisciplinary research spanning social work, clinical psychology and sociology has defined and investigated the previously hidden challenge and social costs of ‘recurrent care proceedings’ (RCP). This article adds to this new field by analysing the core values, practice and impact of three different local services in the northwest of England working with birth parents to reduce the risk of recurrent proceedings. The article combines data gathered from the three distinct services using a common evaluation framework co-produced by the authors working with service leads, practitioners and users. It explores how all three services are seeking to reduce the risk of recurrent care proceedings in their local areas without requiring women to use long acting reversible contraception (LARC) or other forms of contraception as a condition of accessing the service. It concludes that insights gained from these and cognate services can inform an emergent community of practice in the recurrent care field. Full article
Open AccessArticle
What Price Equality? The Academic Cost of Government Supervised Gender Mainstreaming at Swedish Universities
Societies 2020, 10(4), 87; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040087 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1752
Abstract
This article is focused on gender mainstreaming at Swedish universities in the period from 2016–2019. Our research questions are: (a) In what form was gender mainstreaming introduced and did the form itself affect scholar’s academic rights? (b) Was the process in question compatible [...] Read more.
This article is focused on gender mainstreaming at Swedish universities in the period from 2016–2019. Our research questions are: (a) In what form was gender mainstreaming introduced and did the form itself affect scholar’s academic rights? (b) Was the process in question compatible with international standards of institutional autonomy? (c) What effect did gender mainstreaming have on scholars’ ability to exercise their academic rights in accordance with international standards? Using the UNESCO Recommendations Concerning the Status of Higher-education Teaching Personnel (1997) as our international standard, we conclude that gender mainstreaming was introduced as a form of identity politics though government action and de facto supervision; that the latter was problematic from the perspective of institutional autonomy; that the choice of gender studies as a preferred scientific framework for university policy had a chilling effect on inquiry and free speech in other areas of research; and, finally, that gender mainstreaming led to violations of some scholars’ individual rights. The findings may be taken into account in evaluations of the outcome of gender mainstreaming at Swedish universities, all things considered. Full article
Open AccessConcept Paper
Online Learning and Emergency Remote Teaching: Opportunities and Challenges in Emergency Situations
Societies 2020, 10(4), 86; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040086 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2128
Abstract
The aim of the study is to analyse the opportunities and challenges of emergency remote teaching based on experiences of the COVID-19 emergency. A qualitative research method was undertaken in two steps. In the first step, a thematic analysis of an online discussion [...] Read more.
The aim of the study is to analyse the opportunities and challenges of emergency remote teaching based on experiences of the COVID-19 emergency. A qualitative research method was undertaken in two steps. In the first step, a thematic analysis of an online discussion forum with international experts from different sectors and countries was carried out. In the second step (an Italian case study), both the data and the statements of opinion leaders from secondary online sources, including web articles, statistical data and legislation, were analysed. The results reveal several technological, pedagogical and social challenges. The technological challenges are mainly related to the unreliability of Internet connections and many students’ lack of necessary electronic devices. The pedagogical challenges are principally associated with teachers’ and learners’ lack of digital skills, the lack of structured content versus the abundance of online resources, learners’ lack of interactivity and motivation and teachers’ lack of social and cognitive presence (the ability to construct meaning through sustained communication within a community of inquiry). The social challenges are mainly related to the lack of human interaction between teachers and students as well as among the latter, the lack of physical spaces at home to receive lessons and the lack of support of parents who are frequently working remotely in the same spaces. Based on the lessons learned from this worldwide emergency, challenges and proposals for action to face these same challenges, which should be and sometimes have been implemented, are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 and Social Sciences) Printed Edition available
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Student Housing Choices and Neighborhood Change: Brown University 1937–1987
Societies 2020, 10(4), 85; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040085 - 08 Nov 2020
Viewed by 678
Abstract
The formal ambitions and societal expectations of anchor institutions have shifted over time. Many universities have evolved from walled-off enclaves, to self-interested urban redevelopers, to mutual gain negotiators. Detailed accounts exist of universities, as anchor institutions, directly displacing low-income communities of color by [...] Read more.
The formal ambitions and societal expectations of anchor institutions have shifted over time. Many universities have evolved from walled-off enclaves, to self-interested urban redevelopers, to mutual gain negotiators. Detailed accounts exist of universities, as anchor institutions, directly displacing low-income communities of color by utilizing the higher education provisions of urban renewal. This case study of Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, adds to this history by documenting the university’s contribution to the diminution of a working-class neighborhood of color specifically through student residency philosophies and policies, enrollment expansion, and real-estate decisions, during 1937–1987. Brown University’s choices played out in a neighborhood already scarred by interstate highway construction and urban renewal. Drawing from primary source materials on institutional decision-making this work examines the transformation of Brown University’s models of student housing amidst evolving community concerns about the demolition of historic properties and push back around increasing displacement pressures. Several issues and research directions for the new era of equity centered anchor work emerge from this historical recounting of an anchor institution’s student housing choices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
What Role Does Rural Place Play in the Lives of Mid-Life Women in Sweden and Ireland?
Societies 2020, 10(4), 84; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040084 - 06 Nov 2020
Viewed by 466
Abstract
Rural place is a significant influencer of the ageing and states of well-being experienced by older women. This paper extends existing knowledge on gendered rural place by examining its influence on mid-life (45–65 years) women in rural Sweden and rural Ireland. This paper [...] Read more.
Rural place is a significant influencer of the ageing and states of well-being experienced by older women. This paper extends existing knowledge on gendered rural place by examining its influence on mid-life (45–65 years) women in rural Sweden and rural Ireland. This paper also examines rural place identity, self-identity and the enhancement of the self, and the multiple pathways to place attachment at mid-life. Qualitative data were gathered in 2019 from ten women living in Sweden’s rural Värmland region, and in 2012–2013 from 25 women living in Ireland’s rural Connemara region. Adopting a social constructionist approach within a lifecourse framework, methodology was informed by constructivist grounded theory, using one-to-one semi-structured interviews. These distinct studies show both similarity and difference in rural place identity and self-identity among mid-life women, and highlight nuances around place attachment, the home, social relationships, and the natural environment. The data show a compelling need for a greater consideration of the critical and diverse role rural place plays in shaping women’s experiences of ageing and well-being both at mid-life and in older age. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Sense of Place and Belonging in Developing Culturally Appropriate Therapeutic Environments: A Review
Societies 2020, 10(4), 83; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040083 - 03 Nov 2020
Viewed by 702
Abstract
The connection the Māori, the Indigenous people of Aotearoa-New Zealand, have to the land is threatened by the effects of colonisation, urbanisation and other factors. In particular, many Māori suffer significant health and wellbeing inequalities compared to the non-Māori population. In an effort [...] Read more.
The connection the Māori, the Indigenous people of Aotearoa-New Zealand, have to the land is threatened by the effects of colonisation, urbanisation and other factors. In particular, many Māori suffer significant health and wellbeing inequalities compared to the non-Māori population. In an effort to reduce such inequalities, there is a growing consciousness of the need to better understand the cultural and place-specific determinants that affect the health and wellbeing of population groups in different environments. This article explores how environmental and cultural connections to land enable the development of place-specific and culturally-driven principles that promote the health and wellbeing of Māori populations. It argues that concepts of place, belonging, landscape and wellbeing play an important role in linking environment and culture as well as in contributing to creating therapeutic spatial environments that promote both human health and ecosystems. A set of principles is developed that allows for the landscape design of such therapeutic environments while accommodating the socio-cultural and environmental values that promote health and wellbeing of both Māori and non-Māori people. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Scholarship Suppression: Theoretical Perspectives and Emerging Trends
Societies 2020, 10(4), 82; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040082 - 27 Oct 2020
Viewed by 716
Abstract
This paper explores the suppression of ideas within an academic scholarship by academics, either by self-suppression or because of the efforts of other academics. Legal, moral, and social issues distinguishing freedom of speech, freedom of inquiry, and academic freedom are reviewed. How these [...] Read more.
This paper explores the suppression of ideas within an academic scholarship by academics, either by self-suppression or because of the efforts of other academics. Legal, moral, and social issues distinguishing freedom of speech, freedom of inquiry, and academic freedom are reviewed. How these freedoms and protections can come into tension is then explored by an analysis of denunciation mobs that exercise their legal free speech rights to call for punishing scholars who express ideas they disapprove of and condemn. When successful, these efforts, which constitute legally protected speech, will suppress certain ideas. Real-world examples over the past five years of academics that have been sanctioned or terminated for scholarship targeted by a denunciation mob are then explored. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Involuntary Full- and Part-Time Work: Employees’ Mental Health and the Role of Family- and Work-Related Resources
Societies 2020, 10(4), 81; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040081 - 24 Oct 2020
Viewed by 492
Abstract
Resources related to a good work-life balance may play an important role for the mental health of workers with involuntary working hours. This study investigates whether involuntary part-time (i.e., working part-time, but preferring full-time work) and involuntary full-time work (i.e., working full-time, but [...] Read more.
Resources related to a good work-life balance may play an important role for the mental health of workers with involuntary working hours. This study investigates whether involuntary part-time (i.e., working part-time, but preferring full-time work) and involuntary full-time work (i.e., working full-time, but preferring part-time work) are associated with a deterioration of mental health and whether family- and work-related resources buffer this association. Data were obtained from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) with baseline information on involuntary working hours and resources. This information was linked to changes in mental health two years later. We found impaired mental health for involuntary full-time male workers and increased mental health for regular part-time female workers. The mental health of involuntary full-time male workers is more vulnerable, compared to regular full-time workers, when having high non-standard work hours and when being a partner (with or without children). Involuntary part-time work is detrimental to men’s mental health when doing a high amount of household work. This study is one of the first to emphasize the mental health consequences of involuntary full-time work. Avoiding role and time conflicts between family and work roles are important for the mental health of men too. Full article
Open AccessConcept Paper
Beyond TTM and ABC: A Practice Perspective on Physical Activity Promotion for Adolescent Females from Disadvantaged Backgrounds
Societies 2020, 10(4), 80; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040080 - 18 Oct 2020
Viewed by 647
Abstract
This paper builds on a growing body of literature on the promise of practice theory in understanding and promoting behavior change in society and develops upon Blue (2017) and Spotswood et al.’s (2019) rationale for evolving theories of practice into the domain of [...] Read more.
This paper builds on a growing body of literature on the promise of practice theory in understanding and promoting behavior change in society and develops upon Blue (2017) and Spotswood et al.’s (2019) rationale for evolving theories of practice into the domain of contemporary physical activity research. We begin by considering the intersectional nature of the problem. Statistics reveal that physical activity gradients exist based on gender, as well as socio-economic position. Women, girls, and disadvantaged populations report lower levels of activity than more affluent males and females. More problematic still is what StreetGames (2017) call the “double jeopardy”, where these characteristics intersect, intensifying the negative gradient. Our argument then comprises three parts. First, we provide a critical discussion of intervention studies seeking to transform exercise behavior amongst these populations. The issue we identify is that studies typically rely on behavior change models, such as the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) and the ABC framework. However, these models tend to take insufficient account of the practical and social aspects of behavior change in physical activity, and thus their subjects often succumb to value-action gaps (Shove, 2010). Second, in contrast, we propose that practice theory provides a promising alternative theoretical lens for promoting behavior change in disadvantaged and often resistant populations. Third, the paper highlights a range of conceptual considerations for exploring the relationship between young, disadvantaged women and physical activity, as well as the development of tangible solutions to improve participation. Full article
Open AccessConcept Paper
Dealignment: Class in Britain and Class in British Sociology Since 1945
Societies 2020, 10(4), 79; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040079 - 15 Oct 2020
Viewed by 560
Abstract
This paper sets changes in Britain’s class structure since 1945 alongside the parallel sociological controversies about class. Since the 1970s, the class scheme developed by John Goldthorpe and colleagues for initial use in their study of social mobility in Britain has become sociology’s [...] Read more.
This paper sets changes in Britain’s class structure since 1945 alongside the parallel sociological controversies about class. Since the 1970s, the class scheme developed by John Goldthorpe and colleagues for initial use in their study of social mobility in Britain has become sociology’s standard template for thinking about and researching class. Versions have been adopted by the UK government and the European Union as their official socio-economic classifications. This paper does not dispute that the Goldthorpe scheme is still the best available for classifying by occupation, or that occupation remains our best single indicator of class, or that a constant class scheme must be used if the purpose is to measure trends over time in rates of relative inter-generational mobility. Despite these merits, it is argued that the sociological gaze has been weakened by failing to represent changes over time in the class structure itself and, therefore, how class is experienced in lay people’s lives. There has been a relative neglect of absolute social mobility flows (which have changed over time), and a pre-occupation with the inter-generational and a relative neglect of intra-career mobilities and immobilities. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Constitutive Practices of Public Smartphone Use
Societies 2020, 10(4), 78; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040078 - 10 Oct 2020
Viewed by 947
Abstract
The smartphone has become the most ubiquitous piece of personal technology, giving it significant social importance and sociological relevance. In this article, we explore how the smartphone interacts with and impacts social interaction in the setting of the urban café. Through analyzing 52 [...] Read more.
The smartphone has become the most ubiquitous piece of personal technology, giving it significant social importance and sociological relevance. In this article, we explore how the smartphone interacts with and impacts social interaction in the setting of the urban café. Through analyzing 52 spontaneous in-depth interviews related to social interaction in cafés, we identify three categories of smartphone use in social settings: interaction suspension, deliberately shielding interaction, and accessing shareables. These categories comprise the constitutive smartphone practices that define the social order of public smartphone use within an interactionist sociological framework. Full article
Open AccessConcept Paper
The COVID-19 Contagion–Pandemic Dyad: A View from Social Sciences
Societies 2020, 10(4), 77; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040077 - 06 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1194
Abstract
The objective of this concept paper focuses on the relevance of the analytical potential of Social Sciences for understanding the multiple implications and challenges posed by the COVID-19 contagion–pandemic dyad. This pandemic is generating a global threat with a high number of deaths [...] Read more.
The objective of this concept paper focuses on the relevance of the analytical potential of Social Sciences for understanding the multiple implications and challenges posed by the COVID-19 contagion–pandemic dyad. This pandemic is generating a global threat with a high number of deaths and infected individuals, triggering enormous pressure on health systems. Most countries have put in place a set of procedures based on social distancing, as well as (preventive) isolation from possible infected and transmitters of the disease. This crisis has profound implications and raises issues for which the contribution of Social Sciences does not seem to be sufficiently mobilised. The contribution of Social Sciences is paramount, in terms of their knowledge and skills, to the knowledge of these problematic realities and to act in an informed way on these crises. Social Sciences are a scientific project focused on interdisciplinarity, theoretical and methodological plurality. This discussion is developed from the systems of relationships between social phenomena in the coordinates of time and place, and in the socio-historical contexts in which they are integrated. A pandemic is a complex phenomenon as it is always a point of articulation between natural and social determinations. The space of the discourse on the COVID-19 pandemic can be understood as the expression of a coalition of discourses, i.e., the interaction of various discourses, combined in re-interpretative modalities of certain realities and social phenomena. The circumstantial coalitions of interests, which shape the different discursive records and actions produced by different agents of distinct social spaces, enable the acknowledgement and legitimation of this pandemic threat and danger, and the promotion of its public management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 and Social Sciences) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview
Mitigating Visual Ageism in Digital Media: Designing for Dynamic Diversity to Enhance Communication Rights for Senior Citizens
Societies 2020, 10(4), 76; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040076 - 01 Oct 2020
Viewed by 639
Abstract
This paper advocates for the importance of visual communication rights for older people to avoid “visual ageism,” described as media practices of visually underrepresenting older people or misrepresenting them in a prejudiced way. It aims to present a set of policy recommendations using [...] Read more.
This paper advocates for the importance of visual communication rights for older people to avoid “visual ageism,” described as media practices of visually underrepresenting older people or misrepresenting them in a prejudiced way. It aims to present a set of policy recommendations using “designing for dynamic diversity” as the leading principle. By discussing studies about the ways older people are visual represented in digital media content, the paper shows how visual communication rights for older people could help to fight “visual ageism.” It also pleads for collaborative ways to create digital visual content “together with” older people and not “for” them. Moreover, the paper makes a plea for empowering senior citizens by advocating their right of having a voice about the manner in which they are visually represented and enhancing their power to influence specifically the images representing them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fighting Fake News: A Generational Approach)
Open AccessConcept Paper
A Reflexive GOAL Framework for Achieving Student-Centered Learning in European Higher Education: From Class Learning to Community Engagement
Societies 2020, 10(4), 75; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040075 - 26 Sep 2020
Viewed by 734
Abstract
Student-centered learning (SCL) has been acknowledged and supported by research as very important for helping students develop life-long independent learning and transferable skills. Yet the implementation of SCL in European higher education has been patchy where experts in the field call for the [...] Read more.
Student-centered learning (SCL) has been acknowledged and supported by research as very important for helping students develop life-long independent learning and transferable skills. Yet the implementation of SCL in European higher education has been patchy where experts in the field call for the need for a framework that could guide higher education institutions (HEIs) in designing and implementing SCL. This paper aims to fill in this identified gap by reflecting on the basic literature and social theory to propose the reflexive GOAL (Goals (vision and objectives), Organization (structures), Actions (immersion into structures and actions), and Learning a culture (instilled through reflexivity)) framework for the implementation of SCL in higher education in its broader sense to encompass elements from in-class learning to extra-curricular and community engagement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Social Utility and Desirability of E-learning)
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Open AccessArticle
Implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: A Comparison of Four European Countries with Regards to Assistive Technologies
Societies 2020, 10(4), 74; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040074 - 25 Sep 2020
Viewed by 474
Abstract
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) is an international treaty that aims to promote, protect and ensure the rights of persons with disabilities so that they can fully participate in society and enjoy the same freedoms and [...] Read more.
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) is an international treaty that aims to promote, protect and ensure the rights of persons with disabilities so that they can fully participate in society and enjoy the same freedoms and opportunities as others. It provides an important framework for the inclusion of persons with disabilities with the help of Assistive Technologies (AT). This paper assesses and compares the implementation of the CRPD with regards to the availability of AT in four countries (Germany, Hungary, Portugal and Sweden), which to some extent represent different European regions. The paper is based on a review of relevant academic literature, the DOTCOM database and regulatory documents as well as on five validation interviews with national experts. In the countries studied, anti-discriminatory and other legislation is included at the highest level of the legal framework and contains detailed rules on definitions, remedies and legal procedures. There are specific prohibitions in several fields, such as employment, housing, and healthcare. Nonetheless, there are still cases of non-compliance with the CRPD and of laws and regulations which discriminate against persons with a disability. Additionally, there are great variations between countries. As very positive examples of favourable regulatory frameworks for furthering inclusion with the help of ATs do exist, there may be benefit in raising awareness of such examples to support other countries in developing their own measures. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Impact of Medical Brain Drain on Child Health in 188 Countries over 2000–2015
Societies 2020, 10(4), 73; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soc10040073 - 24 Sep 2020
Viewed by 613
Abstract
Medical brain drain has been a policy concern in recent years when many countries are struggling with health workforce shortages. Some suggest that wealthy countries only exacerbate this problem by recruiting internationally trained health professionals. Little research has considered the impact of medical [...] Read more.
Medical brain drain has been a policy concern in recent years when many countries are struggling with health workforce shortages. Some suggest that wealthy countries only exacerbate this problem by recruiting internationally trained health professionals. Little research has considered the impact of medical brain drain on child health in the sending society, and the few empirical analyses that exist find no conclusive evidence. To fill this gap, I test the underlying mechanisms through which medical brain drain may affect child health in scores of countries. I use a panel dataset covering 188 countries over the period 2000–2015. The findings from fixed-effects regression models suggest that medical brain drain negatively affects child health and that there is a curvilinear relationship between the two. The effects on child health are stronger in countries approximately in the middle of the medical brain drain scale, and weaker on both ends. The implications of the findings for policy and future research are highlighted. Full article
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