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Multi-Functionalized Nanomaterials and Nanoparticles for Diagnosis and Treatment of Retinoblastoma

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Department of Pharmacy, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
2
Department of Chemistry, ShahidBahonar University of Kerman, Kerman 76169-14111, Iran
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Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zabol, Zabol 98613-35856, Iran
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Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Resistant Tuberculosis Institute, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan 98167-43463, Iran
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Center of Experimental Orthopaedics, Saarland University Medical Center, 66421 Homburg/Saar, Germany
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Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Science, Yeungnam University, 280 Daehak-Ro, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea
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Particulate Matter Research Center, Research Institute of Industrial Science & Technology (RIST), 187-12, Geumho-ro, Gwangyang-si 57801, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 February 2021 / Revised: 19 March 2021 / Accepted: 23 March 2021 / Published: 26 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance Nanomaterials for Biosensors)
Retinoblastoma is a rare type of cancer, and its treatment, as well as diagnosis, is challenging, owing to mutations in the tumor-suppressor genes and lack of targeted, efficient, cost-effective therapy, exhibiting a significant need for novel approaches to address these concerns. For this purpose, nanotechnology has revolutionized the field of medicine with versatile potential capabilities for both the diagnosis, as well as the treatment, of retinoblastoma via the targeted and controlled delivery of anticancer drugs via binding to the overexpressed retinoblastoma gene. Nanotechnology has also generated massive advancements in the treatment of retinoblastoma based on the use of surface-tailored multi-functionalized nanocarriers; overexpressed receptor-based nanocarriers ligands (folate, galactose, and hyaluronic acid); lipid-based nanocarriers; and metallic nanocarriers. These nanocarriers seem to benchmark in mitigating a plethora of malignant retinoblastoma via targeted delivery at a specified site, resulting in programmed apoptosis in cancer cells. The effectiveness of these nanoplatforms in diagnosing and treating intraocular cancers such as retinoblastoma has not been properly discussed, despite the increasing significance of nanomedicine in cancer management. This article reviewed the recent milestones and future development areas in the field of intraocular drug delivery and diagnostic platforms focused on nanotechnology. View Full-Text
Keywords: retinoblastoma; rare cancer; surface-tailored multi-functionalized nanoparticles; metallic nanoparticle; tumor-suppressor gene mutation retinoblastoma; rare cancer; surface-tailored multi-functionalized nanoparticles; metallic nanoparticle; tumor-suppressor gene mutation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arshad, R.; Barani, M.; Rahdar, A.; Sargazi, S.; Cucchiarini, M.; Pandey, S.; Kang, M. Multi-Functionalized Nanomaterials and Nanoparticles for Diagnosis and Treatment of Retinoblastoma. Biosensors 2021, 11, 97. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11040097

AMA Style

Arshad R, Barani M, Rahdar A, Sargazi S, Cucchiarini M, Pandey S, Kang M. Multi-Functionalized Nanomaterials and Nanoparticles for Diagnosis and Treatment of Retinoblastoma. Biosensors. 2021; 11(4):97. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11040097

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arshad, Rabia, Mahmood Barani, Abbas Rahdar, Saman Sargazi, Magali Cucchiarini, Sadanand Pandey, and Misook Kang. 2021. "Multi-Functionalized Nanomaterials and Nanoparticles for Diagnosis and Treatment of Retinoblastoma" Biosensors 11, no. 4: 97. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bios11040097

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