Next Issue
Volume 89, June
Previous Issue
Volume 88, December

Sci. Pharm., Volume 89, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 14 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Validation of an RP-HPLC Method for the Determination of Asenapine Maleate in Dissolution Media and Application to Study In Vitro Release from Co-Crystals
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(1), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89010014 - 08 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1478
Abstract
Asenapine maleate is an antipsychotic drug that is indicated in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. It has low aqueous solubility and high permeability (Class II drug) and undergoes an extensive first pass effect. These problems result in low oral bioavailability (<2%). [...] Read more.
Asenapine maleate is an antipsychotic drug that is indicated in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. It has low aqueous solubility and high permeability (Class II drug) and undergoes an extensive first pass effect. These problems result in low oral bioavailability (<2%). To enhance its solubility/dissolution rate and hence bioavailability, co-crystals using different co-formers in different ratios were prepared and evaluated. To study the in vitro dissolution of the drug from these co-crystals into phosphate buffer (pH 6.8), an RP-HPLC method was developed and validated according to the ICH Q2R1 guidelines. The method was linear in the range 0.1–14 µg/mL (R > 0.9998) and accurate and precise. An ANOVA test indicated that calibration curves run on different days did not differ significantly. It was sensitive (lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) = 25.03 ng/mL), specific (the co-formers did not interfere with the determination of the drug), and robust to small changes in the mobile phase (pH, composition, and flow rate). The in vitro release of asenapine maleate from the co-crystals and the physical mixture was much enhanced when compared to the in vitro dissolution of the unprocessed drug. In conclusion, the developed and validated RP-HPLC method met the acceptance criteria and was applied successfully in evaluating the in vitro release of the drug. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Association of Antibiotic Use with the Resistance Epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Hospital Setting: A Four-Year Retrospective Time Series Analysis
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(1), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89010013 - 05 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1460
Abstract
Background: Even though, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of hospital-acquired infections, treatment is challenging because of decreasing rates of susceptibility to many broad-spectrum antibiotics. Methods: Consumption data of eight broad spectrum antimicrobial agents and resistance rates of P. aeruginosa were collected for [...] Read more.
Background: Even though, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of hospital-acquired infections, treatment is challenging because of decreasing rates of susceptibility to many broad-spectrum antibiotics. Methods: Consumption data of eight broad spectrum antimicrobial agents and resistance rates of P. aeruginosa were collected for 48 consecutive months. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and transfer functions models were used to develop relationships between antibiotic use and resistance. Results: Positive correlations between P. aeruginosa resistance and uses of ciprofloxacin (p < 0.001), meropenem (p < 0.001), and cefepime (p = 0.005) were identified. Transfer function models showed the quantified effect of each of these antibiotics on resistance. Regarding levofloxacin, ceftazidime, piperacillin/tazobactam and imipenem, no significant relationships were found. For ceftazidime and levofloxacin, this was probably due to their low consumption, while for imipenem the reason can possibly be ascribed to the already high established P. aeruginosa resistance in the hospital. Conclusion: In the hospital setting, the effect of antimicrobial agents’ consumption on the susceptibility epidemiology of P. aeruginosa differs significantly for each one of them. In this study, the role of precedent use of meropenem, cefepime and ciprofloxacin was quantified in the development of P. aeruginosa resistance. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
In Vitro Comparison of the Anti-Proliferative Effects of Galenia africana on Human Skin Cell Lines
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(1), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89010012 - 25 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1762
Abstract
Malignant melanoma is the major cause of skin cancer-related deaths. Surgery in combination with radiotherapy, immunotherapy or chemotherapy is used to eradicate cancer cells, however, this treatment option is limited by the tolerance of the surrounding healthy tissue. The extracts from Galenia africana [...] Read more.
Malignant melanoma is the major cause of skin cancer-related deaths. Surgery in combination with radiotherapy, immunotherapy or chemotherapy is used to eradicate cancer cells, however, this treatment option is limited by the tolerance of the surrounding healthy tissue. The extracts from Galenia africana have been shown to possess anti-cancer flavonoid compounds and can be a safer and cost-effective alternative treatment. The study aimed to compare the anti-proliferative effects of G. africana on human skin cells (HaCaT) and human malignant melanoma cells (A375). The cells were exposed to various concentrations of the G. africana extract at different times. In vitro assays were employed to determine cell viability and cytotoxicity. Hoechst 33342 staining was performed to observe the nuclear changes, including apoptosis. G. africana significantly reduced the cell viability of the A375 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner, while having no effect on the HaCaT cells. The A375 cells displayed nuclear condensation, brightly stained nuclei and nuclear fragmentation indicative of apoptosis. This suggests a clinical rationale for the use of G. africana as a potential anti-melanoma agent offering efficacy and low toxicity. This study provides new insights for future work on investigating the utilization of G. africana in malignant melanoma treatment. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
The Potential Role of Lithium as an Antiviral Agent against SARS-CoV-2 via Membrane Depolarization: Review and Hypothesis
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(1), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89010011 - 15 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2509
Abstract
Studies on potential treatments of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are important to improve the global situation in the face of the pandemic. This review proposes lithium as a potential drug to treat COVID-19. Our hypothesis states that lithium can suppress NOD-like receptor family [...] Read more.
Studies on potential treatments of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are important to improve the global situation in the face of the pandemic. This review proposes lithium as a potential drug to treat COVID-19. Our hypothesis states that lithium can suppress NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activity, inhibit cell death, and exhibit immunomodulation via membrane depolarization. Our hypothesis was formulated after finding consistent correlations between these actions and membrane depolarization induced by lithium. Eventually, lithium could serve to mitigate the NLRP3-mediated cytokine storm, which is allegedly reported to be the inciting event of a series of retrogressive events associated with mortality from COVID-19. It could also inhibit cell death and modulate the immune system to attenuate its release, clear the virus from the body, and interrupt the cycle of immune-system dysregulation. Therefore, these effects are presumed to improve the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 patients. As the numbers of COVID-19 cases and deaths continue to rise exponentially without a clear consensus on potential therapeutic agents, urgent conduction of preclinical and clinical studies to prove the efficacy and safety of lithium is reasonable. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Design, Synthesis and Antibacterial Studies of Novel Cationic Amphipathic Cyclic Undecapeptides and Their Linear Counterparts against Virulent Bacterial Strains
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89010010 - 05 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1533
Abstract
Bacteria have acquired resistance against almost all antibiotics because of the misuse of antibacterial agents and long periods of treatment. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are one of the most encouraging candidates to solve this problem, as they possess high prokaryotic selectivity, and affect the [...] Read more.
Bacteria have acquired resistance against almost all antibiotics because of the misuse of antibacterial agents and long periods of treatment. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are one of the most encouraging candidates to solve this problem, as they possess high prokaryotic selectivity, and affect the bacteria by a unique mode of action. Novel cyclic undecapeptides (QNRNFYFNRNQ and QNRNFHFNRNQ) and their linear counterparts were investigated for their antibacterial activity against virulent strains. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values showed that tyrosine and histidine AMPs have promising antibacterial activity against virulent bacteria. The MIC values against the P. aeruginosa PA14, E. coli O157:H7 CR3, S. aureus 209P, and B. subtilis ATCC 6633 bacterial strains were evaluated for the cyclic peptide containing tyrosine, and their values were 6.25, 12.5, 12.5, and 12.5 µM, respectively. Meanwhile, for the linear form, they were 9.3, 12.5, 12.5, and 12.5 µM, respectively. The cyclic-peptide–containing histidines’ MIC values were 6.25, 3.1, 6.25, and 3.1 µM, respectively. Meanwhile, for the linear form, they were 3.1, 3.1, 3.1, and 6.25 µM, respectively. The antibacterial activities of the new AMPs were compared with that of gentamicin sulfate, and showed relatively higher potencies. Time-inhibition studies demonstrated the rapid antibacterial effects of the novel AMPs, which were more likely to be concentration-dependent, rather than time-dependent. At double the MIC concentration, all of the tested peptides exhibited relatively stable antibacterial effects up to 24 h, especially the peptides containing tyrosine, which showed an improved antibacterial effect. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Scientia Pharmaceutica in 2020
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89010009 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1347
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Scientia Pharmaceutica maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Article
Development and Validation of a Rapid Analytical Method for the Simultaneous Quantification of Metabolic Syndrome Drugs by HPLC-DAD Chromatography
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89010008 - 21 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1592
Abstract
Worldwide, 25% of the population suffers from metabolic syndrome (MetS). The treatment of patients with MetS regularly includes drugs prescribed simultaneously to treat several disorders that manifest at the same time, such as hypercholesterolemia, arterial hypertension, and diabetes. To the authors’ best knowledge, [...] Read more.
Worldwide, 25% of the population suffers from metabolic syndrome (MetS). The treatment of patients with MetS regularly includes drugs prescribed simultaneously to treat several disorders that manifest at the same time, such as hypercholesterolemia, arterial hypertension, and diabetes. To the authors’ best knowledge, there is no previous published analytical method for the simultaneous quantification of drugs used in the treatment of these diseases. In the present study, a rapid high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector HPLC-DAD methodology was developed for simultaneous quantification of carvedilol (CVD), telmisartan (TEL), bezafibrate (BZT), gliclazide (GZD), and glimepiride (GMP) in bulk and pharmaceutical form. The chromatographic separation of the five pharmaceuticals was achieved on a Hypersil GOLD C18 Selectivity (5 µm, 150 × 4.60 mm2) using a mobile phase of acetonitrile (50%) and 0.02 M KH2PO4, pH 3 (50%) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and at 25 °C. The total separation time was 9 min. The analytical method was validated following the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. A reproducible method was obtained with acceptable limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for CVD (0.012 and 0.035 μg mL−1), TEL (0.103 and 0.313 μg mL−1), BZT (0.025 and 0.076 μg mL−1), GZD (0.039 and 0.117 μg mL−1), and GMP (0.064 and 0.127 μg mL−1). The validated method allowed the determination of these drugs in commercial pharmaceutical products both individually and simultaneously. The present method was found to be suitable for simultaneous quantification of the five drugs that are most commonly used in the simultaneous treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Porophyllum Genus Compounds and Pharmacological Activities: A Review
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89010007 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1730
Abstract
The genus Porophyllum (family Asteraceae) is native to the western hemisphere, growing in tropical and subtropical North and South America. Mexico is an important center of diversification of the genus. Plants belong of genus Porophyllum have been used in Mexican traditional medicine to [...] Read more.
The genus Porophyllum (family Asteraceae) is native to the western hemisphere, growing in tropical and subtropical North and South America. Mexico is an important center of diversification of the genus. Plants belong of genus Porophyllum have been used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat kidney and intestinal diseases, parasitic, bacterial, and fungal infections and anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities. In this sense, several trials have been made on its chemical and in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities. These studies were carried on the extracts and isolated compounds and support most of their reported uses in folk medicine as antifungal, antileishmanial, anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and burn repair activities, and as a potential source of new class of insecticides. Bio guided phytochemical studies showed the isolation of thiophenes, terpenes and phenolics compounds, which could be responsible for the pharmacological activities. However, more pre-clinical assays that highlight the mechanisms of action of the compounds involved in pharmacological function are lacking. This review discusses the current knowledge of their chemistry, in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities carried out on the plants belonging to the Porophyllum genus. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Sedating Mechanically Ventilated COVID-19 Patients with Volatile Anesthetics: Insights on the Last-Minute Potential Weapons
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89010006 - 08 Jan 2021
Viewed by 2222
Abstract
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread globally with the number of cases exceeding seventy million. Although trials on potential treatments of COVID-19 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) are promising, the introduction of an effective therapeutic intervention seems elusive. In this review, we explored [...] Read more.
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread globally with the number of cases exceeding seventy million. Although trials on potential treatments of COVID-19 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) are promising, the introduction of an effective therapeutic intervention seems elusive. In this review, we explored the potential therapeutic role of volatile anesthetics during mechanical ventilation in the late stages of the disease. COVID-19 is thought to hit the human body via five major mechanisms: direct viral damage, immune overactivation, capillary thrombosis, loss of alveolar capillary membrane integrity, and decreased tissue oxygenation. The overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines will eventually lead to the accumulation of inflammatory cells in the lungs, which will lead to ARDS requiring mechanical ventilation. Respiratory failure resulting from ARDS is thought to be the most common cause of death in COVID-19. The literature suggests that these effects could be directly countered by using volatile anesthetics for sedation. These agents possess multiple properties that affect viral replication, immunity, and coagulation. They also have proven benefits at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels. Based on the comprehensive understanding of the literature, short-term sedation with volatile anesthetics may be beneficial in severe stages of COVID-19 ARDS and trials to study their effects should be encouraged. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Inhibitors of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 as Potential Drugs for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus—A Systematic Review of Clinical and In Vivo Preclinical Studies
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89010005 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1502
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a pathology with increasing frequency in society, being one of the main causes of death worldwide. For this reason, new therapeutic targets have been studied over the years. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is an enzyme responsible for reducing cortisone [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus is a pathology with increasing frequency in society, being one of the main causes of death worldwide. For this reason, new therapeutic targets have been studied over the years. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is an enzyme responsible for reducing cortisone to its active form cortisol, which can lead to metabolic changes such as insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Therefore, 11β-HSD1 inhibition may offer a new therapeutic approach for type 2 diabetes mellitus. This work intends to systematically review the available scientific evidence on this subject. For this, a search was conducted in three databases and 15 clinical and in vivo preclinical studies were included in this review. Despite the high inhibitory and selectivity levels achieved with several molecules and the demonstrated clinical efficacy in diabetes treatment, no phase III clinical trials have yet been conducted. This is important because the long-term effects of 11β-HSD1 inhibitors including the consequences in hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis must be evaluated. However, this enzyme remains a promising target for drug development, including due to its effectiveness in controlling various factors that constitute the metabolic syndrome and its potential for multiple indications in patients with diabetes, including wound healing and weight loss. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Triterpenic Acid Amides as a Promising Agent for Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89010004 - 29 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1441
Abstract
A series of triterpenic acid amides were synthesized incorporating a 2-ethoxy-3-phenylpropanoic acid pharmacophore fragment. The synthesized compounds were tested for their ability to improve glycemic control and to counter lipid abnormalities in C57BL/6 mice placed on a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet. Of all tested compounds, [...] Read more.
A series of triterpenic acid amides were synthesized incorporating a 2-ethoxy-3-phenylpropanoic acid pharmacophore fragment. The synthesized compounds were tested for their ability to improve glycemic control and to counter lipid abnormalities in C57BL/6 mice placed on a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet. Of all tested compounds, the dihydrobetulonic derivative (16b) had the most pronounced effect in decreasing blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), and high-density lipoproteins (HDL). All the synthesized compounds displayed a relatively safe profile in the animal studies carried out in this work. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Vaginal Administration of Contraceptives
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89010003 - 25 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1640
Abstract
While contraceptive drugs have enabled many people to decide when they want to have a baby, more than 100 million unintended pregnancies each year in the world may indicate the contraceptive requirement of many people has not been well addressed yet. The vagina [...] Read more.
While contraceptive drugs have enabled many people to decide when they want to have a baby, more than 100 million unintended pregnancies each year in the world may indicate the contraceptive requirement of many people has not been well addressed yet. The vagina is a well-established and practical route for the delivery of various pharmacological molecules, including contraceptives. This review aims to present an overview of different contraceptive methods focusing on the vaginal route of delivery for contraceptives, including current developments, discussing the potentials and limitations of the modern methods, designs, and how well each method performs for delivering the contraceptives and preventing pregnancy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Hypothesis
Uniting Electroceutical and Cosmeceutical Interventions in Combating Coronavirus Using Ԑ-Poly-l-Lysine
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89010002 - 23 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1776
Abstract
Combating the COVID-19 pandemic warrants the exploitation of all the available tools and implies a major focus on both the biological and the physical properties of the causing virus (SARS-CoV2). We hereby introduce a new prophylaxis hypothesis by decreasing the viral load in [...] Read more.
Combating the COVID-19 pandemic warrants the exploitation of all the available tools and implies a major focus on both the biological and the physical properties of the causing virus (SARS-CoV2). We hereby introduce a new prophylaxis hypothesis by decreasing the viral load in the body entrances such as the nose and the mouth using pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical preparations that incorporate viral electrostatic repulsive nanofibers fabricated from an abundant marine-derived or a fermentation product polymer; Ԑ-poly-l-lysine was prepared using the electrospinning technique. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Promising Anti-MRSA Activity of Brevibacillus sp. Isolated from Soil and Strain Improvement by UV Mutagenesis
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89010001 - 23 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1853
Abstract
Antibiotic-resistant infection is a major health problem, and a limited number of drugs are currently approved as antibiotics. Soil bacteria are promising sources in the search for novel antibiotics. The aim of the present study is to isolate and assess soil bacteria with [...] Read more.
Antibiotic-resistant infection is a major health problem, and a limited number of drugs are currently approved as antibiotics. Soil bacteria are promising sources in the search for novel antibiotics. The aim of the present study is to isolate and assess soil bacteria with anti-MRSA activity and improve their capabilities by UV mutagenesis. Soil samples from the upper south of Thailand were screened for antibacterial activity using the cross-streak method. Agar well diffusion was used to examine the activity of isolates against a spectrum of human pathogens. The most active isolate was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing, and the production kinetics and stability were investigated. The most promising isolate was mutated by UV radiation, and the resulting activity and strain stability were studied. The results show that isolates from the cross-streak method could inhibit Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 517 (94 isolates) and Escherichia coli TISTR 887 (67 isolates). Nine isolates remained active against S. aureus TISTR 517 and MRSA, and eight isolates inhibited the growth of E. coli TISTR 887 as assessed using agar well diffusion. The most active strain was Brevibacillus sp. SPR-20, which had the highest activity at 24 h of incubation. The active substances in culture supernatants exhibited more than 90% activity when subjected to treatments involving various heat, enzymes, surfactants, and pH conditions. The mutant M201 showed significantly higher activity (109.88–120.22%) and strain stability compared to the wild-type strain. In conclusion, we demonstrate that soil Brevibacillus sp. is a potential resource that can be subjected to UV mutagenesis as a useful approach for improving the production of anti-MRSA in the era of antibiotic resistance. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop