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Sci. Pharm., Volume 89, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 13 articles

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Article
The Preservation and Enantiomeric Selection of Linalool by Nanoencapsulation Using Cyclodextrins
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(3), 42; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89030042 - 03 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1452
Abstract
Linalool, a volatile terpene alcohol, is responsible for a characteristic aroma in food, beverages, and cosmetics. However, linalool’s low aqueous solubility and high volatility limit the applications and shelf life of linalool-containing products. Nanoencapsulation using beta-cyclodextrin (BCD), methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD) and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) was [...] Read more.
Linalool, a volatile terpene alcohol, is responsible for a characteristic aroma in food, beverages, and cosmetics. However, linalool’s low aqueous solubility and high volatility limit the applications and shelf life of linalool-containing products. Nanoencapsulation using beta-cyclodextrin (BCD), methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD) and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) was studied to improve the aqueous solubility and stability of linalool. Linalool has two enantiomers with distinct flavors and odors which affect product quality. The enantiomeric selectivity of the cyclodextrins (CDs) toward racemic linalool standard was evaluated. A computational simulation was performed to predict the conformations and interactions of the inclusion complexes. The 1:1 host-guest ratio from the computer simulation was implemented in the experimental study. Phase solubility study shows an improvement in linalool aqueous solubility after being encapsulated by CDs. The encapsulation efficiencies of linalool/BCD, linalool/MBCD, and linalool/HPBCD inclusion complexes are 66.30%, 51.38% and 32.31%, respectively. Nanoencapsulation by CDs can preserve linalool in the form of inclusion complexes compared to its free form. The amount of remaining linalool in linalool/BCD, linalool/MBCD, and linalool/HPBCD inclusion complexes are 89.57%, 87.07%, and 74.86%, respectively which are considerably larger than that of pure linalool (42.30%). CDs also show the enantiomeric selectivity toward (R)-linalool as evident from (R)-linalool percentage of 54.53% in the inclusion complex. Full article
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Article
Ameliorating Effect of Combined Cinnamon and Ginger Oils against the Neurotoxicity of Nicotine Administration on the Prefrontal Cortex of Adult Albino Rats: Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural Study
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(3), 41; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89030041 - 01 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1532
Abstract
Background: Nicotine is the active alkaloid in cigarettes. It was reported that tobacco smoking has many hazards; one of these hazards is the effect on the cognitive function of the prefrontal cortex. The aim of our study is to investigate the antioxidant effects [...] Read more.
Background: Nicotine is the active alkaloid in cigarettes. It was reported that tobacco smoking has many hazards; one of these hazards is the effect on the cognitive function of the prefrontal cortex. The aim of our study is to investigate the antioxidant effects of ginger, cinnamon oils, and their combination on morphological changes in the prefrontal cortex that were induced by nicotine. Materials and methods: Fifty adult male albino rats were divided into five groups: group I (control group), group II (nicotine), group III (nicotine + cinnamon), group IV (nicotine + ginger), and group V (nicotine + cinnamon + ginger). The coronal sections from the anterior part of the rat brain at the site of prefrontal cortex were examined by light microscope for (H&E and immunohistochemical staining with TNF-α and GFAP), while the ultrastructure morphology was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Levels of the oxidative stress markers (MDA, GSH) in the rats’ brain tissue homogenate were biochemically assessed. Results: Compared to the control group, the rats that were treated with nicotine (group II) showed a significant oxidative stress in the form of marked elevation of MDA and decrease in GSH, apoptotic changes especially in the pyramidal cells in the form of neuronal cell degeneration and pyknosis, and an elevation in the inflammatory marker TNF-α and GFAP expressions. These changes were observed to a lesser degree in rat group (III) and group (IV), while there was a marked improvement achieved by the combined usage of cinnamon and ginger oils, together compared to the nicotine group. Conclusions: Ginger and cinnamon are powerful antioxidants which ameliorate the degenerative and oxidative effects produced by nicotine on a rat’s prefrontal cortex. Full article
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Article
Retinal Vessel Density Changes on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Predictive Factors in Normal-Tension Glaucoma Treated with Topical Beta-Blocker
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(3), 40; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89030040 - 25 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1109
Abstract
(1) Background: Topical antiglaucoma medications may alter the microcirculation in the optic nerve head. We aimed to evaluate the changes in retinal vessel density (VD) on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in patients with newly diagnosed normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) treated with a topical [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Topical antiglaucoma medications may alter the microcirculation in the optic nerve head. We aimed to evaluate the changes in retinal vessel density (VD) on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in patients with newly diagnosed normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) treated with a topical beta-blocker. (2) Methods: This study included 80 patients diagnosed with NTG not using systemic medication, who received topical carteolol treatment between December 2019 and November 2020. We studied the changes in the OCTA VD/signal strength index (SSI) after the 6-month treatment period and determined the predictive factors affecting the changes in VD/SSI. (3) Results: After the 6-month treatment period, the peripapillary VD increased in 40 patients but decreased in the other 40 patients. The univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that old age and hypertension were significant factors associated with a VD/SSI decrease after carteolol treatment. Moreover, high baseline peripapillary, superficial, and deep macular VDs were significantly associated with the VD decrease after carteolol treatment. (4) Conclusions: Carteolol treatment could increase or decrease the VD in patients with NTG. The baseline VD, age, and hypertension could affect these VD changes. Patients with NTG and higher baseline peripapillary or macular VD, older age, and hypertension are more likely to have a decreased VD after carteolol treatment. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Wheatgrass Lyophilizate on Blood Clotting Time in Rats
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(3), 39; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89030039 - 20 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1746
Abstract
Wheatgrass is widely used in the alternative medicine, however, there is a lack of clinical evidence to support its efficacy. Although based on its chemical composition, data from animal experiments and clinical trials, the use of juice and extracts of Triticum shoots seems [...] Read more.
Wheatgrass is widely used in the alternative medicine, however, there is a lack of clinical evidence to support its efficacy. Although based on its chemical composition, data from animal experiments and clinical trials, the use of juice and extracts of Triticum shoots seems to be safe, clinical reports point out its potential interaction with oral anticoagulants. The aim of our study was to assess the interaction of wheatgrass with warfarin in rats and to assess its flavonoid content. Three groups of animals were treated orally with wheatgrass, warfarin, or the combination of wheatgrass and warfarin for five days. Clotting assays were performed using platelet-poor plasma. Prothrombin time was determined by optical and mechanical coagulometers. Flavonoid content of wheatgrass was measured by HPLC. The effect of wheatgrass on prothrombin time was not confirmed. Co-administration of wheatgrass and warfarin did not result in diminished anticoagulant activity. Low amount of flavonoids was detected in wheatgrass juice, the total flavonoid content was 0.467 mg/100 g lyophilized juice powder. The previously reported rutin, quercetin and apigenin was not detected by us. Our results do not confirm the probability of interaction of wheatgrass with oral anticoagulants. However, the low flavonoid content of wheatgrass does not support its use as an antioxidant. Full article
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Article
Bioinformatics Analysis Confirms the Target Protein Underlying Mitotic Catastrophe of 4T1 Cells under Combinatorial Treatment of PGV-1 and Galangin
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(3), 38; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89030038 - 10 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1589
Abstract
Pentagamavunon-1 (PGV-1), a potential chemopreventive agent with a strong cytotoxic effect, modulates prometaphase arrest. Improvement to get higher effectiveness of PGV-1 is a new challenge. A previous study reported that the natural compound, galangin, has antiproliferative activity against cancer cells with a lower [...] Read more.
Pentagamavunon-1 (PGV-1), a potential chemopreventive agent with a strong cytotoxic effect, modulates prometaphase arrest. Improvement to get higher effectiveness of PGV-1 is a new challenge. A previous study reported that the natural compound, galangin, has antiproliferative activity against cancer cells with a lower cytotoxicity effect. This study aims to develop a combinatorial treatment of PGV-1 and galangin as an anticancer agent with higher effectiveness than a single agent. In this study, 4T1, a TNBC model cell, was treated with a combination of PGV-1 and galangin. As a result, PGV-1 and galangin showed a cytotoxic effect with IC50 values of 8 and 120 µM, respectively. Combining those chemicals has a synergistic impact, as shown by the combination index (CI) value of 1. Staining with the May Grunwald-Giemsa reagent indicated mitotic catastrophe evidence, characterized by micronuclear and multinucleated morphology. Moreover, the senescence percentage was higher than the single treatment. Furthermore, bioinformatics investigations showed that PGV-1 and galangin target CDK1, PLK1, and AURKB, overexpression proteins in TNBC that are essential in regulating cell cycle arrest. In conclusion, the combination of PGV-1 and galangin exhibit a synergistic effect and potential to be a chemotherapeutic drug by the mechanism of mitotic catastrophe and senescence induction. Full article
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Article
Pharmacological Activity and Phytochemical Profile of Acacia Heartwood Extracts
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(3), 37; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89030037 - 04 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1569
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are related to several degenerative diseases. In this study, Acacia, a genus with many fast-growing species, was investigated to explore the many phytochemical compounds that are biologically active in processes dealing with ROS-related diseases. This study aimed to [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are related to several degenerative diseases. In this study, Acacia, a genus with many fast-growing species, was investigated to explore the many phytochemical compounds that are biologically active in processes dealing with ROS-related diseases. This study aimed to select extracts of Acacia heartwood on the basis of their pharmacological and phytochemical profiles and identify their bioactive compounds. Five methanolic extracts from Acacia heartwood were evaluated for their antioxidant activity using three different in vitro assays: toxicity toward Artemia salina and phenolic and polyphenolic content. Multivariate analysis was conducted to select two promising extracts and then their bioactive compounds were identified using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Acacia crassicarpa extracts showed the highest antioxidant activity, as well as phenolic and hydrolyzable tannin contents, but low toxicity. The A. mangium extract exhibited high flavonoid and condensed tannin content, whereas A. decurrrens had the highest toxicity with low antioxidant activity. Pearson’s correlation analysis demonstrated no correlation between antioxidant activity and toxicity. Moreover, the phytochemical profile exhibited an association with pharmacological parameters. Principal component analysis followed by cluster analysis divided the extracts into three clusters. Two heartwood extracts of A. crassicarpa and A. auriculiformis were chosen as the best extracts. Identification showed that these extracts were dominated by phenolic compounds, as well as anthraquinone and xanthone. Full article
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Article
Enhancement of Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activities of Standardized Frankincense Extract Using Optimized Self-Nanoemulsifying Delivery System
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(3), 36; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89030036 - 02 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1993
Abstract
Boswellic acids (BAs) are the main bioactive compounds of frankincense, a natural resin obtained from the genus Boswellia. This study aimed to develop a self-nanoemulsifying delivery system (SNEDS) to improve the antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of standardized frankincense extract (Fr-extract). Fr-extract was [...] Read more.
Boswellic acids (BAs) are the main bioactive compounds of frankincense, a natural resin obtained from the genus Boswellia. This study aimed to develop a self-nanoemulsifying delivery system (SNEDS) to improve the antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of standardized frankincense extract (Fr-extract). Fr-extract was standardized, and BA content was quantified using the developed HPLC-UV method. Screening studies of excipients followed by formula optimization using a mixture simplex lattice design was employed. The optimized Fr-SENDS formulation was characterized. Furthermore, microbiological and antiproliferative assessments of the standardized Fr-extract and Fr-SNEDS were evaluated. Quantification demonstrated that the major constituent is 11-keto-boswellic acid (KBA) (16.25%) among BA content (44.96%). The optimized Fr-SENDS (composed of 5% CapryolTM 90, 48.7% Gelucire® 44/14 and 46.3% ethanol) showed spherical nanosized dispersions with DS, PDI, and zeta potential of 17.9 nm, 0.2, and −14.5 mV, respectively. Fr-SNEDS exhibited lower MIC and MBC values compared with Fr-extract against pathogens conjugated with lung cancer and was comparable to reference antimicrobials. Fr-SNEDS showed superior antiproliferative activity over Fr-extract, with IC50 values of 20.49 and 109.5 μg mL−1, respectively. In conclusion, the optimized Fr-SNEDS could be easily developed and manufactured at a low cost and the in vitro results support its use as a potential adjuvant oral therapy for lung cancer. Further in vivo studies could be continued to assess the therapeutic efficiency of the prepared system. Full article
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Article
Mucoadhesion and Mucopenetration of Cannabidiol (CBD)-Loaded Mesoporous Carrier Systems for Buccal Drug Delivery
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(3), 35; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89030035 - 02 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1645
Abstract
Transmucosal drug delivery represents a promising noninvasive option when drugs are employed which have a low oral bioavailability like CBD. However, this concept can only be successful as long as the formulation provides sufficient buccal retention and mucosal penetration. In this study, mucoadhesive [...] Read more.
Transmucosal drug delivery represents a promising noninvasive option when drugs are employed which have a low oral bioavailability like CBD. However, this concept can only be successful as long as the formulation provides sufficient buccal retention and mucosal penetration. In this study, mucoadhesive carrier systems were evaluated consisting of CBD-loaded silica (Aeroperl 300) carriers, mucoadhesive polymers (Hypromellose (HPMC), chitosan and carbomer) and propylene glycol as a penetration enhancer. Mucoadhesive effect, drug release and penetration ability were evaluated for each carrier system. The results show that the addition of HPMC and carbomer substantially improve mucoadhesion compared to pure CBD, with an increase of 16-fold and 20-fold, respectively. However, due to their strong swelling, HPMC and carbomer hinder the penetration of CBD and rely on co-administration of propylene glycol as an enhancer to achieve sufficient mucosal absorption. Chitosan, on the other hand, achieves an 8-fold increase in mucoadhesion and enhances the amount of CBD absorbed by three times compared to pure CBD. Thus, chitosan represents a promising polymer to combine both effects. Considering the results, the development of silica-based buccal drug delivery systems is a promising approach for the effective delivery of CBD. Full article
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Review
The Chemistry and Pharmacology of Fungal Genus Periconia: A Review
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(3), 34; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89030034 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1833
Abstract
Periconia is filamentous fungi belonging to the Periconiaceae family, and over the last 50 years, the genus has shown interest in natural product exploration for pharmacological purposes. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the different species of Periconia containing natural products such as [...] Read more.
Periconia is filamentous fungi belonging to the Periconiaceae family, and over the last 50 years, the genus has shown interest in natural product exploration for pharmacological purposes. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the different species of Periconia containing natural products such as terpenoids, polyketides, cytochalasan, macrosphelides, cyclopentenes, aromatic compounds, and carbohydrates carbasugar derivates. The isolated compound of this kind, which was reported in 1969, consisted of polyketide derivatives and their structures and was determined by chemical reaction and spectroscopic methods. After some years, 77 compounds isolated from endophytic fungus Periconia were associated with eight plant species, 28 compounds from sea hare Aplysia kurodai, and ten from endolichenic fungi Parmelia sp. The potent pharmacological agents from this genus are periconicin A, which acts as an antimicrobial, pericochlorosin B as an anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), peribysin D, and pericosine A as cytotoxic agents, and periconianone A as an anti-inflammatory agent. Furthermore, information about taxol and piperine from Periconia producing species was also provided. Therefore, this study supports discovering new drugs produced by the Periconia species and compares them for future drug development. Full article
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Article
The Optimization of a Dimenhydrinate Transdermal Patch Formulation Based on the Quantitative Analysis of In Vitro Release Data by DDSolver through Skin Penetration Studies
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(3), 33; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89030033 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2006
Abstract
Dimenhydrinate is an over-the-counter medication that is used to relieve nausea, vomiting, and vertigo caused by motion sickness. It has a short elimination half-life, possibly due to its first-pass metabolism. The current study aimed to prepare and evaluate new transdermal formulations of dimenhydrinate [...] Read more.
Dimenhydrinate is an over-the-counter medication that is used to relieve nausea, vomiting, and vertigo caused by motion sickness. It has a short elimination half-life, possibly due to its first-pass metabolism. The current study aimed to prepare and evaluate new transdermal formulations of dimenhydrinate to prolong the drug’s release and improve its cutaneous permeation. First, the patches were fabricated and evaluated to determine their properties. The results were statistically investigated and considered significant at the p < 0.05 level. Additionally, the quantitative analysis of the drug-release data and kinetic modeling was performed by using the DDSolver software to decide the candidate formula dependably. The effect of the penetration enhancers on the permeability of dimenhydrinate from the selected patch was then studied ex vivo compared to the control sample, and the patch’s safety was evaluated in rabbits, using the skin-irritation test. Full article
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Article
Cumulative Risks of Excipients in Pediatric Phytomucolytic Syrups: The Implications for Pharmacy Practice
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(3), 32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89030032 - 05 Jul 2021
Viewed by 2066
Abstract
Expectorant phytomucolytic syrups are widely used pediatric OTC-medicines. Physicians, pediatricians, and pharmacists are traditionally concerned with the efficacy of the active ingredients in cough syrups, and rarely consider the safety aspects of excipients that however are not absolutely “inactive” and are proved to [...] Read more.
Expectorant phytomucolytic syrups are widely used pediatric OTC-medicines. Physicians, pediatricians, and pharmacists are traditionally concerned with the efficacy of the active ingredients in cough syrups, and rarely consider the safety aspects of excipients that however are not absolutely “inactive” and are proved to initiate some negative reactions and interactions with other drugs. This paper presents a review, categorization, and comparative analysis of the safety profile of excipients contained in the 22 best-selling OTC pediatric phytomucolytic syrups available in pharmaceutical markets in Ukraine and Germany and proposes an approach to the consideration of the excipients’ safety risks for a pharmacist in the process of pharmaceutical care. The study has revealed that only one of the twenty-two analyzed syrups does not contain any potentially harmful excipients. The results of this analysis were used for developing a specific decision tool for pharmacists that can be used for minimizing excipient-initiated reactions when delivering OTC phytomucolytic syrups for children. Full article
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Article
Antibacterial, Antibiofilm, and Antischistosomal Activity of Montrichardia linifera (Arruda) Schott (Araceae) Leaf Extracts
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(3), 31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89030031 - 05 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1997
Abstract
With a broad ethnopharmacological tradition in Brazil, Montrichardia linifera has been reported as a potent antirheumatic, antimicrobial, and antiprotozoan agent. However, there is a lack of studies on its effect on bacterial biofilm formation and Schistosoma mansoni worms. This study reports the effects [...] Read more.
With a broad ethnopharmacological tradition in Brazil, Montrichardia linifera has been reported as a potent antirheumatic, antimicrobial, and antiprotozoan agent. However, there is a lack of studies on its effect on bacterial biofilm formation and Schistosoma mansoni worms. This study reports the effects of antibacterial, antibiofilm, and antischistosomal properties of leaf extracts of M. linifera. Phytochemical screening and identification of the main compounds of the extracts were performed. All the extracts evaluated showed antibacterial activity at the concentrations tested. We checked for the presence of flavonoids and derivatives of phenolic acids by the presence of spectra with bands characteristic of these classes in the sample analyzed. The antibacterial assays showed that the best MICs corresponded to 125 µg/mL against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 in all fractions. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts showed the ability to inhibit biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25123. For the antischistosomal activity, only the acetone and ethyl acetate extracts had a significant effect against helminths, with potent activity at a concentration of 50 µg/mL, killing 100% of the worms after 72 h of incubation. The M. linifera leaf extracts showed antibacterial activity, biofilm inhibition capacity, and anthelmintic activity against S. mansoni. Full article
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Article
A Comprehensive Spectroscopic Analysis of the Ibuprofen Binding with Human Serum Albumin, Part II
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(3), 30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/scipharm89030030 - 22 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1980
Abstract
Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant human plasma protein. HSA plays a crucial role in many binding endos- and exogenous substances, which affects their pharmacological effect. The innovative aspect of the study is not only the interaction of fatted (HSA) and [...] Read more.
Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant human plasma protein. HSA plays a crucial role in many binding endos- and exogenous substances, which affects their pharmacological effect. The innovative aspect of the study is not only the interaction of fatted (HSA) and defatted (dHSA) human serum albumin with ibuprofen (IBU), but the analysis of the influence of temperature on the structural modifications of albumin and the interaction between the drug and proteins from the temperature characteristic of near hypothermia (308 K) to the temperature reflecting inflammation in the body (312 K and 314 K). Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. IBU is used to relieve acute pain, inflammation, and fever. To determine ibuprofen’s binding site in the tertiary structure of HSA and dHSA, fluorescence spectroscopy was used. On its basis, the fluorescent emissive spectra of albumin (5 × 10−6 mol/dm3) without and with the presence of ibuprofen (1 × 10−5–1 × 10−4 mol/dm3) was recorded. The IBU-HSA complex’s fluorescence was excited by radiation of wavelengths of λex 275 nm and λex 295 nm. Spectrophotometric spectroscopy allowed for recording the absorbance spectra (zero-order and second derivative absorption spectra) of HSA and dHSA under the influence of ibuprofen (1 × 10−4 mol/dm3). To characterize the changes of albumin structure the presence of IBU, circular dichroism was used. The data obtained show that the presence of fatty acids and human serum albumin temperature influences the strength and type of interaction between serum albumin and drug. Ibuprofen binds more strongly to defatted human serum albumin than to albumin in the presence of fatty acids. Additionally, stronger complexes are formed with increasing temperatures. The competitive binding of ibuprofen and fatty acids to albumin may influence the concentration of free drug fraction and thus its therapeutic effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Scientia Pharmaceutica)
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