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Article

Socioeconomic and Environmental Impacts on Regional Tourism across Chinese Cities: A Spatiotemporal Heterogeneous Perspective

1
State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, School of Geoscience and Technology, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System (LREIS), Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
3
HEOA Group, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
4
Institute for Healthy Cities and West China Research Center for Rural Health Development, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
Academic Editors: Andrea Marchetti and Angelica Lo Duca
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(6), 410; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10060410
Received: 29 April 2021 / Revised: 9 June 2021 / Accepted: 10 June 2021 / Published: 14 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo Data Science for Tourism)
Understanding geospatial impacts of multi-sourced drivers on the tourism industry is of great significance for formulating tourism development policies tailored to regional-specific needs. To date, no research in China has explored the combined impacts of socioeconomic and environmental drivers on city-level tourism from a spatiotemporal heterogeneous perspective. We collected the total tourism revenue indicator and 30 potential influencing factors from 343 cities across China during 2008–2017. Three mainstream regressions and an emerging local spatiotemporal regression named the Bayesian spatiotemporally varying coefficients (Bayesian STVC) model were constructed to investigate the global-scale stationary and local-scale spatiotemporal nonstationary relationships between city-level tourism and various vital drivers. The Bayesian STVC model achieved the best model performance. Globally, eight socioeconomic and environmental factors, average wage (coefficient: 0.47, 95% credible intervals: 0.43–0.51), employed population (−0.14, −0.17–−0.11), GDP per capita (0.47, 0.42–0.52), population density (0.21, 0.16–0.27), night-time light index (−0.01, −0.08–0.05), slope (0.10, 0.06–0.14), vegetation index (0.66, 0.63–0.70), and road network density (0.34, 0.29–0.38), were identified to have nonlinear effects on tourism. Temporally, the main drivers might have gradually changed from the local macro-economic level, population density, and natural environment conditions to the individual economic level over the last decade. Spatially, city-specific dynamic maps of tourism development and geographically clustered influencing maps for eight drivers were produced. In 2017, China formed four significant city-level tourism industry clusters (hot spots, 90% confidence), the locations of which coincide with China’s top four urban agglomerations. Our local spatiotemporal analysis framework for geographical tourism data is expected to provide insights into adjusting regional measures to local conditions and temporal variations in broader social and natural sciences. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chinese regional tourism; socioeconomic and environmental drivers; spatiotemporal influencing factors; spatiotemporal estimation mapping; Bayesian STVC model; spatiotemporal nonstationary regression; geographical data modeling analysis Chinese regional tourism; socioeconomic and environmental drivers; spatiotemporal influencing factors; spatiotemporal estimation mapping; Bayesian STVC model; spatiotemporal nonstationary regression; geographical data modeling analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, X.; Song, C.; Wang, C.; Yang, Y.; Ren, Z.; Xie, M.; Tang, Z.; Tang, H. Socioeconomic and Environmental Impacts on Regional Tourism across Chinese Cities: A Spatiotemporal Heterogeneous Perspective. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10, 410. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10060410

AMA Style

Zhang X, Song C, Wang C, Yang Y, Ren Z, Xie M, Tang Z, Tang H. Socioeconomic and Environmental Impacts on Regional Tourism across Chinese Cities: A Spatiotemporal Heterogeneous Perspective. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2021; 10(6):410. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10060410

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Xu, Chao Song, Chengwu Wang, Yili Yang, Zhoupeng Ren, Mingyu Xie, Zhangying Tang, and Honghu Tang. 2021. "Socioeconomic and Environmental Impacts on Regional Tourism across Chinese Cities: A Spatiotemporal Heterogeneous Perspective" ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 10, no. 6: 410. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10060410

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