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Int. J. Financial Stud., Volume 10, Issue 1 (March 2022) – 22 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Markowitz’s mean-variance model for portfolio optimization has come under constant criticism, primarily due to the fact that the adequacy of using variance as a measure of risk and the importance of correlation coefficients at the time of market decline are questionable. Based on the tools provided by game theory, it is possible to form a model that only measures downside risk and has theoretical advantages. However, empirical ones need to be considered. If we observe weekly returns of stocks in the European capital market over the period 2000–2020, including three bear market periods and including the period of market decline during the COVID-19 crisis, we can obtain an answer. View this paper
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Article
Financial Regulation, Financial Inclusion and Competitiveness in the Banking Sector in SADC and SAARC Countries: The Moderating Role of Financial Stability
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2022, 10(1), 22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs10010022 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1033
Abstract
Financial inclusion is a widely used measure to improve the living standards of households and foster inclusive economic growth. Thus, financial inclusion is one of the main policy objectives in developing countries. Besides, financial regulation (capital adequacy requirement) is a policy measure used [...] Read more.
Financial inclusion is a widely used measure to improve the living standards of households and foster inclusive economic growth. Thus, financial inclusion is one of the main policy objectives in developing countries. Besides, financial regulation (capital adequacy requirement) is a policy measure used to ensure financial stability. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of financial regulation on competitiveness and financial inclusion in 15 countries in the SADC (Southern Africa Development Community) region and 8 countries in the SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) region over the period 2005–2018. The result of Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS) estimation suggests that financial regulation reduces competitiveness and hampers financial inclusion in the banking sector in the two regions. Furthermore, we find that financial stability moderates the negative effect of financial regulation on competitiveness and financial inclusion, meaning that financially stable banks remain competitive and normally offer financial products and services even if strong capital adequacy requirements are implemented. Additionally, we find that competitiveness increases financial inclusion in countries in the SADC region. The policy implication of this study focuses on regulatory flexibility to preserve the need for greater financial inclusion in the two regions. As for the practical implication, the study calls for strategic measures to preserve stability such as complementing financial inclusion with financial literacy, fostering corporate governance. Full article
Article
Examining Risk Absorption Capacity as a Mediating Factor in the Relationship between Cognition and Neuroplasticity in Investors in Investment Decision Making
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2022, 10(1), 21; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs10010021 - 16 Mar 2022
Viewed by 890
Abstract
The encouragement of potential investors who are emotionally broken by past losses and market experiences is crucial to the sustainable flow of funds to the stock market. This can be established by building a knowledge-creating mechanism among investors in their cognitive dimensions, which, [...] Read more.
The encouragement of potential investors who are emotionally broken by past losses and market experiences is crucial to the sustainable flow of funds to the stock market. This can be established by building a knowledge-creating mechanism among investors in their cognitive dimensions, which, in turn, can develop their risk-bearing potential to reach the optimum level so that emotionally broken investors can use their cognitive abilities with their developed risk-absorption potential to further invest in the market in the near future. This study investigates the mediating effect of risk-absorption attitudes in the relationship between cognition and neuroplasticity in investors. Data for the study collected from 506 individual retail investors’ samples using a stratified random sampling technique were analyzed through covariance-based structural equation modeling. The findings of the study indicate that the constructs, viz., the investors’ cognition, risk absorption, and neuroplasticity, are valid and reliable. The structural model also supports the notion that risk absorption mediates the relationship between the investors’ cognition and neuroplasticity. The outcomes of the study are expected to aid in the policy formulation for equity-related financial product marketers, such as depository participants, brokers, mutual funds and SIP institutions, and to help in healing psychological trauma that potential investors suffered from due to losses in the past and overcoming reluctances to further invest in stock markets. The investors’ terrible psychological health developed because of past loss experience can be restored through the concept of neuroplasticity, in which different cognitive dimensions are used, while also enhancing risk absorption in potential investors. Full article
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Article
Efficient Asset Allocation: Application of Game Theory-Based Model for Superior Performance
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2022, 10(1), 20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs10010020 - 09 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
In this paper, we compared the models for selecting the optimal portfolio based on different risk measures to identify the periods in which some of the risk measures dominated over others. For decades, the best known return-risk model has been Markowitz’s mean-variance model. [...] Read more.
In this paper, we compared the models for selecting the optimal portfolio based on different risk measures to identify the periods in which some of the risk measures dominated over others. For decades, the best known return-risk model has been Markowitz’s mean-variance model. Based on the criticism of the classical Markowitz model, a whole series of risk measures and models for selecting the optimal portfolio have been developed, which are divided into two groups: symmetrical and downside risk measures. Based on the tools provided by game theory, we presented a minimax model for selecting the optimal portfolio based on the maximum loss as a measure of risk. Recent research has shown the adequacy of the application of this risk measure and its dominance concerning variance in certain circumstances. Theoretically, the model based on maximum loss as a measure of risk relies on a much smaller number of assumptions that must be satisfied. In the empirical part of the paper, we analyzed the real return performance, structure, correlation, stability, and predictive efficiency of the model based on maximum loss return as a measure of risk and compared it with the other famous models to determine whether the maximum loss-based risk measure model is more suitable for use in certain circumstances than conventional return-risk models. We compared portfolios created based on different models over the period of 2000–2020 from a selected sample of stocks that are components of the STOXX Europe 600 index, which covers 90% of the free market capitalization in the European capital market. The observed period included 3 bear market periods, including the period of market decline during the COVID-19 crisis. Our analysis showed that there was no significant difference in portfolio returns depending on the selected model using the “buy-and-hold” strategy, but there were crisis periods. The results showed a significantly higher stability of portfolios selected on the criterion of minimizing the maximum loss than others. In periods of market decline, this portfolio achieved the best performance and had a shorter recovery period than others. This allowed superior use of the minimax model at least for investors with a pronounced risk aversion. Full article
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Article
Real Earnings Management, Firm Value, and Corporate Governance: Evidence from the Korean Market
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2022, 10(1), 19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs10010019 - 04 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1142
Abstract
In this study, we investigate whether effective corporate governance (CG) intervenes in the relationship between real earnings management (REM) and firm value (FV) by introducing Korean market data. We find that management’s opportunistic REM behavior is no longer effective for firms characterized by [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigate whether effective corporate governance (CG) intervenes in the relationship between real earnings management (REM) and firm value (FV) by introducing Korean market data. We find that management’s opportunistic REM behavior is no longer effective for firms characterized by strong CG. More importantly, our interaction and robustness analyses show evidence indicating that CG plays an effective monitoring role in preventing management from engaging in opportunistic REM activities, and FV ceases to experience the decrease associated with REM activities as a consequence. Full article
Article
South African Banks’ Cross-Border Systemic Risk Exposure: An Application of the GAS Copula Marginal Expected Shortfall
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2022, 10(1), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs10010018 - 03 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1020
Abstract
Systemic susceptibility highlights the extent to which a banking sector is sensitive to negative shocks. Policymakers and regulators’ objective is to avoid financial crises, and even though they can somewhat control local conditions, internationally transmitted crises are difficult to tackle. This paper analyzes [...] Read more.
Systemic susceptibility highlights the extent to which a banking sector is sensitive to negative shocks. Policymakers and regulators’ objective is to avoid financial crises, and even though they can somewhat control local conditions, internationally transmitted crises are difficult to tackle. This paper analyzes the cross-border systemic risk exposure of South African banks. The marginal expected shortfall is employed with data covering 2002 to 2020. The results show that South African banks are significantly prone to crises emanating beyond the country’s borders. The findings confirm the existence of a significant transfer of risk from other countries to South Africa’s banking sector. Moreover, the amount of foreign capital invested in a bank is found to be a strong predictor of a bank’s international exposure. Knowledge of the linkages that the banking system has with other countries, and how cross-border exposures endanger banks, will form a basis for regulations that ensure a safer financial system. Full article
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Article
What Do the Consequences of Environmental, Social and Governance Failures Tell Us about the Motivations for Corporate Social Responsibility?
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2022, 10(1), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs10010017 - 01 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1095
Abstract
This paper investigates the motivations behind corporate social responsibility (CSR) by considering the consequences of environmental, social and governance (ESG) failures that CSR is intended to avoid. Using data from 2581 public U.S. firms over 2007–2018, this paper finds that such failures are [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the motivations behind corporate social responsibility (CSR) by considering the consequences of environmental, social and governance (ESG) failures that CSR is intended to avoid. Using data from 2581 public U.S. firms over 2007–2018, this paper finds that such failures are associated with increased CEO turnover. This relationship is driven primarily by CEOs with longer tenures and by environmental issues. These negative events are also found to be associated with declines in the firm’s sales growth, employment growth and equity returns. CSR activities that reduce the incidence of such events therefore benefit both the CEO and the shareholder. Interestingly, replacing the CEO does not mitigate the negative impacts of such events on the firm, nor does it reduce the incidence of such events in subsequent years. The decision to remove the CEO following such failures appears costly to both the CEO and the firm’s shareholders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Corporate Social Responsibility)
Article
Equity Carve-Outs, Dual Directors, and Internal Labor Markets
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2022, 10(1), 16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs10010016 - 23 Feb 2022
Viewed by 942
Abstract
Given the prevalence of dual directors who serve simultaneously on the parent as well as the subsidiary board, it is important to examine their functions, a topic largely ignored in the existing literature. Exploring the functions of dual directors highlights equity carve-out objectives [...] Read more.
Given the prevalence of dual directors who serve simultaneously on the parent as well as the subsidiary board, it is important to examine their functions, a topic largely ignored in the existing literature. Exploring the functions of dual directors highlights equity carve-out objectives other than strategic refocusing. To examine our hypothesis, we first conducted an event study to examine stock market reaction to carve-out decisions. In addition, we compared subsidiaries’ performance after carve-outs between firms with dual directors and their matching firms based on the propensity score. We find evidence that the Japanese stock market reacts positively to the presence of dual directors who hold CEO positions in carve-out subsidiaries, especially when they are relatively young. Additionally, we find that carve-out subsidiaries led by young dual directors tend to outperform their matched counterparts in the long run. In contrast, when dual directors do not hold the CEO position, we find no evidence of the stock market reacting positively to them. The results of this study suggest that young CEOs appointed from the internal labor markets care more about long-term reputation, and can enhance shareholder wealth of both parent and subsidiary firms. Full article
Article
Gender Diversity on the Board and Firms’ Corporate Social Responsibility
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2022, 10(1), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs10010015 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1403
Abstract
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has progressively assumed a strategic role in corporate business. In this sense, the board of directors (Board) assumes a preponderant role, since they make decisions about business strategy. One considerably debated characteristic of Board diversity is gender, since women [...] Read more.
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has progressively assumed a strategic role in corporate business. In this sense, the board of directors (Board) assumes a preponderant role, since they make decisions about business strategy. One considerably debated characteristic of Board diversity is gender, since women differ from men in terms of personality, communication style, and values. Therefore, this study analyzes the relationship between CSR and gender diversity on Boards, in a sample of European public firms. Results indicate that firms with a higher percentage of women in the Board have higher CSR practices, suggesting that the presence of women can play an important role in terms of CSR decisions, contributing to more social and sustainable firms. Results also suggest that management teams with a higher female percentage associate with better CSR scores, and firms that exhibit both a higher percentage of women on the Board and on the management team improve CSR scores. From an ethical perspective, more socially responsible firms present more trustworthy financial information, and more sustainable economic performance, which decreases risk assessment from their business partners and remaining stakeholders. Thus, results may be of interest to different stakeholders, such as policymakers, investors, and business partners, in order to increase firms’ involvement in CSR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity in Global Finance)
Article
Do ADR Firms Have Different Dividend Policies Than U.S. Firms? A Comparative Study
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2022, 10(1), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs10010014 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 899
Abstract
This paper examines and compares the dividend policies of American depository receipt (ADR) firms and U.S. firms and identifies the factors that determine these policies for both types of companies. We find that ADR firms have higher dividend yields than U.S. firms, while [...] Read more.
This paper examines and compares the dividend policies of American depository receipt (ADR) firms and U.S. firms and identifies the factors that determine these policies for both types of companies. We find that ADR firms have higher dividend yields than U.S. firms, while U.S. firms have higher stock repurchase ratios than ADR firms. Results from univariate comparisons and multivariate analysis show that the determining factors of dividend payout and stock repurchases differ between these two types of firms. This finding holds for the robustness check conducted in this study. This paper provides further evidence regarding dividend policies of ADR firms and sheds light on the differences in dividend policies between non-U.S. firm and U.S. firms. Full article
Article
Intraday Patterns of Liquidity on the Warsaw Stock Exchange before and after the Outbreak of the COVID-19 Pandemic
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2022, 10(1), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs10010013 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1062
Abstract
A highly significant feature of the stock market is its efficiency, which is associated with information efficiency. However, the liquidity of stock on the market is its essential characteristic. The inflow of information in highly liquid markets allows for the maintenance of high [...] Read more.
A highly significant feature of the stock market is its efficiency, which is associated with information efficiency. However, the liquidity of stock on the market is its essential characteristic. The inflow of information in highly liquid markets allows for the maintenance of high information efficiency. The COVID-19 pandemic affected many aspects related to stock markets, including their liquidity. The impact of the pandemic is so multidimensional that there are still areas that need to be investigated. One of them is the intraday liquidity patterns on the stock markets. Therefore, the present paper aims to verify the existence of intraday liquidity patterns on the Warsaw Stock Exchange in three periods: before, during and after the panic caused by the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results confirmed the existence of a U-shaped intraday distribution of the number of transactions and their trading. This outcome highlights the importance of the first and last minutes of a trading session. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the domination of WSE transactions of small individual investors who feared the loss of value of their assets, selling them on the stock exchange. In the pandemic, the average percentage change between transactions increased. Full article
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Article
Towards Money Market in General Equilibrium Framework
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2022, 10(1), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs10010012 - 10 Feb 2022
Viewed by 917
Abstract
This paper aims to integrate the money market into the structure of the economy. The microfoundation is the starting point to define the money market and the general equilibrium mechanism of the economy. On this basis, this research seeks a linking mechanism of [...] Read more.
This paper aims to integrate the money market into the structure of the economy. The microfoundation is the starting point to define the money market and the general equilibrium mechanism of the economy. On this basis, this research seeks a linking mechanism of the money market with economic activity in the general equilibrium framework. The relationships between money supply and national outcome, inflation, and price level are studied in three cases: full-employment equilibrium economy, steady-state equilibrium economy, and sticky-price equilibrium economy. The research result explains the interrelation and transmission mechanism between the money market and the general equilibrium of the economy. The paper provides the theoretical foundation for further research on the money market and monetary policies towards economic growth and macroeconomic stability. Full article
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of International Journal of Financial Studies in 2021
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2022, 10(1), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs10010011 - 28 Jan 2022
Viewed by 866
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Article
Bootstrapping Time-Varying Uncertainty Intervals for Extreme Daily Return Periods
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2022, 10(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs10010010 - 27 Jan 2022
Viewed by 799
Abstract
This study aims to overcome the problem of dimensionality, accurate estimation, and forecasting Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) uncertainty intervals in high frequency data. A Bayesian bootstrapping and backtest density forecasts, which are based on a weighted threshold and quantile of a [...] Read more.
This study aims to overcome the problem of dimensionality, accurate estimation, and forecasting Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) uncertainty intervals in high frequency data. A Bayesian bootstrapping and backtest density forecasts, which are based on a weighted threshold and quantile of a continuously ranked probability score, are developed. Developed backtesting procedures revealed that an estimated Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average-generalized autoregressive score-generalized extreme value distribution (SARIMA–GAS–GEVD) with a skewed student-t distribution had the best prediction performance in forecasting and bootstrapping VaR and ES. Extension of this non-stationary distribution in literature is quite complicated since it requires specifications not only on how the usual Bayesian parameters change over time but also those with bulk distribution components. This implies that the combination of a stochastic econometric model with extreme value theory (EVT) procedures provides a robust basis necessary for the statistical backtesting and bootstrapping density predictions for VaR and ES. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantitative Finance)
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Article
Portfolio Constraints: An Empirical Analysis
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2022, 10(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs10010009 - 20 Jan 2022
Viewed by 990
Abstract
Mean-variance optimization often leads to unreasonable asset allocations. This problem has forced scholars and practitioners alike to introduce portfolio constraints. The scope of our study is to verify which type of constraint is more suitable for achieving efficient performance. We have applied the [...] Read more.
Mean-variance optimization often leads to unreasonable asset allocations. This problem has forced scholars and practitioners alike to introduce portfolio constraints. The scope of our study is to verify which type of constraint is more suitable for achieving efficient performance. We have applied the main techniques developed by the financial community, including classical weight, flexible, norm-based, variance-based, tracking error volatility, and beta constraints. We employed panel data on the monthly returns of the sector indices forming the MSCI All Country World Index from January 1995 to December 2020. The assessment of each strategy was based on out-of-sample performance, measured using a rolling window method with annual rebalancing. We observed that the best strategies are those subject to constraints derived from the equal-weighted model. If the goal is the best compromise between absolute return, efficiency, total risk, economic sustainability, diversification, and ease of implementation, the best solution is a portfolio subject to no short selling and bound either to the equal weighting or to TEV limits. Overall, we found that constrained optimization models represent an efficient alternative to classic investment strategies that provide substantial advantages to investors. Full article
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Article
Effect of Religiosity, Perceived Risk, and Attitude on Tax Compliant Intention Moderated by e-Filing
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2022, 10(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs10010008 - 06 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1024
Abstract
This research examined the effect of Religiosity, Perceived Risk, and Attitude on Tax Compliant Intention, moderated by e-Filing. This research used a quantitative approach which involved the Structural Equation Model (SEM). Large taxpayers are generally in the form of agencies and individuals, so [...] Read more.
This research examined the effect of Religiosity, Perceived Risk, and Attitude on Tax Compliant Intention, moderated by e-Filing. This research used a quantitative approach which involved the Structural Equation Model (SEM). Large taxpayers are generally in the form of agencies and individuals, so the population of this study comprised of companies that are in the Directorate General of Taxation of Large Taxpayers Jakarta, Large Tax Service Offices 1 and 2, totaling 529 companies. Religiosity (X1) and Perceived Risk (X2) significantly influence Attitude (Y1). Furthermore, Attitude (Y1) has a positive and significant effect on Tax Compliant Intention (Y2). e-Filing showed an insignificant moderating effect on the research model. The novelties are the development of the Theory of Planned Behavior by involving other variables that affect taxpayer compliance behavior, namely Religiosity and the perceived risk of taxpayers. In addition, this research involves the e-Filing variable as a moderating variable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corporate Finance)
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Article
Cannabis Stocks Returns: The Role of Liquidity and Investors’ Attention via Google Metrics
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2022, 10(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs10010007 - 05 Jan 2022
Viewed by 841
Abstract
This paper studies one of the most popular investment themes over recent years, investing in the cannabis industry. In particular, it investigates relationships between investor attention, as proxied by Google Trends, and stock market activities, i.e., return, volatility, and liquidity. To this end, [...] Read more.
This paper studies one of the most popular investment themes over recent years, investing in the cannabis industry. In particular, it investigates relationships between investor attention, as proxied by Google Trends, and stock market activities, i.e., return, volatility, and liquidity. To this end, in the empirical analysis we study how liquidity and investors’ attention affect the return dynamics of an investment in cannabis stocks by augmenting the three-factor Fama–French model. In addition, we use a vector autoregressive approach and the impulse response function to measure shock transmission between the variables under consideration. Our empirical findings show that there is a statistically positive relationship between cannabis stock returns and liquidity. We also find that increased investors’ attention results in higher returns. Full article
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Article
The COVID-19 Outbreak and Risk–Return Spillovers between Main and SME Stock Markets in the MENA Region
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2022, 10(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs10010006 - 04 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1069
Abstract
This study investigates return and asymmetric volatility spillovers and dynamic correlations between the main and small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) stock markets in Saudi Arabia and Egypt for the periods before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Return and volatility spillovers are modelled using [...] Read more.
This study investigates return and asymmetric volatility spillovers and dynamic correlations between the main and small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) stock markets in Saudi Arabia and Egypt for the periods before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Return and volatility spillovers are modelled using a VAR-asymmetric BEKK–GARCH (1,1) model, while a VAR-asymmetric DCC–GARCH (1,1) model is employed to model the dynamic conditional correlations between these markets, which are then used to determine and explore portfolio design and hedging implications. The results show that while bidirectional return spillovers between the main and SME stock markets are limited to Saudi Arabia, shock and volatility spillovers have different characteristics and dynamics in both main–SME market pairs. In addition, the dynamic correlations between the main and SME markets are mostly positive and have notably increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in Saudi Arabia, suggesting that adding SME stocks to a main stock portfolio enhances its risk-adjusted return, especially during tranquil market phases. One practical implication of our results is that the development of SME stock markets can indirectly contribute to economic development via the main market channel and provide an avenue for portfolio diversification and risk management. Full article
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Article
Moderating Effects of Financial Cognitive Abilities and Considerations on the Attitude–Intentions Nexus of Stock Market Participation
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2022, 10(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs10010005 - 04 Jan 2022
Viewed by 971
Abstract
This study aims to examine the determinants of investors’ behavioral intentions to participate in the stock market. In this attempt, this research investigated the direct and moderating effects of the financial cognitive abilities and the financial considerations on the nexus of attitudes and [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine the determinants of investors’ behavioral intentions to participate in the stock market. In this attempt, this research investigated the direct and moderating effects of the financial cognitive abilities and the financial considerations on the nexus of attitudes and behavioral intentions of investors. Data for this study were collected from active and potential investors in the Dhaka Stock Exchange of Bangladesh using a structured questionnaire. The partial least squares method was used to examine the nature and extent of the relationships of investors’ behavioral intentions with their attitude, financial cognitive abilities, and financial considerations in making stock market investment-related decisions. The findings of this study suggest that investors’ attitudes, financial planning ability, and perceptions of financial risks and benefits are important factors that influence their decisions in stock market participation. Moreover, financial planning, financial satisfaction, and perceived financial risk moderate the nexus of attitude and behavioral intentions to participate in the stock market. This study, therefore, has significant implications for policymakers, stock market regulators, and financial service providers. Full article
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Article
Consequences of Social and Environmental Corporate Responsibility Practices: Managers’ Perception in Mozambique
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2022, 10(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs10010004 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 836
Abstract
The objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between the social and environmental practices of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), and the economic–financial, social, and environmental performance in Mozambican companies, from the managers’ perspectives. The data were collected from a sample of [...] Read more.
The objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between the social and environmental practices of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), and the economic–financial, social, and environmental performance in Mozambican companies, from the managers’ perspectives. The data were collected from a sample of 227 companies through a survey questionnaire. We used structural equation modelling to analyze how the managers correlate the different social and environmental practices with performance at the financial, social, and environmental levels. The results showed that the relationship between all major components of the social and environmental practices, and the economic–financial, social, and environmental performance is positive but insignificant with the exception of the social practices of community support, which has a weak relationship with the economic–financial performance, environmental performance, and social performance, as well as the environmental practices. The data indicate that there is a need for strengthening the appropriate economic–financial incentive policies and strategies for the agents who promote good CSR practices in the country, in order to obtain satisfactory, measurable, and comparable economic–financial, social, and environmental performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Corporate Social Responsibility)
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Article
Expiration-Day Effects of Index Futures in a Frontier Market: The Case of Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchange
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2022, 10(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs10010003 - 29 Dec 2021
Viewed by 685
Abstract
This study employs OLS, GARCH and EGARCH regression models to test the expiration-day effects of index stock futures on market returns, volatility and trading volume for the Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchange (HOSE). Data used in this study is from a daily return [...] Read more.
This study employs OLS, GARCH and EGARCH regression models to test the expiration-day effects of index stock futures on market returns, volatility and trading volume for the Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchange (HOSE). Data used in this study is from a daily return series of the VN30-Index for the period from 10August 2017 through 30 June 2020. The results derived from GARCH(1,1) and EGARCH(1,1) models consistently confirm that Index futures expiration-day effects on market returns exists in the HOSE. Specifically, the average market return for expiration days is significantly lower than other trading days, by 0.13% at the 5% level of significance. However, the results obtained from the regression models indicate that the expiration-day has no impact on market volatility and trading volume. Full article
Article
FinTech Companies: A Bibliometric Analysis
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2022, 10(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs10010002 - 28 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1505
Abstract
The financial-technology industry has recently attracted the attention of many sectors. The financial-technology industry designs new and unusual technological financial services in many areas. It combines technology with finance and provides an alternative to the traditional financial system. In the scope of this [...] Read more.
The financial-technology industry has recently attracted the attention of many sectors. The financial-technology industry designs new and unusual technological financial services in many areas. It combines technology with finance and provides an alternative to the traditional financial system. In the scope of this study, 636 publications were obtained from Scopus. Various tools, such as Microsoft Excel for frequency analysis, and VOSviewer for data visualization, were used. The open-source codes used for bibliometric analysis through the R Studio program were developed by the authors and used for citation-metrics analysis. The main aim of this study was to find out the most influential studies and authors and to reveal the distributions and impacts of publications in the FinTech area between 2015 and 2021 from the Scopus database. The results indicate that the most influential journal is Sustainability Switzerland, and the most cited author is Gomber et al. Additionally, Rabbani has the most publications, while China has emerged as the most productive country. On the other hand, this study found that FinTech research clustered in four areas. These areas are computer science, business management, economics, and social sciences. This FinTech study examines financial services, financial access, and financial technology, where FinTech is at the center. It also focuses on cryptocurrency, bitcoin, and smart contracts where the blockchain is at the center. The results reveal a systematic map of existing studies. Further, the study plays a guiding role in future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Financial Industry 4.0 Part 2)
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Article
Effect of Financial Clusters on Startup Mergers and Acquisitions
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2022, 10(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijfs10010001 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1123
Abstract
The conventional wisdom has maintained that being in proximity to entrepreneurial ecosystems helps startups to raise financing, develop and grow. In this paper, we examine the effect of a major component of an entrepreneurial ecosystem-financial or venture capital clusters on the exit of [...] Read more.
The conventional wisdom has maintained that being in proximity to entrepreneurial ecosystems helps startups to raise financing, develop and grow. In this paper, we examine the effect of a major component of an entrepreneurial ecosystem-financial or venture capital clusters on the exit of a startup through mergers and acquisitions (M&A). We find that probability of successful exit through M&A increases if the venture capitalist invested in the startup is in a venture capital (VC) cluster. Location of the startup in a top VC cluster is not significant for success once we control for the location of the VC in a top VC cluster.Our results are robust to different specifications of the models that use different time periods, reputation of VC, industry, and the quality of the startup company. Our results provide evidence for VCs, startups and policy makers who want to better understand the components of entrepreneurial ecosystems and their relation to the M&A exits of startups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corporate Finance)
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