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Vet. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 5 (May 2021) – 21 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Mammary carcinoma is a highly frequent tumor in felines. Here, a case of a queen diagnosed with a right inguinal mammary mass is presented where a cytological study revealed an epithelial malignant tumor. Due to the rapid decline of the animal's health, euthanasia was performed. At necropsy, the tumor and organs with metastatic nodules were collected. Histology of the primary tumor showed large pleomorphic epithelial cells, often grouped in small clusters presenting bizarre chromatin-rich nuclei. Immunohistochemistry of both the primary tumor and regional metastasis showed tumor cells that were negative for estrogen receptor alpha and positive for progesterone receptor, HER-2, and pan-cytokeratin. This is the first report to describe clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical findings relative to an anaplastic mammary carcinoma in a female cat. View this paper.
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Article
Monitoring of Organochlorine Pesticide and Polychlorinated Biphenyl Residues in Common Swifts (Apus apus) in the Region of Hannover, Lower Saxony, Germany
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(5), 87; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8050087 - 16 May 2021
Viewed by 1304
Abstract
The use of pesticides is associated with the decline of several avian species. In this study, we monitored the organochlorine contaminants in common swifts (Apus apus) in the years 2016 to 2018. These long-distance migrants breed in Europe and winter in [...] Read more.
The use of pesticides is associated with the decline of several avian species. In this study, we monitored the organochlorine contaminants in common swifts (Apus apus) in the years 2016 to 2018. These long-distance migrants breed in Europe and winter in Africa. Their only feeding source is aerial plankton. Pooled organ samples of 42 adult and 40 juvenile swifts were tested with the multi-residue method by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS). Predominantly, 4,4′-DDE, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), lindane and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found in most of these common swifts. Only 4,4′-DDE (adult: 83 ± 70 μg/kg, juvenile: 17 ± 39 μg/kg) and dieldrin (adult: 2 ± 3 μg/kg, juvenile: 0.3 ± 1 μg/kg) concentrations were significantly different between adult and juvenile birds. All detected concentrations in our study were far lower than the previously recorded pesticide concentrations of common swifts in Italy and those which are known to cause toxicity and death in birds. Full article
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Case Report
A First Case Report of Orbital Extra-Adrenal Paraganglioma in Cat
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(5), 86; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8050086 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 1242
Abstract
Paraganglioma is a rare neuroendocrine neoplasm originating from paraganglia and consisting of neuroendocrine cells of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Extra-adrenal paraganglioma occurs with a low incidence in both humans and animals. This report presents the first case of paraganglioma in a [...] Read more.
Paraganglioma is a rare neuroendocrine neoplasm originating from paraganglia and consisting of neuroendocrine cells of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Extra-adrenal paraganglioma occurs with a low incidence in both humans and animals. This report presents the first case of paraganglioma in a cat with orbital primary location. An 18-year-old spayed female European domestic shorthair cat of 3.60 kg body weight was evaluated in a private veterinary clinic in Perugia, Italy, for a pronounced exophthalmos of the right eye. The cat underwent surgery for the enucleation of the right eye and of the mass. The biopsy samples of the removed tissue were fixed in 10% buffered neutral formalin for histological and immunohistochemical evaluations. Therefore, specific markers were used for immunohistochemical investigations, such as anti-neuron specific enolase (NSE), anti-synaptophysin, anti-glial fibrillary acid protein, anti-cytokeratin and anti-chromogranin. The results of these investigations allowed establishing the final diagnosis of ocular extra-adrenal paraganglioma of the cat. Full article
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Article
The SCCmec Types and Antimicrobial Resistance among Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Species Isolated from Dogs with Superficial Pyoderma
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(5), 85; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8050085 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 1327
Abstract
This study characterizes clinical methicillin-resistant staphylococcal (MRS) isolates obtained from superficial pyoderma infections in dogs. Our interest was to determine the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type and the antimicrobial susceptibility among MRS isolates from clinical cases. Skin swabs were collected [...] Read more.
This study characterizes clinical methicillin-resistant staphylococcal (MRS) isolates obtained from superficial pyoderma infections in dogs. Our interest was to determine the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type and the antimicrobial susceptibility among MRS isolates from clinical cases. Skin swabs were collected and cultured. Staphylococcus species were identified and characterized with biochemical tests and MALDI-TOF-MS and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disk diffusion. mecA detection and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing were achieved by PCR. Of the 65 clinical samples, 56 (86.2%) staphylococcal infections were identified. Twelve (21%) of 56 isolates were MRS infections. All MRS isolates were multidrug resistant. The ccrC and class-C2 mec, which were SCCmec type V, were the most prevalent (66.7%) among the 12 MRS isolates. The predominant SCCmec type V was found in S. aureus, S. intermedius group, S. lentus, S. xylosus, and S. arlettae. Treatment failure is a concern with the emergence of highly resistant MRS in dogs associated with superficial pyoderma. The detection of type V SCCmec MRS has previously been reported among veterinarians and dog owners but not in Northern Thailand. These infections serve as a reminder to improve infection prevention and control measures including reducing environmental contamination and potential zoonotic exposures to MRS. In addition, educational awareness of these risks in small animal hospitals needs to be increased among veterinary hospital staff, clients, and patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistant Staphylococci in Animals)
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Case Report
Dentigerous Equine Teratoma in a Stallion: Surgical Management and Clinicopathology
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(5), 84; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8050084 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 1189
Abstract
Teratoma is a rare germ cell testicular cancer composed of cells that are not normally present in the site where it originates. These tumors are rarely described in horses, where they may develop due to cryptorchidism. Teratomas consist of cells originating from different [...] Read more.
Teratoma is a rare germ cell testicular cancer composed of cells that are not normally present in the site where it originates. These tumors are rarely described in horses, where they may develop due to cryptorchidism. Teratomas consist of cells originating from different germinal layers, arising from germinal multi-potential cells with differentiation defects, and can simultaneously contain several tissues from two or more embryonic layers. Testicular teratomas are described in horses, cats, dogs, wild boars, bulls, and humans. In the rare descriptions found in literature of testicular teratoma in stallions, they occur frequently in cryptorchid testicles, as a consequence of congenital neoplasm. To our knowledge there is no other report of a dentigerous equine teratoma in a stallion. We describe here a successful laparoscopic removal of a testicular teratoma and its clinic-pathological features. Full article
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Case Report
Small Bowel Obstruction Induced by Concurrent Postoperative Intra-Abdominal Adhesions and Small Bowel Fecal Materials in a Young Dog
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(5), 83; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8050083 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 1204
Abstract
A 7-month-old neutered male poodle dog presented with general deterioration and gastrointestinal symptoms after two separate operations: a jejunotomy for small-intestinal foreign body removal and an exploratory laparotomy for diagnosis and treatment of the gastrointestinal symptoms that occurred 1 month after the first [...] Read more.
A 7-month-old neutered male poodle dog presented with general deterioration and gastrointestinal symptoms after two separate operations: a jejunotomy for small-intestinal foreign body removal and an exploratory laparotomy for diagnosis and treatment of the gastrointestinal symptoms that occurred 1 month after the first surgery. The dog was diagnosed as having small-bowel obstruction (SBO) due to intra-abdominal adhesions and small-bowel fecal material (SBFM) by using abdominal radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and laparotomy. We removed the obstructive adhesive lesion and SBFM through enterotomies and applied an autologous peritoneal graft to the released jejunum to prevent re-adhesion. After the surgical intervention, the dog recovered quickly and was healthy at 1 year after the surgery without gastrointestinal signs. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of a successful treatment of SBO induced by postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions and SBFM after laparotomies in a dog. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Veterinary Gastroenterology)
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Article
Zoonotic Disease Management and Infection Control Practices Among Veterinarians in the United Arab Emirates
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(5), 82; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8050082 - 11 May 2021
Viewed by 1215
Abstract
This study was conducted to assess zoonotic disease management and infection control practices (ICPs) among veterinarians in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A questionnaire was developed in SurveyMonkey, an online tool, and was distributed by email during February–May 2020 to 470 veterinarians practicing [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to assess zoonotic disease management and infection control practices (ICPs) among veterinarians in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A questionnaire was developed in SurveyMonkey, an online tool, and was distributed by email during February–May 2020 to 470 veterinarians practicing across the UAE. A total of 110 individuals completed the survey, giving a response rate of 23.4% (110/470). Results indicate that reported hand hygiene, sharps management, barrier or isolation practices, and personal choices for personal protective equipment (PPE) in common practice scenarios varied among practitioners. The majority (>75%) of veterinarians in all practice types reported always washing their hands before eating, drinking, or smoking at work. The survey revealed that 19% and 10% of large and small animal veterinarians indicated they sterilized and reused disposable needles. Veterinarians among all practices indicated high rates (75% to 80%) of recapping needles before disposal. When handling an animal suspected of having a zoonotic disease, most (90%) of small animal veterinarians reported always using practices such as isolating the animal and removing outwear before contact with other animals. However, only half (55%) of the large animal respondents reported always isolating the animal or sterilizing all equipment used on the animal of concern. Fewer than half of the large animal (35%) and mixed practice (44%) veterinarians indicated they would always be limiting human contact with the animal of concern. All of the small animal respondents reported full compliance with PPE while performing surgery and necropsy. Among large animal veterinarians, 44% reported not using respiratory or eye protection when aiding with parturition or handling conception products. Failure to use appropriate PPE when handling blood samples was the second most common noncompliant practice among large animal (39%) veterinarians and mixed practice (41%) respondents. Our study indicates a need for continuous education regarding ICPs in the veterinary community in the UAE. Better awareness of the risk of zoonotic disease exposure and options for managing this risk and liability issues could drive the adoption of infection control practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue One Health Approach to Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Comparison of the Gut Microbiota of Jeju and Thoroughbred Horses in Korea
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(5), 81; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8050081 - 11 May 2021
Viewed by 1168
Abstract
(1) Background: The large intestine of horses is an anaerobic fermentative chamber filled with fibrolytic bacteria that play essential roles in digesting and absorbing nutrients for energy production. Although Jeju horses are a prominent local breed in Korea, few studies have investigated the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The large intestine of horses is an anaerobic fermentative chamber filled with fibrolytic bacteria that play essential roles in digesting and absorbing nutrients for energy production. Although Jeju horses are a prominent local breed in Korea, few studies have investigated the gut microbiota of Jeju horses; (2) Methods: This study performed sequencing of V3 and V4 hypervariable regions of the partial 16S rRNA genes obtained from horse fecal samples and compared the gut microbiota between Jeju and Thoroughbred horses. Thirty and 24 fecal samples were obtained from Jeju and Thoroughbred horses, respectively; (3) Results: The gut microbiota belonged to 23 phyla and 159 families. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the most abundant and predominant phyla, followed by Verrucomicrobia, Euryachaeota, and Spirochaete. The ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes (F/B), which is known as a relevant marker of gut dysbiosis, was 1.84 for Jeju horses, whereas it was 1.76 for Thoroughbred horses. Moreover, at the genus level, 21 genera were significantly different between the Jeju and Thoroughbred horses (p < 0.05); (4) Conclusions: The Thoroughbred horse’s gut microbiotas had significantly higher diversity than the Jeju horses (p < 0.05). In addition, beneficial commensal bacteria that produce short-chain fatty acids thus providing a significant source of energy are also more abundant in Thoroughbred horses. These results provide novel information on the horse gut microbiota and insights for further studies related to the horse gut microbiota. Full article
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Article
In Vitro Activity of Several Essential Oils Extracted from Aromatic Plants against Ascosphaera apis
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(5), 80; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8050080 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 1281
Abstract
The use of natural substances such as essentials oils against bee pathogens is of great interest as an alternative to traditional methods based on synthetic compounds like antibiotics and fungicides, in order to minimize the risk of having toxic residues in hive products [...] Read more.
The use of natural substances such as essentials oils against bee pathogens is of great interest as an alternative to traditional methods based on synthetic compounds like antibiotics and fungicides, in order to minimize the risk of having toxic residues in hive products and to prevent the development of resistance phenomena. This study evaluated the inhibitory, fungicidal and sporicidal activity of ten essential oils extracted from aromatic plants against Ascosphaera apis, the etiological agent of chalkbrood, an invasive honey bee mycosis. The most effective essential oils were Thymus herba-barona, Thymus capitatus and Cinnamomum zeylanicum, which showed values of minimum fungicidal concentration and minimum sporicidal concentration ranging from 200 to 400 ppm. Carvacrol was the main component of Thymus capitatus and Thymus herba-barona oils, whereas cinnamic aldehyde prevailed in Cinnamomum zeylanicum oil. Further in-apiary studies will allow the evaluation of side effects on bees and residues in hive products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and Advances in Bee Health and Diseases)
Article
New Sperm Morphology Analysis in Equids: Trumorph® Vs Eosin-Nigrosin Stain
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(5), 79; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8050079 - 06 May 2021
Viewed by 1239
Abstract
The evaluation of the male fertility potential is based on the analysis of the basic spermatic characteristics of concentration, motility and morphology. Thus, the study of sperm morphology is a fundamental element in the seminal analysis, but its real meaning has been biased [...] Read more.
The evaluation of the male fertility potential is based on the analysis of the basic spermatic characteristics of concentration, motility and morphology. Thus, the study of sperm morphology is a fundamental element in the seminal analysis, but its real meaning has been biased by the techniques used for its evaluation. These techniques involve dehydration phases and subsequent staining, which involves the production of artifacts. The aim of the study is to compare two methods for equid semen morphology evaluation, Trumorph® using living sperm vs. eosin-nigrosine stain. A total of 49 ejaculates from stallions and donkeys were used. After semen collection and dilution, an aliquot was placed on the slide and introduced in the Trumorph® device. Then observation was made with a 40x objective and negative phase-contrast microscope. Another aliquot was stained using eosin-nigrosine stain and viewed using 100× magnification. Well-formed sperm were observed, and different abnormalities were identified using Trumorph®. The use of eosin-nigrosin staining method and Trumorph® led to the same results and both techniques can be used for stallion and donkey sperm morphological analysis. However, considering the fact that Trumorph® uses living sperm helps prevent sperm cell alteration during sample preparation. Therefore, Trumorph® can be a good alternative to the conventional staining method, which provides a quick test on live sperm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in Domestic Mammals)
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Review
Pluripotency and Growth Factors in Early Embryonic Development of Mammals: A Comparative Approach
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(5), 78; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8050078 - 04 May 2021
Viewed by 1350
Abstract
The regulation of early events in mammalian embryonic development is a complex process. In the early stages, pluripotency, cellular differentiation, and growth should occur at specific times and these events are regulated by different genes that are expressed at specific times and locations. [...] Read more.
The regulation of early events in mammalian embryonic development is a complex process. In the early stages, pluripotency, cellular differentiation, and growth should occur at specific times and these events are regulated by different genes that are expressed at specific times and locations. The genes related to pluripotency and cellular differentiation, and growth factors that determine successful embryonic development are different (or differentially expressed) among mammalian species. Some genes are fundamental for controlling pluripotency in some species but less fundamental in others, for example, Oct4 is particularly relevant in bovine early embryonic development, whereas Oct4 inhibition does not affect ovine early embryonic development. In addition, some mechanisms that regulate cellular differentiation do not seem to be clear or evolutionarily conserved. After cellular differentiation, growth factors are relevant in early development, and their effects also differ among species, for example, insulin-like growth factor improves the blastocyst development rate in some species but does not have the same effect in mice. Some growth factors influence genes related to pluripotency, and therefore, their role in early embryo development is not limited to cell growth but could also involve the earliest stages of development. In this review, we summarize the differences among mammalian species regarding the regulation of pluripotency, cellular differentiation, and growth factors in the early stages of embryonic development. Full article
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Case Report
Anaplastic Mammary Carcinoma in Cat
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(5), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8050077 - 04 May 2021
Viewed by 1386
Abstract
Clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical findings related to a feline mammary tumor with similar features to canine anaplastic mammary carcinoma are herein described for the first time. A female cat was presented for clinical evaluation with gastrointestinal signs, oedema, erythema, and painful lesion in [...] Read more.
Clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical findings related to a feline mammary tumor with similar features to canine anaplastic mammary carcinoma are herein described for the first time. A female cat was presented for clinical evaluation with gastrointestinal signs, oedema, erythema, and painful lesion in the right inguinal region. Three weeks later, the mass had doubled in size and radiographic revaluation of the thoracic cavity revealed a metastatic pattern. Due to the poor prognosis and decline of the clinical status the owners decided for euthanasia. Post-mortem examination exposed a mammary tumoral mass with subcutaneous oedema, an enlargement of the right inguinal lymph node, and nodules in several organs. Histological analysis confirmed the presence of large pleomorphic epithelial cells, often grouped in small clusters with bizarre nuclei. Immunohistochemical study of the different lesions was performed and both primary tumor and regional metastasis showed tumor cells to be negative estrogen receptor alpha, positive progesterone receptor, positive HER-2, and positive pan-cytokeratin. Given that the clinical history was compatible with an inflammatory mammary carcinoma, the cyclooxygenase-2 expression levels were evaluated and presented a weak immunoreactivity. Regarding the distant metastatic lesions, tumor cells were negative for ER-α and PR and, positive both for HER-2 and pan-cytokeratin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Feline Internal Medicine)
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Article
Bee Health and Productivity in Apis mellifera, a Consequence of Multiple Factors
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(5), 76; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8050076 - 04 May 2021
Viewed by 1583
Abstract
Managed honeybees play an important role as pollinators. The health and nutritional condition of honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera L.) depends for an important part on management practices, and it is influenced by multiple factors. This study aims to identify the stressors that [...] Read more.
Managed honeybees play an important role as pollinators. The health and nutritional condition of honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera L.) depends for an important part on management practices, and it is influenced by multiple factors. This study aims to identify the stressors that lead to the loss of honeybee health and its consequences on the colony’s productivity. Different aspects related to management practices, productivity, clinical observations related to diseases, presence of sanitary gaps in the apiaries, colony strength, weather and infestation rates by Varroa sp. mites were measured. The information was collected during two monitoring in 53 apiaries in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina. The results show correlations among many of the management practices, health condition and yield. The most important factors affecting the productivity of the studied honeybee colonies were nuclei preparation, the number of combs in the brood chamber, change of bee queen, disinfection of beekeeping material, among other less significant ones. Although honey production is important in the region, the colony strength was deficient and inadequate during both monitoring. Due to its dependence on management by the beekeeper, it is suggested that a holistic approach could improve bee health, increasing the productivity of honeybees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and Advances in Bee Health and Diseases)
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Article
Genetic Variation between Triploid and Diploid Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Using RAPD Markers
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(5), 75; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8050075 - 04 May 2021
Viewed by 1205
Abstract
This study was designed to examine the use of RAPD markers in discriminating triploid and diploid African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Following a routine technique, triploidy was induced by cold shock and confirm by erythrocyte measurement in C. gariepinus. Thereafter, 80 [...] Read more.
This study was designed to examine the use of RAPD markers in discriminating triploid and diploid African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Following a routine technique, triploidy was induced by cold shock and confirm by erythrocyte measurement in C. gariepinus. Thereafter, 80 RAPD markers were screened; out of which, three showed the highest percentage of polymorphism (i.e., OPB 16 = 71.43%; OPC 14 = 61.9%; OPD 12 = 75%). The results obtained showed genotype differences between triploid and diploid without overlapping. However, the development of a Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) marker was not achievable because progenies of triploid and diploid C. gariepinus could not be differentiated based on a specific fragment. Consequently, the genetic distance showed high similarities for both treatments and the UPGMA-generated dendrogram could not separate the treatments into two distinct clusters. It was concluded that RAPD makers cannot be used to separate the ploidy status of fishes. Full article
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Article
Portable Electronic Nose for Analyzing the Smell of Nasal Secretions in Calves: Toward Noninvasive Diagnosis of Infectious Bronchopneumonia
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(5), 74; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8050074 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1708
Abstract
The paper demonstrates a new approach to identify healthy calves (“healthy”) and naturally occurring infectious bronchopneumonia (“sick”) calves by analysis of the gaseous phase over nasal secretions using 16 piezoelectric sensors in two portable devices. Samples of nasal secretions were obtained from 50 [...] Read more.
The paper demonstrates a new approach to identify healthy calves (“healthy”) and naturally occurring infectious bronchopneumonia (“sick”) calves by analysis of the gaseous phase over nasal secretions using 16 piezoelectric sensors in two portable devices. Samples of nasal secretions were obtained from 50 red-motley Holstein calves aged 14–42 days. Calves were subjected to rectal temperature measurements, clinical score according to the Wisconsin respiratory scoring chart, thoracic auscultation, and radiography (Carestream DR, New York, USA). Of the 50 calves, we included samples from 40 (20 “healthy” and 20 “sick”) in the training sample. The remaining ten calves (five “healthy” and five “sick”) were included in the test sample. It was possible to divide calves into “healthy” and “sick” groups according to the output data of the sensor arrays (maximum sensor signals and calculated parameters Ai/j) using the principal component linear discriminant analysis (PCA–LDA) with an accuracy of 100%. The adequacy of the PCA–LDA model was verified on a test sample. It was found that data of sensors with films of carbon nanotubes, zirconium nitrate, hydroxyapatite, methyl orange, bromocresol green, and Triton X-100 had the most significance for dividing samples into groups. The differences in the composition of the gaseous phase over the samples of nasal secretions for such a classification could be explained by the appearance or change in the concentrations of ketones, alcohols, organic carboxylic acids, aldehydes, amines, including cyclic amines or those with a branched hydrocarbon chain. Full article
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Article
Antimicrobial Prescribing Practices in Dogs and Cats by Colombian Veterinarians in the City of Medellin
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(5), 73; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8050073 - 26 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1245
Abstract
This study surveyed the prescribing behavior of Colombian companion animal veterinarians and compared the responses to the current guidelines of the International Society for Companion Animals on Infectious Diseases (ISCAID). A convenience sample of 100 primary-care veterinary practitioners was selected from the city [...] Read more.
This study surveyed the prescribing behavior of Colombian companion animal veterinarians and compared the responses to the current guidelines of the International Society for Companion Animals on Infectious Diseases (ISCAID). A convenience sample of 100 primary-care veterinary practitioners was selected from the city of Medellin. A questionnaire was designed to present hypothetical clinical scenarios regarding prescription choices for systemic antimicrobials. The numbers of veterinarians empirically prescribing a course of systemic antimicrobials for each scenario were—perioperative elective surgeries (86%), superficial pyoderma (90%), lower urinary tract disease (52%), acute hemorrhagic diarrhea (50%), and kennel cough (46%). For urinary tract disease, cultures and susceptibility testing were only performed by half of the respondents, suggesting lower diagnostic standards. In superficial pyoderma cases, cytology was performed in the following percent of cases—0% (24), 20% (30), 40% (17), 60% (11), 80% (8), and 100% (10). Antimicrobials were over-prescribed relative to emerging standard for elective surgeries (86%), kennel cough (46%), and acute hemorrhagic diarrhea (50%). Critically important antimicrobials, such as fluoroquinolones, were applied commonly for superficial pyoderma (18%), kennel cough (12%), and lower urinary tract disease in dogs (20%) and cats (26%). In conclusion, antimicrobial prescribing behavior was inconsistent with current guidelines, and antimicrobial use could be improved by appropriate diagnostic steps allowing choice of an optimal antimicrobial drug. Overall, we documented the widespread use of antimicrobials for the treatment of these four common disease conditions. Full article
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Case Report
Successful Treatment of Mucocutaneous Lupus Erythematosus in a Dog with Prednisolone, Mycophenolate Mofetil and Tacrolimus
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(5), 72; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8050072 - 23 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1324
Abstract
A 6-year-old, intact male miniature Pinscher dog had erosive lesions on perilabial, peripenial and perianal mucocutaneous areas, which were exacerbated by ulcerations, crusts, with pain while defecating and urinating. The lesions were symmetrical, and no systemic signs were observed. Histopathological evaluation showed parakeratotic [...] Read more.
A 6-year-old, intact male miniature Pinscher dog had erosive lesions on perilabial, peripenial and perianal mucocutaneous areas, which were exacerbated by ulcerations, crusts, with pain while defecating and urinating. The lesions were symmetrical, and no systemic signs were observed. Histopathological evaluation showed parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, ulceration and cell-rich lymphoplasmacytic interface dermatitis with basal keratinocyte apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong reaction in the dermoepidermal junction against goat-canine IgG and mild-to-moderate reaction against goat-canine IgA, IgM and C3. Based on these findings, the dog was diagnosed with mucocutaneous lupus erythematosus (MCLE). Oral prednisolone 1 mg/kg twice daily, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) 18.3 mg/kg twice daily and 0.1% tacrolimus ointment were prescribed as initial treatment. The lesions showed remarkable improvement within 4 weeks, but the dog exhibited polyuria, polydipsia and hepatomegaly with high dosage of prednisolone. Hence, the dosage of prednisolone was gradually tapered for 9 weeks and discontinued, but MMF and tacrolimus were continued. No new lesion or associated side effect was observed while reducing the MMF dose to 10 mg/kg twice daily and with continuous use of tacrolimus ointment after steroid discontinuation. In conclusion, this case report emphasizes the usefulness of MMF and tacrolimus as steroid-sparing agents in the treatment of dogs with MCLE. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of MCLE that was successfully managed long-term with MMF and tacrolimus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune-mediated Diseases in Small Animals)
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Article
Salmonella Gallinarum in Small-Scale Commercial Layer Flocks: Occurrence, Molecular Diversity and Antibiogram
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(5), 71; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8050071 - 23 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1410
Abstract
Salmonella Gallinarum is one of the most important bacterial pathogens associated with diminished egg production in poultry. The aim of this study was to understand the occurrence, molecular traits and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella Gallinarum strains isolated from small-scale commercial layer flocks [...] Read more.
Salmonella Gallinarum is one of the most important bacterial pathogens associated with diminished egg production in poultry. The aim of this study was to understand the occurrence, molecular traits and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella Gallinarum strains isolated from small-scale commercial layer flocks with low level biosecurity standards in Bangladesh. A total of 765 samples, including cloacal swabs (535), visceral organs (50), and droppings (180), were collected from chickens of 12 layer flocks in 11 districts. Salmonella Gallinarum was isolated and characterized through culture-based method, followed by biochemical tests, sero-grouping, PCR assays, sequencing, and antibiogram. The identity of biochemically detected isolates of Salmonella Gallinarum was confirmed via genus-specific 16S rRNA gene based PCR, followed by invA and spvC genes based PCR assays. Occurrence of Salmonella Gallinarum was detected in overall 25.75% (197/765) samples, with a significantly (p < 0.05) higher incidence in visceral organs (42%) in comparison to cloacal swab (24%) and droppings (26%). Sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis of invA and spvC genes in representative strains of Salmonella Gallinarum revealed a close genetic lineage, with a sequence similarity of 98.05–99.21% and 97.51–99.45%, respectively, to previously published sequences of the corresponding genes from the same serogroup strains. Remarkably, 66.5% (131/197) of the isolated strains of Salmonella Gallinarum were found to be resistant to 3 to 6 antimicrobial agents, and interpreted as multidrug resistant (MDR). The findings of this study underscore an inherent need of appropriate control measures to curb the widespread incidence of MDR Salmonella Gallinarum in small-scale commercial layer flocks, thereby, facilitating enhanced egg production and further support to the food security and safety in low resource settings. Full article
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Article
Survey-Based Analysis of Current Trends for Prescribing Gastrointestinal Protectants among Small-Animal General Practitioners in Portugal
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(5), 70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8050070 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1254
Abstract
In both human and veterinary healthcare, gastrointestinal protectants (GIPs) are considered a staple of clinical practice in that they are prescribed by general practitioners (GPs) and specialists alike. Concerning GIP use, overprescription of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) has become a growing concern among [...] Read more.
In both human and veterinary healthcare, gastrointestinal protectants (GIPs) are considered a staple of clinical practice in that they are prescribed by general practitioners (GPs) and specialists alike. Concerning GIP use, overprescription of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) has become a growing concern among human healthcare providers. This trend has also been documented within veterinary practice, prompting the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) to publish a consensus statement in 2018 concerning evidence-based indications for GIP use. This observational cross-sectional study evaluated self-reported prescribing protocols among Portuguese GPs to determine whether there is adherence to the consensus guidelines. Respondents were Portuguese GPs recruited by social media posts in veterinarian online forums. Data were collected from 124 respondents concerning their GIPs of choice and their rationales for prescribing them. Data were mined for prescription patterns and protocols. Among GIPs, PPIs were prescribed more often. Rationales for use included gastrointestinal ulceration and erosion (GUE), prophylactic management of nonerosive gastritis, pancreatitis, reflux esophagitis, and steroid-induced ulceration. Once-daily administration of PPIs was the most frequent dosing regime among respondents. Ninety-six percent of PPI prescribers advocated that the drug be administered either shortly before or at mealtime. Forty-nine percent of respondents supported long-term use of PPIs. Fifty-nine percent of respondents acknowledged discontinuing PPIs abruptly. This study supports that Portuguese GPs commonly prescribe GIPs in accordance with ACVIM recommendations to medically manage GUE. However, misuse of GIPs does occur, and they have been prescribed where their therapeutic value is debatable. Educational strategies should target GPs in an effort to reduce GIP misuse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Survey on Endoparasites of Dairy Goats in North-Eastern Italy Using a Farm-Tailored Monitoring Approach
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(5), 69; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8050069 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1387
Abstract
With the spread of anthelmintic resistance (AR), endoparasite monitoring consolidates its role for a more sustainable targeting of treatments. A survey on endoparasites in dairy goat farms of north-eastern Italy was conducted to test a monitoring approach based on a farm-tailored sample size. [...] Read more.
With the spread of anthelmintic resistance (AR), endoparasite monitoring consolidates its role for a more sustainable targeting of treatments. A survey on endoparasites in dairy goat farms of north-eastern Italy was conducted to test a monitoring approach based on a farm-tailored sample size. Farm management and parasites control practices were investigated in 20 farms through a questionnaire survey. Further, fecal samples were collected (November 2018–September 2019) from 264 animals from 13 farms and were analyzed individually with a modified McMaster method and subsequently pooled to perform a coproculture. Coccidia (78.4%), gastrointestinal strongyles (37.9%), Strongyloides (28.4%), Skrjabinema (18.9%), Trichuris (8.0%) and Nematodirus/Marshallagia (0.4%) were identified. Abundances were higher for coccidia and gastrointestinal strongyles. Haemonchus (71%) was the dominant gastrointestinal nematode. Pasture and age class resulted in the main risk factors at the multivariable analysis through a negative binomial regression model. Results from farm monitoring indicate that our approach can be a cost-effective decision tool to target treatments more effectively, but farmers need to be educated about the importance of parasitological testing, which is currently scarcely implemented, against the risk of AR. Full article
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Article
Antimicrobial Resistance, FlaA Sequencing, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Campylobacter Isolates from Broiler Chicken Flocks in Greece
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(5), 68; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8050068 - 21 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1543
Abstract
Human campylobacteriosis caused by thermophilic Campylobacter species is the most commonly reported foodborne zoonosis. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is regarded as the main source of human infection. This study was undertaken to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and the molecular epidemiology of 205 [...] Read more.
Human campylobacteriosis caused by thermophilic Campylobacter species is the most commonly reported foodborne zoonosis. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is regarded as the main source of human infection. This study was undertaken to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and the molecular epidemiology of 205 Campylobacter isolates derived from Greek flocks slaughtered in three different slaughterhouses over a 14-month period. A total of 98.5% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. In terms of multidrug resistance, 11.7% of isolates were resistant to three or more groups of antimicrobials. Extremely high resistance to fluoroquinolones (89%), very high resistance to tetracycline (69%), and low resistance to macrolides (7%) were detected. FlaA sequencing was performed for the subtyping of 64 C. jejuni and 58 C. coli isolates. No prevalence of a specific flaA type was observed, indicating the genetic diversity of the isolates, while some flaA types were found to share similar antimicrobial resistance patterns. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the neighbor-joining method. Seven clusters of the C. jejuni phylogenetic tree and three clusters of the C. coli tree were considered significant with bootstrap values >75%. Some isolates clustered together were originated from the same or adjacent farms, indicating transmission via personnel or shared equipment. These results are important and help further the understanding of the molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. derived from poultry in Greece. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Poultry Diseases)
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Article
Description of Plasma Penicillin G Concentrations after Intramuscular Injection in Double-Muscled Cows to Optimize the Timing of Antibiotherapy for Caesarean Section
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(5), 67; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vetsci8050067 - 21 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1680
Abstract
In order to improve the efficacy of penicillin injection during caesarean section, we aimed to identify the optimal timing of its preoperative administration. A study was conducted in 12 adult, non-pregnant Belgian Blue cows. To evaluate the plasma penicillin concentrations, blood samples were [...] Read more.
In order to improve the efficacy of penicillin injection during caesarean section, we aimed to identify the optimal timing of its preoperative administration. A study was conducted in 12 adult, non-pregnant Belgian Blue cows. To evaluate the plasma penicillin concentrations, blood samples were taken from the jugular vein at −5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 120, 240, 480 min relative to the intramuscular (IM) injection of 21,000 IU/kg of body weight of penicillin G. Results showed that plasma concentrations at 15 min after IM injection (668.3 ± 73.7 ng/mL) largely exceeded the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of penicillin-sensitive bacteria (MIC < 125 ng/mL). With increasing time, plasma concentrations continued to rise, attaining an increasing proportion of moderately sensitive bacteria (250 ng/mL > MIC < 2000 ng/mL). The maximal concentration was reached between 1 and 4 h (average: 1.495.1 ± 181.7 ng/mL) after IM injection in the majority of cows, and decreased non-significantly to 1002.1 ± 93.2 ng/mL at 8 h. In conclusion, plasma penicillin concentrations at 15 min after an IM injection inhibit penicillin-sensitive bacteria. However, in order to obtain the maximal protective effect of the antibiotherapy, surgery should be started at 1 to 2 h after IM penicillin injection. Full article
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