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Quantum Beam Sci., Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 7 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The frontispiece shows the National Research Experimental (NRX) reactor at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada in the period around 1953. The equipment arranged on beam tubes around the reactor was for both solid state and nuclear physics measurements. View this paper.
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Article
Chromatic Change in Copper Oxide Layers Irradiated with Low Energy Ions
Quantum Beam Sci. 2021, 5(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/qubs5010007 - 10 Mar 2021
Viewed by 510
Abstract
The color of a thin copper oxide layer formed on a copper plate was transformed from reddish-brown into dark blue-purple by irradiation with 5 keV Ar+ ions to a fluence as low as 1 × 1015 Ar+ cm−2. [...] Read more.
The color of a thin copper oxide layer formed on a copper plate was transformed from reddish-brown into dark blue-purple by irradiation with 5 keV Ar+ ions to a fluence as low as 1 × 1015 Ar+ cm−2. In the unirradiated copper oxide layer, the copper valence state of Cu2+ and Cu+ and/or Cu0 was included as indicated by the presence of a shake-up satellite line in a photoemission spectrum. While for the irradiated one, the satellite line decreased in intensity, indicating that irradiation resulted in the reduction from Cu2+ to Cu+ and/or Cu0. Furthermore, nuclear reaction analysis using a 16O(d, p)17O reaction with 0.85 MeV deuterons revealed a significant loss of oxygen (5 × 1015 O atoms cm−2) in the irradiated layer. Thus, the chromatic change observed in the present work originated in the irradiation-induced reduction of a copper oxide. Full article
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Article
In Situ Observation for Deformation-Induced Martensite Transformation during Tensile Deformation of SUS 304 Stainless Steel by Using Neutron Diffraction PART II: Transformation and Texture Formation Mechanisms
Quantum Beam Sci. 2021, 5(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/qubs5010006 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 855
Abstract
Herein, the texture developments of γ austenite, ε martensite, and α’ martensite during the tensile deformation of SUS 304 stainless steel were observed by using the in situ neutron diffraction technique. Combined with the microstructure and local orientations measured by electron backscattered [...] Read more.
Herein, the texture developments of γ austenite, ε martensite, and α’ martensite during the tensile deformation of SUS 304 stainless steel were observed by using the in situ neutron diffraction technique. Combined with the microstructure and local orientations measured by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), the mechanisms involved in the deformation-induced martensite transformation (DIMT) in the SUS 304 stainless steel were examined based on the neutron diffraction results. The results revealed that the ε martensite inherited the texture of the γ austenite, that is, their main components could be connected by Shoji–Nishiyama orientation relationship. The variant selection was qualitatively evaluated based on the Schmid factors of the {111}2¯11 slip systems. The results revealed that the εα’ transformation occurred easily in the steel sample. Consequently, the volume fraction of the α’ martensite phase observed by EBSD was higher than that observed by neutron diffraction. In addition, at a true strain of 0.42, a packet structure consisting of two α’ martensite variants was observed in the steel sample. However, the original orientation of the variants did not correspond to the main components in the γ or ε phases. This suggests that the two α’ martensite variants were transformed directly from the lost component of the γ matrix. These results indicate that the γεα’ DIMT was first activated in the steel sample, after which the γα’ DIMT was activated at the later stage of deformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Strain, Stress and Texture with Quantum Beams)
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Article
Development of Pulsed TEM Equipped with Nitride Semiconductor Photocathode for High-Speed Observation and Material Nanofabrication
Quantum Beam Sci. 2021, 5(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/qubs5010005 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 741
Abstract
The development of pulsed electron sources is applied to electron microscopes or electron beam lithography and is effective in expanding the functions of such devices. The laser photocathode can generate short pulsed electrons with high emittance, and the emittance can be increased by [...] Read more.
The development of pulsed electron sources is applied to electron microscopes or electron beam lithography and is effective in expanding the functions of such devices. The laser photocathode can generate short pulsed electrons with high emittance, and the emittance can be increased by changing the cathode substrate from a metal to compound semiconductor. Among the substrates, nitride-based semiconductors with a negative electron affinity (NEA) have good advantages in terms of vacuum environment and cathode lifetime. In the present study, we report the development of a photocathode electron gun that utilizes photoelectron emission from a NEA-InGaN substrate by pulsed laser excitation, and the purpose is to apply it to material nanofabrication and high-speed observation using a pulsed transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with it. Full article
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Review
Self-Organized Nanostructures Generated on Metal Surfaces under Electron Irradiation
Quantum Beam Sci. 2021, 5(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/qubs5010004 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 810
Abstract
Irradiation of high-energy electrons can produce surface vacancies on the exit surface of thin foils by the sputtering of atoms. Although the sputtering randomly occurs in the area irradiated with an intense electron beam of several hundred nanometers in diameter, characteristic topographic features [...] Read more.
Irradiation of high-energy electrons can produce surface vacancies on the exit surface of thin foils by the sputtering of atoms. Although the sputtering randomly occurs in the area irradiated with an intense electron beam of several hundred nanometers in diameter, characteristic topographic features can appear under irradiation. This paper reviews a novel phenomenon on a self-organization of nanogrooves and nanoholes generated on the exit surface of thin metal foils irradiated with high doses of 360–1250 keV electrons. The phenomenon was discovered firstly for gold irradiated at temperatures about 100 K, which shows the formation of grooves and holes with widths between 1 and 2 nm. Irradiation along [001] produces grooves extending along [100] and [010], irradiation along [011] gives grooves along [100], whereas no clear grooves have been observed for [111] irradiations. By contrast, nanoholes, which may reach depths exceeding 20 nm, develop mainly along the beam direction. The formation of the nanostructures depends on the irradiation temperatures, exhibiting an existence of a critical temperature at about 240 K, above which the width significantly increases, and the density decreases. Nanostructures formed for silver, copper, nickel, and iron were also investigated. The self-organized process was discussed in terms of irradiation-induced effects. Full article
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Article
The First Two Decades of Neutron Scattering at the Chalk River Laboratories
Quantum Beam Sci. 2021, 5(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/qubs5010003 - 18 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1000
Abstract
The early advances in neutron scattering at the Chalk River Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada are recorded. From initial nuclear physics measurements at the National Research Experimental (NRX) reactor came the realization that, with the flux available and improvements in monochromator technology, [...] Read more.
The early advances in neutron scattering at the Chalk River Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada are recorded. From initial nuclear physics measurements at the National Research Experimental (NRX) reactor came the realization that, with the flux available and improvements in monochromator technology, direct measurements of the normal modes of vibrations of solids and the structure and dynamics of liquids would be feasible. With further flux increases at the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor, the development of the triple-axis crystal spectrometer, and the invention of the constant-Q technique, the fields of lattice dynamics and magnetism and their interpretation in terms of the long-range forces between atoms and exchange interactions between spins took a major step forward. Experiments were performed over a seven-year period on simple metals such as potassium, complex metals such as lead, transition metals, semiconductors, and alkali halides. These were analyzed in terms of the atomic forces and demonstrated the long-range nature of the forces. The first measurements of spin wave excitations, in magnetite and in the 3D metal alloy CoFe, also came in this period. The first numerical estimates of the superfluid fraction of liquid helium II came from extensive measurements of the phonon–roton and multiphonon parts of the inelastic scattering. After the first two decades, neutron experiments continued at Chalk River until the shut-down of the NRU reactor in 2018 and the disbanding of the neutron effort in 2019, seventy years after the first experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Facilities)
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Article
A Pulse-Multiplication Proposal for MIRACLES, the Neutron TOF-Backscattering Instrument at the European Spallation Source
Quantum Beam Sci. 2021, 5(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/qubs5010002 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 609
Abstract
The fixed-energy window scan approach, for both elastic and inelastic modes, is a valuable tool to discriminate between motions activated when dynamical phase transitions occur in a sample as a function of time, temperature, pressure, electrical field or illumination. Considering that, on one [...] Read more.
The fixed-energy window scan approach, for both elastic and inelastic modes, is a valuable tool to discriminate between motions activated when dynamical phase transitions occur in a sample as a function of time, temperature, pressure, electrical field or illumination. Considering that, on one hand, such variations can generate a weak signal, and on the other, high data throughput makes it possible to screen many samples during a beam time, pulse multiplication is an ideal strategy to optimize the intensity of the analyzed signal. To ensure this capability, a proposal for a future upgrade of MIRACLES, the neutron time-of-flight backscattering spectrometer at the European Spallation Source (ESS) under construction in Lund, is reported in this article. The concept for a new chopper layout relies on the extraction of several elastic pulses, ensuring an increase in the neutron total elastic intensity hitting the sample. This proposal can be extended to the inelastic counterpart. The premise is to maintain the original beamline layout without modification, either of the guide sections or of the current chopper layout of MIRACLES, thereby guaranteeing that minimal changes and impact will occur during the proposed upgrade. However, this also presents a significant challenge, namely, to achieve an efficient pulse multiplication within the width and the length of the guide and within the rising/decay time of the pulses. With the concept presented here, an increase in elastic intensity by a factor of 2.8 was obtained. This is analogous to performing elastic fixed window (EFW) measurements with an ESS source operating at 14 MW, widening considerably the performance capabilities of MIRACLES. The knowledge generated here is also valuable for the design of scientific instruments for the next generation of low-energy, accelerator-driven neutron sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Neutron Instrumentation)
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Article
Irradiation Hardening Behavior of He-Irradiated V–Cr–Ti Alloys with Low Ti Addition
Quantum Beam Sci. 2021, 5(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/qubs5010001 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 755
Abstract
A set of V–(4–8)Cr–(0–4)Ti alloys was fabricated to survey an optimum composition to reduce the radioactivity of V–Cr–Ti alloys. These alloys were subjected to nano-indenter tests before and after 2-MeV He-ion irradiation at 500 °C and 700 °C with 0.5 dpa at peak [...] Read more.
A set of V–(4–8)Cr–(0–4)Ti alloys was fabricated to survey an optimum composition to reduce the radioactivity of V–Cr–Ti alloys. These alloys were subjected to nano-indenter tests before and after 2-MeV He-ion irradiation at 500 °C and 700 °C with 0.5 dpa at peak damage to investigate the effect of Cr and Ti addition and gas impurities for irradiation hardening behavior in V–Cr–Ti alloys. Cr and Ti addition to V–Cr–Ti alloys for solid–solution hardening remains small in the unirradiated V–(4–8)Cr–(0–4)Ti alloys. Irradiation hardening occurred for all V–Cr–Ti alloys. The V–4Cr–1Ti alloy shows the highest irradiation hardening among all V–Cr–Ti alloys and the gas impurity was enhanced to increase the irradiation hardening. These results may arise from the formation of Ti(CON) precipitate that was produced by He-ion irradiation. Irradiation hardening of V–Cr–1Ti did not depend significantly on Cr addition. Consequently, for irradiation hardening and void-swelling suppression, the optimum composition of V–Cr–Ti alloys for structural materials of fusion reactor engineering is proposed to be a highly purified V–(6–8)Cr–2Ti alloy. Full article
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