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Heritage, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2020) – 23 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In this paper, we present an experiment using computer vision and automated annotation of over ten thousand photographs from Instagram, connected with the buying and selling of human remains, in order to develop a distant view of the sensory effect of these photos: What macroscopic patterns exist, and how do these relate to the self-presentation of these individual vendors? The cover image is an example of our use of Microsoft’s Azure cloud computing and machine learning services, through which one can annotate photographs automatically and then visualize the co-occurrence of these tags as a series of networks. The resulting network per social media account gives us a sense of the sensory effect of the account. The results of this experiment suggest that this approach has utility for social media network analysis in general, whether related to trafficking research or not. View this paper
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Article
Preliminary Thermal Investigations of Calcium Antimonate Opacified White Glass Tesserae
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 549-560; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage3020032 - 26 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 671
Abstract
Calcium antimonate (in the hexagonal or cubic form) dispersed in the glass matrix is an artificially synthesized phase commonly documented as opacifier for white glasses during the Roman period. Glasses of this type occasionally contain variable amounts of lead oxide. There is no [...] Read more.
Calcium antimonate (in the hexagonal or cubic form) dispersed in the glass matrix is an artificially synthesized phase commonly documented as opacifier for white glasses during the Roman period. Glasses of this type occasionally contain variable amounts of lead oxide. There is no consensus about the origin and role of the lead component in white glasses, whether it was functional to modify the workability of the glass and/or to help the precipitation of the particles, or whether it was an unintentional pollutant introduced with the raw materials. A group of lead and lead-free white mosaic tesserae from the fourth-century CE villa of Noheda in Spain were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) to evaluate the impact of variable amounts of lead oxide in the precipitation of calcium antimonate on the viscosity of the glass. The analyzed glasses show thermal events that have been related to the composition of the glass via multicomponent linear regression model. CaSb2O6 and Ca2Sb2O7 formed in the glass during the cooling phase and the glass was not reheated. Lead oxide influences the thermal behavior of the glass, lowering the onset temperatures of all the events, implying a more cost-effective production process. We propose that lead was added intentionally or that lead-bearing raw materials were selected specifically by the ancient glass artisans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Archaeological Heritage)
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Article
On-Site VIS-NIR Spectral Reflectance and Colour Measurements—A Fast and Inexpensive Alternative for Delineating Sediment Layers Quantitatively? A Case Study from a Monumental Bronze Age Burial Mound (Seddin, Germany)
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 528-548; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage3020031 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1298
Abstract
Quantitative sediment analyses performed in the laboratory are often used throughout archaeological excavations to critically reflect on-site stratigraphic delineation. Established methods are, however, often time-consuming and expensive. Recent studies suggest that systematic image analysis can objectivise the delineation of stratigraphic layers based on [...] Read more.
Quantitative sediment analyses performed in the laboratory are often used throughout archaeological excavations to critically reflect on-site stratigraphic delineation. Established methods are, however, often time-consuming and expensive. Recent studies suggest that systematic image analysis can objectivise the delineation of stratigraphic layers based on fast quantitative spectral measurements. The presented study examines how these assumptions prevail when compared to modern techniques of sediment analysis. We examine an archaeological cross-section at a Bronze Age burial mound near Seddin (administrative district Prignitz, Brandenburg, Germany), consisting of several layers of construction-related material. Using detailed on-site descriptions supported by quantitatively measured sediment properties as a measure of quality, we compare clustering results of (i) extensive colour measurements conducted with an RGB and a multispectral camera during fieldwork, as well as (ii) selectively sampled sedimentological data and (iii) visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) hyperspectral data, both acquired in the laboratory. Furthermore, the influence of colour transformation to the CIELAB colour space (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage) and the possibilities of predicting soil organic carbon (SOC) based on image data are examined. Our results indicate that quantitative spectral measurements, while still experimental, can be used to delineate stratigraphic layers in a similar manner to traditional sedimentological data. The proposed processing steps further improved our results. Quantitative colour measurements should therefore be included in the current workflow of archaeological excavations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Technologies Applied to Cultural Heritage)
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Article
Maya of the Past, Present, and Future: Heritage, Anthropological Archaeology, and the Study of the Caste War of Yucatan
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 511-527; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage3020030 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1142
Abstract
This paper examines the relationship between the past, present, and future of Maya heritage and archaeology. We trace some of the background of Maya archaeology and Maya heritage studies in order to understand the state of the field today. We examine and demonstrate [...] Read more.
This paper examines the relationship between the past, present, and future of Maya heritage and archaeology. We trace some of the background of Maya archaeology and Maya heritage studies in order to understand the state of the field today. We examine and demonstrate how an integrated and collaborative community heritage project, based in Tihosuco, Quintana Roo, Mexico, has developed and changed over time in reaction to perceptions about heritage and identity within the local community. We also describe the many sub-programs of the Tihosuco Heritage and Community Development Project, showcasing our methods and outcomes, with the aim of presenting this as a model to be used by other anthropologists interested in collaborative heritage practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
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Different Ways of Knowing and a Different Ways of Being: On a Path to Reawakening Legacy of the Maya Forest
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 493-510; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage3020029 - 22 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1345
Abstract
Archaeological projects are in a special position to create unique partnerships, with shared goals and intentions, to development Maya anthropological archaeology. This narrative presents an education outreach project in archaeology invigorated with local collaboration. When priorities of active archaeological projects formally include resident [...] Read more.
Archaeological projects are in a special position to create unique partnerships, with shared goals and intentions, to development Maya anthropological archaeology. This narrative presents an education outreach project in archaeology invigorated with local collaboration. When priorities of active archaeological projects formally include resident community participation, new horizons and accomplishments are achieved. Local and international interests in heritage and cultural traditions create the platform for interactive relationships and identification of common ground. Together, our experience recognizes four educational pillars that revolve around ancient Maya heritage and the fundamental Maya forest garden. Centered on the protected area of the El Pilar Archaeological Reserve for Maya Flora and Fauna, El Pilar and forest gardens are celebrated at the urban Cayo Welcome Center, practiced at the active outfield Chak Ha Col forest garden, and taught at the rural Känan K’aax School Garden. As our experience demonstrates, community partnerships require specific elements of acknowledgment including a valued tangible heritage, a formal information outlet, an education link, and an honored cultural tradition. Together, these provide fertile ground for cultivating collaborations in the Maya region and across the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
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Article
Partaking in Culinary Heritage at Yaxunah, Yucatán during the 2017 Noma Mexico Pop-Up
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 474-492; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage3020028 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1113
Abstract
In spring of 2017, celebrity chef René Redzepi opened a pop-up of his famed restaurant, Noma, on the coast of the Yucatán Peninsula. During its run, Noma Mexico worked closely with the town of Yaxunah, a Yucatec-Mayan speaking community in the peninsula’s interior, [...] Read more.
In spring of 2017, celebrity chef René Redzepi opened a pop-up of his famed restaurant, Noma, on the coast of the Yucatán Peninsula. During its run, Noma Mexico worked closely with the town of Yaxunah, a Yucatec-Mayan speaking community in the peninsula’s interior, hiring women to make tortillas and acquiring local ingredients for the restaurant. For us—two archaeologists interested in past and present Maya food and agriculture who have worked in the Yaxunah community for years—this made the 2017 field season a compelling time to engage in culinary heritage. We share on-the-ground perspectives from our work with Yaxunah community members during a decisive spring for rural Yucatán’s globalizing food system. These perspectives offer a candid contribution to this special issue’s archive of community-based and heritage-engaged archaeological work in the Maya area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
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Article
Analyzing Near-Surface Regions of Hydrophobic and Long-Term Weathered Natural Stones at Microscopic Scale
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 457-473; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage3020027 - 12 Jun 2020
Viewed by 716
Abstract
The visual appearance of building structures is an important attribute which reflects the character and identity of a region. Due to the influence of weathering, the surfaces of building stones alter, leading to aesthetic changes of the material surface such as discoloration or [...] Read more.
The visual appearance of building structures is an important attribute which reflects the character and identity of a region. Due to the influence of weathering, the surfaces of building stones alter, leading to aesthetic changes of the material surface such as discoloration or darkening. In this study, near-surface regions of weathered Baumberger (BST), Schleeriether (SST), and Obernkirchener Sandstones (OKS) have been analyzed at the microscopic scale in order to investigate the intensity and the extent of visual as well as structural changes and how both can be affected due to the presence of surface treatments with hydrophobing agents. It could be detected that aesthetic changes appeared already after 2 years of outdoor exposure, with the slightest variations on BST surfaces, followed by SST and OKS. The use of hydrophobing agents leads to a reduction in surface darkening in the short term. After long-term weathering, no significant changes are visible, as similar values in total color difference (ΔE*) were measured. Biogenic growth and the formation of black weathering crusts are the main reasons for color alterations in the case of the examined stones. The surface damages occur especially on calcareous (BST) followed by clayey (SST) and quartzitic (OKS) stone surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geology and Heritage: From Natural to Built Heritage)
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Article
Archaeology and Heritage Management in the Maya Area: History and Practice at Caracol, Belize
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 436-456; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage3020026 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1027
Abstract
Archaeology and heritage management in the Maya area have developed differently in the various modern-day countries that make up ancient Mesoamerica. In the country of Belize, heritage management has been conjoined with archaeology since at least the late 1970s. Long-term projects, such as [...] Read more.
Archaeology and heritage management in the Maya area have developed differently in the various modern-day countries that make up ancient Mesoamerica. In the country of Belize, heritage management has been conjoined with archaeology since at least the late 1970s. Long-term projects, such as the 1985-to-present archaeological investigations at the ancient ruins that comprise the immense city of Caracol, Belize, demonstrate the evolution of heritage management. This abandoned metropolis has also been the location of concerted stabilization and conservation efforts. Research and heritage management efforts at this urban center have been coordinated and intertwined since the project’s inception. This article contextualizes the long-standing relationships between archaeology and cultural heritage as it has been practiced at Caracol, Belize within the broader field of Maya Studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
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Article
Making Space for Heritage: Collaboration, Sustainability, and Education in a Creole Community Archaeology Museum in Northern Belize
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 412-435; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage3020025 - 31 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1122
Abstract
Working with local partners, we developed an archaeology museum in the Creole community of Crooked Tree in the Maya lowlands of northern Belize. This community museum presents the deep history of human–environment interaction in the lower Belize River Watershed, which includes a wealth [...] Read more.
Working with local partners, we developed an archaeology museum in the Creole community of Crooked Tree in the Maya lowlands of northern Belize. This community museum presents the deep history of human–environment interaction in the lower Belize River Watershed, which includes a wealth of ancient Maya sites and, as the birthplace of Creole culture, a rich repository of historical archaeology and oral history. The Creole are descendants of Europeans and enslaved Africans brought to Belize—a former British colony—for logging in the colonial period. Belizean history in schools focuses heavily on the ancient Maya, which is well documented archaeologically, but Creole history and culture remain largely undocumented and make up only a small component of the social studies curriculum. The development of a community archaeology museum in Crooked Tree aims to address this blind spot. We discuss how cultural sustainability, collaborative partnerships, and the role of education have shaped this heritage-oriented project. Working with local teachers, we produced exhibit content that augments the national social studies curriculum. Archaeology and museum education offer object-based learning geared for school-age children and provide a powerful means of promoting cultural vitality, and a more inclusive consideration of Belizean history and cultural heritage practices and perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
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Review
Challenges for the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage (UCH), from Waterlogged and Weathered Stone Materials to Conservation Strategies: An Overview
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 402-411; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage3020024 - 29 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 869
Abstract
Despite the growing attention to Underwater Cultural Heritage (UCH) in Europe and worldwide, the efforts in wholly enjoying underwater archaeological assets and sites are still remarkable; hence, the need for innovative research and solutions that are suitable for raising knowledge on the subject. [...] Read more.
Despite the growing attention to Underwater Cultural Heritage (UCH) in Europe and worldwide, the efforts in wholly enjoying underwater archaeological assets and sites are still remarkable; hence, the need for innovative research and solutions that are suitable for raising knowledge on the subject. In this way, this paper wants to be a review for highlighting all of the developments, potentials, and results achieved in the last decade to reach a good protection of UCHs related to the study of stone materials, degradation processes, and the new methods for protection/consolidation directly in situ. The present work is focused on the analysis of the main results obtained from several studies conducted to date, providing additional guidelines for operators in the UCH sector (i.e., restorers, archaeologists, conservation scientists, geologists, etc.). Such guidelines will be a very useful key factor in enhancing knowledge, management, protection, and promotion of underwater sites. In particular, the purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of the state of the art on both consolidated techniques for studying materials coming from seawater and innovations in the field of protection and consolidation of UCH against biofouling, the main cause of damage in underwater environments. Full article
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Article
The Implementation of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention: Continuity and Compatibility as Qualifying Conditions of Integrity
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 384-401; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage3020023 - 28 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2747
Abstract
This article explores the nexus between integrity, continuity, and compatibility (compatible change) in the implementation of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention. Integrity is a measure by which the Advisory Bodies, namely the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) and the International Union [...] Read more.
This article explores the nexus between integrity, continuity, and compatibility (compatible change) in the implementation of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention. Integrity is a measure by which the Advisory Bodies, namely the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), evaluate nominations of cultural and/or natural properties to determine whether they qualify for inscription on the World Heritage List. Yet, its application remains unclear as presently worded in the Operational Guidelines. This article argues that continuity and compatibility should become qualifying conditions of integrity. Together, they can maintain wholeness, maintain intactness, and prevent adverse effects of development and/or neglect (Paragraph 88(a)(b)(c)) to keep properties in a good state of conservation, to sustain their cultural-natural significance including Outstanding Universal Value, and to enable sustainable development. This is an alternative conceptual and operational framework for nomination, evaluation, protection and management that bridges the culture/nature divide. If adopted, the “system of collective protection of the cultural and natural heritage of Outstanding Universal Value” established by the Convention would become more credible, practical, and effective. This article, therefore, contributes to World Heritage policy formulation and to a fruitful international exchange of ideas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cultural Heritage)
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Article
Assessing the Utility of Open-Access Bathymetric Data for Shipwreck Detection in the United States
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 364-383; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage3020022 - 24 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1557
Abstract
Investigation of submerged cultural heritage is an important area of archeological focus. However, the expense of acquiring the necessary data to conduct studies of underwater landscapes is often prohibitive to many researchers. Within the United States, highly resolved bathymetric data are openly available [...] Read more.
Investigation of submerged cultural heritage is an important area of archeological focus. However, the expense of acquiring the necessary data to conduct studies of underwater landscapes is often prohibitive to many researchers. Within the United States, highly resolved bathymetric data are openly available from governmental agencies, and yet little to no marine archaeological exploration has occurred using this information. Here, we investigate the archaeological utility of freely available bathymetric datasets from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in the United States. These datasets have not previously been utilized for archaeological publications, and include swath bathymetric and topographic LiDAR data, which are widely used by marine archaeologists. We present three case studies from Long Island, New York, coastal Massachusetts (on the Eastern coast of North America), and New Orleans (on the Gulf Coast of North America) to demonstrate the potential of this open-access information for locating shipwreck sites. Results indicate that shipwrecks at varying levels of preservation can be identified at depths up to 160 m, and that even in extremely turbid waters, bathymetric LiDAR can detect some wreckage. Following this assessment, we develop an automated shipwreck detection procedure using an inverse depression analysis. Our results are promising for automated detection methods in marine archaeology research. We argue that archaeologists in the United States should take advantage of these freely available data, as it is possible that these bathymetric data can be used for detection and conservation of cultural and environmental resources even without large funding acquisitions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Underwater Heritage)
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Article
Mul Meyaj Tía U Betá Jump’el Kaj: Working Together to Build a Community in Puuc Archaeology
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 342-363; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage3020021 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 869
Abstract
This paper explores specific challenges that archaeologists face when attempting to involve a broader community of local stakeholders in cultural heritage research. We combine our perspectives as a US-based archaeologist and a local community member in a discussion of practical approaches for promoting [...] Read more.
This paper explores specific challenges that archaeologists face when attempting to involve a broader community of local stakeholders in cultural heritage research. We combine our perspectives as a US-based archaeologist and a local community member in a discussion of practical approaches for promoting more equitable research collaborations in the Puuc region of the northern Maya lowlands. The format of the paper includes a blend of dialogue, narrative, and analysis. First, we evaluate the importance of engaging in social interactions outside of the fieldwork setting and examine the limitations to full-coverage community participation. Next, we discuss the structural barriers discouraging greater local interest in cultural heritage research. We assess the potential of linguistic education and digital conservation programs for encouraging broader-scale engagement with knowledge production. Finally, we highlight the importance of employment by archaeological research projects as the critical factor influencing local participation in heritage-related activities. Barring immediate structural changes to the socio-economy of the Yucatán, the most significant way to promote local involvement in cultural heritage projects is for archaeologists and community members to work together to try to secure funding for more sustainable employment opportunities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
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Article
Identifying the Original Colour of the Paintwork on the Artistic and Industrial Recreation Pavilion Designed by Antonio Palacios for the Galician Regional Exhibition Held in 1909
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 331-341; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage3020020 - 12 May 2020
Viewed by 810
Abstract
The former Artistic and Industrial Recreation Pavilion, which was designed by Antonio Palacios (1874–1945) and built for the Galician Regional Exhibition held in 1909 in Santiago de Compostela (Galicia, north-western Spain), and which currently houses a nursery school, was completely restored in 2018. [...] Read more.
The former Artistic and Industrial Recreation Pavilion, which was designed by Antonio Palacios (1874–1945) and built for the Galician Regional Exhibition held in 1909 in Santiago de Compostela (Galicia, north-western Spain), and which currently houses a nursery school, was completely restored in 2018. The main purpose of the restoration was to recover the original exterior colour of the building. For this purpose, a study was undertaken to identify the original colour of the paintwork by first consulting historical archives and then conducting a micromorphological analysis of stratigraphic paint samples by stereomicroscopic examination and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Three reformations of the building are documented: one carried out in 1926, when the metal roof was replaced with a tile roof; another conducted between 1967 (when the old pavilion was described as a "destroyed building") and the mid-1970s (when it began to be used as a nursery); and finally, another in 1981, when the building was repainted. The analytical results revealed layers of white or yellow ochre (vanilla) paint corresponding to different periods. The presence of titanium (Ti) in the paint was used as a marker of its age, as titanium white was first formulated in 1921. The original layers include Zn in their composition, indicating that zinc oxide (ZnO) was the pigment used in the “snow” white paint probably used on the building in its first years of existence. In all cases, the pigment base is lime mixed with silicates, kaolin and other clays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Artistic Heritage)
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Article
Imagining a Maya Archaeology That Is Anthropological and Attuned to Indigenous Cultural Heritage
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 318-330; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage3020019 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1302
Abstract
Taking an aspirational approach, this article imagines what Maya Archaeology would be like if it were truly anthropological and attuned to Indigenous heritage issues. In order to imagine such a future, the past of archaeology and anthropology is critically examined, including the emphasis [...] Read more.
Taking an aspirational approach, this article imagines what Maya Archaeology would be like if it were truly anthropological and attuned to Indigenous heritage issues. In order to imagine such a future, the past of archaeology and anthropology is critically examined, including the emphasis on processual theory within archaeology and the Indigenous critique of socio-cultural anthropology. Archaeological field work comes under scrutiny, particularly the emphasis on the product of field research over the collaborative process of engaging local and descendant communities. Particular significance is given to the role of settler colonialism in maintaining unequal access to and authority over landscapes filled with remains of the past. Interrogation of the distinction between archaeology and heritage results in the recommendation that the two approaches to the past be recognized as distinct and in tension with each other. Past heritage programs imagined and implemented in the Maya region by the author and colleagues are examined reflexively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
Brief Report
The Timber-Framed (TF) Masonries in L’Aquila: The baraccato Aquilano
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 306-317; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage3020018 - 06 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 686
Abstract
The reconstruction works following the 2009 earthquake in L’Aquila evidenced the presence of numerous Timber-Framed (T-F) masonries dating back to the 18th century. These masonries, likely built after the destructive 1703 earthquake in L’Aquila, are quite diverse from each other. In the evolutionary [...] Read more.
The reconstruction works following the 2009 earthquake in L’Aquila evidenced the presence of numerous Timber-Framed (T-F) masonries dating back to the 18th century. These masonries, likely built after the destructive 1703 earthquake in L’Aquila, are quite diverse from each other. In the evolutionary process of the so-called Italian baraccato, the presences found in L’Aquila possibly update the record of Italian traditional T-F masonries: the baraccato Beneventano developed after the earthquake in 1627, the baraccato Calabro after the 1783 earthquake in Calabria and the baraccato Aquilano after the 1703 earthquake in L’Aquila. The authors attempt to classify the traditional T-F structures found in a limited area of the city centre, providing simple descriptions of their geometrical and functional features. Additionally, the authors present a map indicating the recorded presences so far. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Protection of Cultural Heritage Masonry Structures)
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Article
Aesthetical Issues of Leonardo Da Vinci’s and Pablo Picasso’s Paintings with Stochastic Evaluation
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 283-305; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage3020017 - 25 Apr 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2685
Abstract
A physical process is characterized as complex when it is difficult to analyze or explain in a simple way. The complexity within an art painting is expected to be high, possibly comparable to that of nature. Therefore, constructions of artists (e.g., paintings, music, [...] Read more.
A physical process is characterized as complex when it is difficult to analyze or explain in a simple way. The complexity within an art painting is expected to be high, possibly comparable to that of nature. Therefore, constructions of artists (e.g., paintings, music, literature, etc.) are expected to be also of high complexity since they are produced by numerous human (e.g., logic, instinct, emotions, etc.) and non-human (e.g., quality of paints, paper, tools, etc.) processes interacting with each other in a complex manner. The result of the interaction among various processes is not a white-noise behavior, but one where clusters of high or low values of quantified attributes appear in a non-predictive manner, thus highly increasing the uncertainty and the variability. In this work, we analyze stochastic patterns in terms of the dependence structure of art paintings of Da Vinci and Picasso with a stochastic 2D tool and investigate the similarities or differences among the artworks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Artistic Heritage)
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A Classic Maya Mystery of a Medicinal Plant and Maya Hieroglyphs
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 275-282; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage3020016 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1560
Abstract
The Maya employed the k’an |K’AN| glyph in Late Classic (~750 CE) hieroglyphs on murals and polychrome pottery as an adjective meaning precious, yellow. On cacao drinking vessels, the k’an glyph was suggested as a descriptor for a flavoring ingredient, allspice, Pimenta dioica [...] Read more.
The Maya employed the k’an |K’AN| glyph in Late Classic (~750 CE) hieroglyphs on murals and polychrome pottery as an adjective meaning precious, yellow. On cacao drinking vessels, the k’an glyph was suggested as a descriptor for a flavoring ingredient, allspice, Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae). However, our previous consensus ethnobotanical fieldwork with Q’eqchi’ Maya healers of Belize revealed another candidate among antidiabetic plants, Tynanthus guatemalensis Donn. Sm. (Bignoniaceae), which was the healers’ top selection for treatment of diabetes and an exceptionally active extract in an antidiabetic assay for inhibition of protein glycation. Traits of T. guatemalensis observed after cross sectioning the liana were: (1) a cross-shaped xylem organization similar to the k’an glyph; (2) an allspice-like aroma; and (3) yellow color. Based on taxonomy and ethnobotany, confirmation of the allspice-like aromatic compound eugenol, and antidiabetic activity, we determined the plant described by the k’an glyph to be T. guatemalensis (chib’ayal in Q’eqchi’), not P. dioica (allspice). In contemporary Q’eqchi’ tradition, the section of the chib’ayal vine with its cross is associated with the eighth day of their Tzolk’in calendar, which is called the “nawal” (energy) of “q’anil” (ripe, full yellow). This day is represented with a different glyph from the k’an glyph, but notably has a cross representing the four cardinal points. The identification of a potent medicinal plant used in the late classic as well as contemporary times may suggest the long-term preservation of traditional medicinal knowledge in Maya culture for pharmacologically significant plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
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Authenticity or Continuity in the Implementation of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention? Scrutinizing Statements of Outstanding Universal Value, 1978–2019
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 243-274; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage3020015 - 15 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1991
Abstract
Continuity is a key theme in conservation and one that appears in the text of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, which requests States Parties to continue to protect, conserve and present properties situated on their territories (Article 26). Despite this fact, it is [...] Read more.
Continuity is a key theme in conservation and one that appears in the text of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, which requests States Parties to continue to protect, conserve and present properties situated on their territories (Article 26). Despite this fact, it is not put into effect. Instead, the Operational Guidelines for the implementation of this Convention retain authenticity as a benchmark for assessing cultural heritage. This article scrutinizes Statements of Outstanding Universal Value (SOUV) to prove that continuity is the evidence presented to justify inscription. It reveals that at least 263 properties were inscribed on the World Heritage List not because their values are truthfully and credibly expressed through a variety of attributes as per the Operational Guidelines (Paragraph 82), but because their values and attributes continue to exist. It also reveals that continuity is a recurring concept in other sections of the SOUV, and this holds true for natural properties. Indeed, continuity applies to both cultural and natural heritage, and to tangible and intangible attributes, but this is never admitted in the Operational Guidelines. In terms of future research directions, the article suggests exploring how change within properties affects judgements about authenticity and how guidance on impact assessment can be improved to better achieve the goal of compatible change, concluding that “an effective system of collective protection”, which is the raison-d’être of the Convention, is not one that aims at “conserving the authentic”, but one that aims at “managing continuity and compatible change” in an ever-evolving world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cultural Heritage)
Article
Reflecting on PASUC Heritage Initiatives through Time, Positionality, and Place
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 228-242; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage3020014 - 14 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1049
Abstract
This paper reports on heritage initiatives associated with a 12-year-long archaeology project in Yucatan, Mexico. Our work has involved both surprises and setbacks and in the spirit of adding to the repository of useful knowledge, we present these in a frank and transparent [...] Read more.
This paper reports on heritage initiatives associated with a 12-year-long archaeology project in Yucatan, Mexico. Our work has involved both surprises and setbacks and in the spirit of adding to the repository of useful knowledge, we present these in a frank and transparent manner. Our findings are significant for a number of reasons. First, we show that the possibilities available to a heritage project facilitated by archaeologists depend not just on the form and focus of other stakeholders, but on the gender, sexuality, and class position of the archaeologists. Second, we provide a ground-level view of what approaches work well and which do not in terms of identifying aspects of cultural heritage that are relevant to a broad swath of stakeholders. Finally, we discuss ways in which heritage projects can overcome constraints to expanding community collaboration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
Article
Towards a Digital Sensorial Archaeology as an Experiment in Distant Viewing of the Trade in Human Remains on Instagram
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 208-227; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage3020013 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1981
Abstract
It is possible to purchase human remains via Instagram. We present an experiment using computer vision and automated annotation of over ten thousand photographs from Instagram, connected with the buying and selling of human remains, in order to develop a distant view of [...] Read more.
It is possible to purchase human remains via Instagram. We present an experiment using computer vision and automated annotation of over ten thousand photographs from Instagram, connected with the buying and selling of human remains, in order to develop a distant view of the sensory affect of these photos: What macroscopic patterns exist, and how do these relate to the self-presentation of these individual vendors? Using Microsoft’s Azure cloud computing and machine learning services, we annotate and then visualize the co-occurrence of tags as a series of networks, giving us that macroscopic view. Vendors are clearly trying to mimic ‘museum’-like experiences, with differing degrees of effectiveness. This approach may therefore be useful for even larger-scale investigations of this trade beyond this single social media platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Art and Antiquities Crime)
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Review
Mountains as a Global Heritage: Arguments for Conserving the Natural Diversity of Mountain Regions
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 198-207; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage3020012 - 12 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1414
Abstract
This concise review posits the urgent need for conserving the natural diversity of mountain environments by envisioning mountains as a global natural heritage. Mountains are recognized as cradles of biodiversity and for their important ecosystem services. Mountains also constitute the second most popular [...] Read more.
This concise review posits the urgent need for conserving the natural diversity of mountain environments by envisioning mountains as a global natural heritage. Mountains are recognized as cradles of biodiversity and for their important ecosystem services. Mountains also constitute the second most popular outdoor destination category at the global level after islands and beaches. However, in the current age of accelerating global environmental change, mountain systems face unprecedented change in their ecological characteristics, and consequent effects will extend to the millions who depend directly on ecosystem services from mountains. Moreover, growing tourism is putting fragile mountain ecosystems under increasing stress. This situation requires scientists and mountain area management stakeholders to come together in order to protect mountains as a global heritage. By underlining the salient natural diversity characteristics of mountains and their relevance for understanding global environmental change, this critical review argues that it is important to appreciate both biotic and abiotic diversity features of mountains in order to create a notion of mountains as a shared heritage for humanity. Accordingly, the development of soft infrastructure that can communicate the essence of mountain destinations and a committed network of scientists and tourism scholars working together at the global level are required for safeguarding this shared heritage. Full article
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Article
Parametric Analysis on Local Mechanisms of Masonry Churches in Teramo (Italy)
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 176-197; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage3020011 - 01 Apr 2020
Viewed by 798
Abstract
Local collapse mechanisms related to the out-of-plane response of walls are commonly observed in existing masonry buildings subjected to earthquakes. In such structures, the lack of proper connections among orthogonal walls and between walls and floors does not allow a global box-type behaviour [...] Read more.
Local collapse mechanisms related to the out-of-plane response of walls are commonly observed in existing masonry buildings subjected to earthquakes. In such structures, the lack of proper connections among orthogonal walls and between walls and floors does not allow a global box-type behaviour of the building to develop, which would be governed by the in-plane response of walls. In this paper, parametric linear kinematic analyses on the main local mechanisms of masonry churches were performed with the aim to evaluate the corresponding horizontal load multipliers. This study was conducted on 12 masonry churches, located in Teramo (Italy) and affected by the 2016 Central Italy earthquake, whose main out-of-plane collapse mechanisms, namely facade overturning, vertical bending, corner overturning and roof gable wall overturning, have been analysed. For each mechanism, parametric analysis was carried out on varying heights and thicknesses of walls. Firstly, the acceleration values activating the considered mechanisms were calculated in order to conduct checks prescribed by the current Italian standard. Subsequently, on the basis of the obtained results, simple analytical procedures to determine load collapse multiplier for each mechanism were drawn. Finally, ranges of suitable values of both the thickness and height of walls were found in order to always satisfy seismic checks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Protection of Cultural Heritage Masonry Structures)
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Article
Cultural Heritage as a Means for Local Development in Mediterranean Historic Cities—The Need for an Urban Policy
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 152-175; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage3020010 - 26 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5614
Abstract
Urban and regional development have not stopped engaging, troubling, and dividing the international scientific community and national and regional policy-making bodies. The wide range of consequences brought on by the current multifaceted downturn at all geographical scales requires the continuous investigation of practices [...] Read more.
Urban and regional development have not stopped engaging, troubling, and dividing the international scientific community and national and regional policy-making bodies. The wide range of consequences brought on by the current multifaceted downturn at all geographical scales requires the continuous investigation of practices and the designation of innovative mechanisms or tools to formulate new developmental axes for action, able to respond to contemporary needs and challenges. This holds true particularly in an age, such as the one we are currently experiencing, of network organization of infrastructures and functions dominated by the knowledge economy. Within this framework, we estimate that the response to an attempt to restructure production in Greece and increase support for its cities and regions could be sought by setting up collaboration networks with cultural heritageand support creative entrepreneurship as key developmental “elements”, focusing on strategies for recovery, modernization, and a return to historic cities and regional settlements. Specifically, using inputs from a collaboration project among historic cities in the Mediterranean, and an ongoing research in fragmented insular regions with many historic cities and settlements in the Aegean, we maintain that the goal of restoring local communities could be sought though initiatives or actions to preserve and diffuselocal traditions and know-how in the framework of an overall urban developmental policy capable of ensuring ongoing collaboration and networking at all geographical levels and categories of space. In this rationale, this article attempts to contribute to the debate by stating proposals in the framework of principles and guidelines that should govern the formulation of this urban policy, which is still missing in Greece. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Heritage: Current Threats and Opportunities)
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