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Gastrointest. Disord., Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 10 articles

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Review
Interventions to Increase Adherence to a Gluten Free Diet in Patients with Coeliac Disease: A Scoping Review
Gastrointest. Disord. 2020, 2(3), 318-326; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gidisord2030029 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
Coeliac disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the small bowel, characterised by permanent intolerance to gluten. The only current and effective treatment for coeliac disease is a gluten free diet [GFD], however this is challenging for patients to adhere to. The review [...] Read more.
Coeliac disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the small bowel, characterised by permanent intolerance to gluten. The only current and effective treatment for coeliac disease is a gluten free diet [GFD], however this is challenging for patients to adhere to. The review aims to identify published interventions designed to improve patients’ adherence to a GFD. Ten intervention studies were identified and included within the review; whilst heterogeneous in delivery, all included an educational, behavioural, and practical element. Five interventions significantly improved dietary adherence, these included follow-up appointments, a telephone clinic, an online course, cooking sessions and psychological support. All studies were small and used varied methods to assess adherence. There is a paucity of well-designed interventions to promote dietary adherence, in future more robust methods for ascertaining adherence is needed, we recommend greater inclusion of dietetic assessment and combining more than one method for assessing adherence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coeliac Disease)
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Review
Nutritional Assessment in Gastrointestinal Tumors: News from the 2020 ASCO and ESMO World GI Meetings
Gastrointest. Disord. 2020, 2(3), 310-317; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gidisord2030028 - 21 Sep 2020
Viewed by 663
Abstract
Nutritional risk screening and assessment of general nutritional status are of primary importance in the management of gastrointestinal cancers (GIC). Indeed, a major problem in these patients is the involuntary weight loss leading eventually to cachexia. With our review, we aimed at collecting [...] Read more.
Nutritional risk screening and assessment of general nutritional status are of primary importance in the management of gastrointestinal cancers (GIC). Indeed, a major problem in these patients is the involuntary weight loss leading eventually to cachexia. With our review, we aimed at collecting the most recent advances in nutritional assessment of patients with GIC. All the abstracts presented both at the 2020 ASCO and ESMO World GI meetings were considered and a total number of 12 abstracts were selected, reporting colorectal, gastric, esophageal, and pancreatic cancer (PC) series. In some of the analyzed series, pathological conditions such as cachexia and sarcopenia had prognostic significance on clinical outcomes. One abstract reported the results of a phase I trial with the use of a novel interleukin-1-alpha antagonist, bermekimab. Its association with standard chemotherapy in advanced PC brought an improved patients’ performance during treatment. Insufficient attention is paid to the nutritional status of patients with GIC both at screening and during specific cancer treatment. The use of antropometric measurements, together with nutritional assessment tools, may facilitate the clinical evaluation of these patients. Large randomized trials are warranted in order to clarify the real impact of nutritional interventions on clinical outcomes. Full article
Article
Standardization of a Radiofrequency Ablation Tool in an Ex-Vivo Porcine Liver Model
Gastrointest. Disord. 2020, 2(3), 300-309; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gidisord2030027 - 18 Sep 2020
Viewed by 728
Abstract
(1) Background: Preclinical and clinical data about a novel radiofrequency ablation (RFA) system (STARmed Co, Ltd.; Koyang, Korea) designed to be used under endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) control for pancreatic lesion ablation, are limited, obtained with non-standardized procedures and heterogeneous results. The aim [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Preclinical and clinical data about a novel radiofrequency ablation (RFA) system (STARmed Co, Ltd.; Koyang, Korea) designed to be used under endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) control for pancreatic lesion ablation, are limited, obtained with non-standardized procedures and heterogeneous results. The aim of this study is to standardize the RFA procedure of this system in order to define the optimal ablation power and time. (2) Methods: RFA was performed on an ex-vivo porcine liver at different powers (40, 30, 20, 10 Watts (W)) and times (1, 3, 5, 7, 15 min) with a 1-centimeter monopolar electrode (perfused by chilled solution) positioned on the distal tip of a 19-Gauge needle. A blinded expert pathologist histologically analyzed each ablation area. (3) Results: The size of the total macroscopic ablated area was negatively correlated with ablation power (R −0.74): the largest was obtained at 10 W (p = 4.7 × 10−4) for longer times (R 0.92; p = 8.9 × 10−8). Central histologic coagulative necrosis did not differ among ablation settings (mean size 3.25 mm). External “parenchymal hypochromia” or “diaphanization” resulted the widest at 10 W, for longer times (R 0.8, p = 3.6 × 10−4). (4) Conclusions: The RFA system can produce small sizes of coagulative necrosis, regardless of the setting. Larger areas of diaphanization surrounding the necrosis can be produced at lower powers for longer times. Full article
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Review
A Gluten Free Diet in the Management of Epilepsy in People with Coeliac Disease or Gluten Sensitivity
Gastrointest. Disord. 2020, 2(3), 281-299; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gidisord2030026 - 08 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1360
Abstract
The aim of this review was to assess the effects of a gluten free diet (GFD) in the management of epilepsy in people with coeliac disease (CD) or gluten sensitivity (GS). A systematic approach was used to undertake a literature review. Five electronic [...] Read more.
The aim of this review was to assess the effects of a gluten free diet (GFD) in the management of epilepsy in people with coeliac disease (CD) or gluten sensitivity (GS). A systematic approach was used to undertake a literature review. Five electronic databases (PubMed; Scopus; Google Scholar; Cochrane Epilepsy Group specialised register; Cochrane Register of Controlled Trails (CENTRAL) via the Cochrane Register of Online Trials) were searched using predetermined relevant search terms. In total, 668 articles were identified. Duplicates were removed and predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, and a PRISMA flow chart was produced. Data was extracted using Covidence software. Twelve studies on Epilepsy and CD involving a total of 70 participants were selected for analysis; narrative synthesis was used owing to the small sample sizes in the selected studies. None of the 12 studies meeting inclusion criteria investigated gluten sensitivity and epilepsy. All the included studies support a link between epilepsy and CD. GFD was effective in 44 out of 70 participants across the studies in terms of a reduction of seizures, reduction of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) or normalisation of EEG pattern. A total of 44 participants showed a reduction in seizures (across eight studies) and complete cessation of seizures was reported in 22 participants. In general, the earlier the GFD is implemented after the onset of seizures, the better the likelihood of the GFD being successful in supporting control of seizures. Mechanisms linking gluten with epilepsy are not fully understood; possible hypotheses include gluten mediated toxicity, immune-induced cortical damage and malabsorption. Evidence suggests the effectiveness of a GFD in supporting the management of epilepsy in patients with CD, although the quality of evidence is low. There appears to be a growing number of neurologists who are prepared to advocate the use of a GFD. A multidisciplinary approaches and further research are recommended. It could be argued that when balancing potential treatments such as AEDs or surgery, a GFD has a low likelihood of harm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coeliac Disease)
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Article
VEGF Expression in Colorectal Cancer Metastatic Lymph Nodes: Clinicopathological Correlation and Prognostic Significance
Gastrointest. Disord. 2020, 2(3), 267-280; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gidisord2030025 - 29 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 750
Abstract
Background: Angiogenesis plays an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC) tumorigenesis and metastatic progression. Methods: The present series consisted of CRC lymph node metastasis (LNM) tissue samples from 210 patients. Archival paraffin embedded LNM tissue were used to build up tissue microarray blocks [...] Read more.
Background: Angiogenesis plays an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC) tumorigenesis and metastatic progression. Methods: The present series consisted of CRC lymph node metastasis (LNM) tissue samples from 210 patients. Archival paraffin embedded LNM tissue were used to build up tissue microarray blocks and VEGF expression was immunohistochemically assessed. Results: VEGF-A and VEGF-C are overexpressed in LNM. VEGF-A was associated with patient age (p < 0.001), and VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 with CRC relapse (p = 0.032; p = 0.030, respectively). VEGF-C positivity was associated with VEGFR-3 positivity (p = 0.031), and VEGF-D with VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 (p ≤ 0.001). Matching the expression in LNM with CRC, in CRC VEGF-A positivity associates with VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGF-R2, VEGF-R3 positivity in LNM; CRC VEGF-C with VEGF-D, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3; CRC VEGFR-2 with VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3; CRC VEGFR-3 with VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3 in LNM. Conclusion: This study provides new information, revealing that VEGF family expression is increased in LNM. The association between the expression of VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 in LNM with CRC relapse reveals its impact on patient prognosis. Interesting data were found when the relationship between these proteins in primary tumor and their metastasis, were analyzed; VEGFA positivity in primary tumor is positively related to VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 in their respective LNM suggesting mutual influence. Full article
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Review
Intestinal Immune Homeostasis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Perspective on Intracellular Response Mechanisms
Gastrointest. Disord. 2020, 2(3), 246-266; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gidisord2030024 - 22 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 891
Abstract
The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves perturbation of intestinal immune homeostasis in genetically susceptible individuals. A mutual interplay between intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and gut resident microbes maintains a homeostatic environment across the gut. An idiopathic gastrointestinal (GI) complication triggers aberrant [...] Read more.
The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves perturbation of intestinal immune homeostasis in genetically susceptible individuals. A mutual interplay between intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and gut resident microbes maintains a homeostatic environment across the gut. An idiopathic gastrointestinal (GI) complication triggers aberrant physiological stress in the epithelium and peripheral myeloid cells, leading to a chronic inflammatory condition. Indeed, events in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria contribute to orchestrating intracellular mechanisms such as the unfolded protein response (UPR) and oxidative stress, respectively, to resolve aberrant cellular stress. This review highlights the signaling cascades encrypted within ER and mitochondria in IECs and/or myeloid cells to dissipate chronic stress in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Full article
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Article
Comparison of the Status of Interstitial Cells of Cajal in the Smooth Muscle of the Antrum and Pylorus in Diabetic Male and Female Patients with Severe Gastroparesis
Gastrointest. Disord. 2020, 2(3), 236-245; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gidisord2030023 - 11 Aug 2020
Viewed by 682
Abstract
Females dominate in the area of gastroparesis (GP), making up to 70–80% of these patients. One attractive hypothesis is that females have less smooth muscle reserve and thus less resilience to recover from an insult. Our aim was to investigate if there are [...] Read more.
Females dominate in the area of gastroparesis (GP), making up to 70–80% of these patients. One attractive hypothesis is that females have less smooth muscle reserve and thus less resilience to recover from an insult. Our aim was to investigate if there are gender differences in the number of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in the antral and pyloric smooth muscle of diabetic (DM) patients with severe gastroparesis refractory to standard medical management. Full thickness antral and pyloric biopsies were obtained during surgery to implant a gastric electrical stimulation system and perform a pyloroplasty. Thirty-eight DM patients (66% females, n = 25; mean age 44) who failed medical therapies provided antral biopsies. Pyloric tissue samples were also collected from 29 of these patients (65% females, n = 19). Tissues were stained with H&E and c-Kit for the presence of ICC. ICC depletion was defined as less than 10 cells/HPF. In the antrum, 40% of females had significant ICC depletion, similar to 38% in males. In the pylorus, 68% of females had depletion of ICC, compared to 80% depletion in males. When combining both antral and pyloric smooth muscle regions, ICC depletion was similar in males (40%) when compared to females (38%). In diabetic patients with severe GP, females and males showed similar degrees of reduction in antral ICC, while more males had depletion of pyloric smooth muscle ICC compared to their female counterparts. Future larger studies should focus on whether differences in other smooth muscle biomarkers can be identified between males and females. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gastroparesis)
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Review
Circulating Tumour DNAs and Non-Coding RNAs as Liquid Biopsies for the Management of Colorectal Cancer Patients
Gastrointest. Disord. 2020, 2(3), 212-235; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gidisord2030022 - 22 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 855
Abstract
Circulating tumour DNAs and non-coding RNAs present in body fluids have been under investigation as tools for cancer diagnosis, disease monitoring, and prognosis for many years. These so-called liquid biopsies offer the opportunity to obtain information about the molecular make-up of a cancer [...] Read more.
Circulating tumour DNAs and non-coding RNAs present in body fluids have been under investigation as tools for cancer diagnosis, disease monitoring, and prognosis for many years. These so-called liquid biopsies offer the opportunity to obtain information about the molecular make-up of a cancer in a minimal invasive way and offer the possibility to implement theranostics for precision oncology. Furthermore, liquid biopsies could overcome the limitations of tissue biopsies in capturing the complexity of tumour heterogeneity within the primary cancer and among different metastatic sites. Liquid biopsies may also be implemented to detect early tumour formation or to monitor cancer relapse of response to therapy with greater sensitivity compared with the currently available protein-based blood biomarkers. Most colorectal cancers are often diagnosed at late stages and have a high mortality rate. Hence, biomolecules as nucleic acids present in liquid biopsies might have prognostic potential and could serve as predictive biomarkers for chemotherapeutic regimens. This review will focus on the role of circulating tumour DNAs and non-coding RNAs as diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers in the context of colorectal cancer. Full article
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Review
Should the Glu Be Ten or Twenty? An Update on the Ongoing Debate on Gluten Safety Limits for Patients with Celiac Disease
Gastrointest. Disord. 2020, 2(3), 202-211; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gidisord2030021 - 22 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1028
Abstract
The only currently accepted and recommended treatment for individuals diagnosed with celiac disease (CD) is a strict life-long gluten-free diet (GFD). While the use of the GFD is well-established, strict adherence to diet is not easy to accomplish. In addition, the administration of [...] Read more.
The only currently accepted and recommended treatment for individuals diagnosed with celiac disease (CD) is a strict life-long gluten-free diet (GFD). While the use of the GFD is well-established, strict adherence to diet is not easy to accomplish. In addition, the administration of a GFD may be compromised by inadvertent exposure to small amounts of gluten. International guidelines define a gluten-free product as one containing less than 20 parts per million (ppm), (20 milligrams of gluten per 1 kg of food) gluten. A number of reports have assessed the safe upper limit for gluten exposure for patients with CD, with general consensus that patients with CD should limit their daily intake to less than 50 mg. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coeliac Disease)
Article
Investigation of the Risk Factors and Associated Co-Morbid Conditions among Patients with Colorectal Cancer in Trinidad
Gastrointest. Disord. 2020, 2(3), 193-201; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gidisord2030020 - 14 Jul 2020
Viewed by 907
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer, and the fourth most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. In Trinidad and Tobago, it is the third most common type of cancer in both sexes. Since there is scanty research on the risk [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer, and the fourth most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. In Trinidad and Tobago, it is the third most common type of cancer in both sexes. Since there is scanty research on the risk factors associated with CRC, this study was conducted to determine the correlation between risk factors, including associated comorbid conditions, and CRC in Trinidad. A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst diagnosed CRC patients (>18 years) using a pre-tested questionnaire consisting of sections on demographic data, lifestyle before diagnosis, quality of life, and depression status. Additional information such as recurrence of cancer, Body Mass Index (BMI), Hypertension (HT), blood glucose levels and family history of cancer were collected from the medical records. Of the total participants, the majority were males (58%), and the mean age of diagnosis in both sexes was 65 years. The retrospective chart review showed that 68% were found to have a comorbid condition (Diabetes or HT). Upon review of the medical records, 93.2% of the subjects did not have a familial history. However, the questionnaire data showed that 73% of subjects had a family history. Around 50% of CRC patients were alcohol consumers and 30% were cigarette smokers prior to their cancer diagnosis. Interestingly, a majority of patients (91%) had never been screened for CRC prior to their diagnosis. Subjects with CRC displayed minimal depression, indicating that being diagnosed with CRC did not have a grave impact on their state of mind or quality of life. Our findings showed that prevalence of CRC was higher in males and amongst individuals of African descent. However, larger prospective studies may be warranted to fully demonstrate this effect. Full article
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