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Organics, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 7 articles

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Communication
1-(4-Nitrophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-Triazole-4-carbaldehyde: Scalable Synthesis and Its Use in the Preparation of 1-Alkyl-4-Formyl-1,2,3-triazoles
by , , and
Organics 2021, 2(4), 404-414; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/org2040024 (registering DOI) - 06 Dec 2021
Abstract
1,2,3-Triazole-4-carbaldehydes are useful synthetic intermediates which may play an important role in the discovery of novel applications of the 1,2,3-triazole moiety. In this work, a one-step multigram scale synthesis of 4-formyl-1-(4-nitrophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole (FNPT) as a preferred reagent for the synthesis of 1-alkyl-4-formyltriazoles [...] Read more.
1,2,3-Triazole-4-carbaldehydes are useful synthetic intermediates which may play an important role in the discovery of novel applications of the 1,2,3-triazole moiety. In this work, a one-step multigram scale synthesis of 4-formyl-1-(4-nitrophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole (FNPT) as a preferred reagent for the synthesis of 1-alkyl-4-formyltriazoles is described, making use of the commercially available 3-dimethylaminoacrolein and 4-nitrophenyl azide. Next, the earlier reported reaction of FNPT with alkylamines is further explored, and for hexylamine, the one-pot sequential cycloaddition and Cornforth rearrangement is demonstrated. In addition, a useful protocol for the in situ diazotization of 4-nitroaniline is provided. This facilitated the complete hydrolysis of rearranged 4-iminomethyl-1,2,3-triazoles and allowed for the recycling of 4-nitrophenyl azide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Reactions and Strategies for Natural Product Synthesis)
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Article
Primary Phosphines and Phosphine Oxides with a Stereogenic Carbon Center Adjacent to the Phosphorus Atom: Synthesis and Anti-Markovnikov Radical Addition to Alkenes
Organics 2021, 2(4), 395-403; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/org2040023 - 16 Nov 2021
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Abstract
Organophosphorus compounds with stereogenic phosphorus and carbon atoms have received increasing attention. In this regards, primary phosphines with a stereogenic carbon atom adjacent to the phosphorus atom were synthesized by the reduction in phosphonates and phosphonoselenoates with a binaphthyl group. Their oxidized products, [...] Read more.
Organophosphorus compounds with stereogenic phosphorus and carbon atoms have received increasing attention. In this regards, primary phosphines with a stereogenic carbon atom adjacent to the phosphorus atom were synthesized by the reduction in phosphonates and phosphonoselenoates with a binaphthyl group. Their oxidized products, i.e., phosphine oxides with a stereogenic tetrasubstituted carbon atom, were found to undergo BEt3-mediated radical addition to cyclohexene to give P-stereogenic secondary phosphine oxides with a diastereoselectivity of 91:9. The products were characterized by ordinary analytical methods, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR spectroscopies; and mass spectroscopy. Computational studies on the phosphorus-centered radical species and the obtained product implied that the thermodynamically stable radical and the adduct may be formed as a major diastereomer. The radical addition to a range of alkenes took place in an anti-Markovnikov fashion to give P-stereogenic secondary phosphine oxides. A variety of functional groups in the alkenes were tolerated under the reaction conditions to afford secondary phosphine oxides in moderate yields. Primary phosphines with an alkenyl group, which were generated in situ, underwent intramolecular cyclization to give five- and six-membered cyclic phosphines in high yields after protection by BH3. Full article
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Communication
Adamantane-Functionalized Phthalimide Scaffold: Pathways to Supramolecular Interactions and Drug Discovery
Organics 2021, 2(4), 388-394; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/org2040022 - 11 Nov 2021
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Abstract
Herein, the synthesis of a novel adamantanyl-functionalized phthalimide scaffold is demonstrated. The novel compound could be used as a precursor for various synthetic pathways owing to the generic use of adamantane substituents as the driving force for supramolecular interactions with macrocycles and N-substituted [...] Read more.
Herein, the synthesis of a novel adamantanyl-functionalized phthalimide scaffold is demonstrated. The novel compound could be used as a precursor for various synthetic pathways owing to the generic use of adamantane substituents as the driving force for supramolecular interactions with macrocycles and N-substituted phthalimide derivatives as a core structure in numerous drugs. The adamantanyl-functionalized phthalimide scaffold contains bromide groups on the C4 and C5 positions of the benzene ring, effectively allowing further facile modifications of the scaffold. The structure was fully characterized including single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure shows an adamantane moiety at an angle of 115.57(7)° to the phthalimide core, hence sterically freeing the adamantane unit for host–guest interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Reactions and Strategies for Natural Product Synthesis)
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Review
Recent Advances in Oxa-6π Electrocyclization Reactivity for the Synthesis of Privileged Natural Product Scaffolds
Organics 2021, 2(4), 376-387; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/org2040021 - 26 Oct 2021
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Abstract
The stunning advances in understanding the reactivity and selectivity principles of asymmetric pericyclic reactions have had a profound impact on the synthetic planning of complex natural products. Indeed, electrocyclizations, cycloadditions, and sigmatropic rearrangements enable synthetic chemists to craft highly functionalized scaffolds that would [...] Read more.
The stunning advances in understanding the reactivity and selectivity principles of asymmetric pericyclic reactions have had a profound impact on the synthetic planning of complex natural products. Indeed, electrocyclizations, cycloadditions, and sigmatropic rearrangements enable synthetic chemists to craft highly functionalized scaffolds that would not otherwise be possible with a similar atom-, step-, and redox-economy. In this review, selected examples from the last two decades of research (2003–2020) on tandem processes combining oxa-6π electrocyclic reactions are discussed in terms of reactivity challenges, inherent reversibility, and key structural bond formation in the assembly of natural products. A particular emphasis is given to the electrocyclic ring-closures in the tandem processes featuring Knoevenagel-type condensations, Diels–Alder cycloadditions, Stille couplings, and oxidative dearomatizations. The synthetic manifolds reviewed here illustrate how oxa-6π electrocyclizations are intimately linked to the construction of complex natural product scaffolds and have inspired a number of biomimetic syntheses in the laboratory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pericyclic Reactions in Organic Synthesis)
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Review
Boranils: Versatile Multifunctional Organic Fluorophores for Innovative Applications
Organics 2021, 2(4), 365-375; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/org2040020 - 12 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Multifunctional stimuli-responsive fluorophores showing bright environment-sensitive emissions have fueled intense research due to their innovative applications in the fields of biotechnologies, optoelectronics, and materials. A strong structural diversity is observed among molecular materials, which has been enriched over the years with a growing [...] Read more.
Multifunctional stimuli-responsive fluorophores showing bright environment-sensitive emissions have fueled intense research due to their innovative applications in the fields of biotechnologies, optoelectronics, and materials. A strong structural diversity is observed among molecular materials, which has been enriched over the years with a growing responsiveness to stimuli. Boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes have long been the flagship of emissive boron complexes due to their outstanding properties until a decade ago when analogues based on N^O, N^N, or N^C π-conjugated chelates emerged. The finality of developing borate dyes was to compensate for BODIPYs’ lack of solid-state fluorescence and small Stokes shifts while keeping their excellent optical properties in solution. Among them, the borate complexes based on a salicylaldimine ligand, called by the acronym boranils appear as the most promising, owing to their facile synthesis and dual-state emission properties. Boranil dyes have proven to be good alternatives to BODIPY dyes and have been applied in applications such as bioimaging, bioconjugation, and detection of biosubstrates. Meanwhile, ab initio calculations have rationalized experimental results and provided insightful feedback for future designs. This review article aims at providing a concise yet representative overview of the chemistry around the boranil core with the subsequent applications. Full article
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Review
Synthesis of 1-Trifluorometylindanes and Close Structures: A Mini Review
Organics 2021, 2(4), 348-364; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/org2040019 - 08 Oct 2021
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Abstract
This review describes methods for the synthesis of 1-trifluomethylindanes and close structures, which are still quite rare and scarcely available compounds. There are two main approaches to obtain 1-CF3-indanes. The first one is the construction of an indane system from CF [...] Read more.
This review describes methods for the synthesis of 1-trifluomethylindanes and close structures, which are still quite rare and scarcely available compounds. There are two main approaches to obtain 1-CF3-indanes. The first one is the construction of an indane system from CF3 precursors; the main methods are acid-mediated Friedel–Crafts cyclization, transition metal-catalyzed [3+2] annulation, and free-radical transformations. The second approach is the trifluoromethylation of a ready-made indane core by various CF3 sources, such as Ruppert–Prakash or Togni reagents. Many of these synthetic procedures possess high regio- and stereo-selectivity, allowing the preparation of unique 1-CF3-indane structures. In recent years, great attention has been paid to the synthesis of 1-CF3-indanes, due to the discovery of important biologically active properties for these compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Organics)
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Review
Recent Advances in the Synthesis of Piperazines: Focus on C–H Functionalization
Organics 2021, 2(4), 337-347; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/org2040018 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 325
Abstract
Piperazine ranks as the third most common nitrogen heterocycle in drug discovery, and it is the key component of several blockbuster drugs, such as Imatinib (also marketed as Gleevec) or Sildenafil, sold as Viagra. Despite its wide use in medicinal chemistry, the structural [...] Read more.
Piperazine ranks as the third most common nitrogen heterocycle in drug discovery, and it is the key component of several blockbuster drugs, such as Imatinib (also marketed as Gleevec) or Sildenafil, sold as Viagra. Despite its wide use in medicinal chemistry, the structural diversity of piperazines is limited, with about 80% of piperazine-containing drugs containing substituents only at the nitrogen positions. Recently, major advances have been made in the C–H functionalization of the carbon atoms of the piperazine ring. Herein, we present an overview of the recent synthetic methods to afford functionalized piperazines with a focus on C–H functionalization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Organics)
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