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Organics, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 6 articles

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Review
Electrocyclizations of Conjugated Azapolyenes Produced in Reactions of Azaheterocycles with Metal Carbenes
Organics 2021, 2(3), 313-336; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/org2030017 - 14 Sep 2021
Viewed by 248
Abstract
Conjugated azapolyenes (azabuta-1,3-dienes, aza-/diaza-/oxaza-/oxadiazahexa-1,3,5-trienes) are highly reactive in electrocyclization reactions, which makes them convenient precursors for the synthesis of a wide range of four-, five-, and six-membered nitrogen heterocycles that are of relevance for medicinal chemistry. Ring opening reactions of 2H-azirines [...] Read more.
Conjugated azapolyenes (azabuta-1,3-dienes, aza-/diaza-/oxaza-/oxadiazahexa-1,3,5-trienes) are highly reactive in electrocyclization reactions, which makes them convenient precursors for the synthesis of a wide range of four-, five-, and six-membered nitrogen heterocycles that are of relevance for medicinal chemistry. Ring opening reactions of 2H-azirines and azoles containing an N–N or N–O bond, initiated by a transition metal carbene, have become increasingly important in recent years, since they easily allow the generation of azapolyenes with different numbers of double bonds and heteroatoms in various positions. This review summarizes the literature, published mainly in the last decade, on the synthetic and mechanistic aspects of electrocyclizations of azapolyenes generated by the carbene method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pericyclic Reactions in Organic Synthesis)
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Communication
Synthesis of Illisimonin a Skeleton by Intramolecular Diels–Alder Reaction of Ortho-Benzoquinones and Biomimetic Skeletal Rearrangement of Allo-Cedranes
Organics 2021, 2(3), 306-312; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/org2030016 - 02 Sep 2021
Viewed by 356
Abstract
Illisimonin A is a new sesquiterpene isolated from Illicium simonsii, and it possesses a novel 5/5/5/5/5 pentacyclic skeleton. The tricyclic skeleton of illisimonin A, tricyclo[5.2.1.01,5]decane, is presumed to be biosynthesized from allo-cedranes via a skeletal rearrangement. Herein, we report [...] Read more.
Illisimonin A is a new sesquiterpene isolated from Illicium simonsii, and it possesses a novel 5/5/5/5/5 pentacyclic skeleton. The tricyclic skeleton of illisimonin A, tricyclo[5.2.1.01,5]decane, is presumed to be biosynthesized from allo-cedranes via a skeletal rearrangement. Herein, we report the concise synthesis of highly oxidized allo-cedranes by an intramolecular Diels–Alder reaction using ortho-benzoquinones and demonstrate the biomimetic transformation of allo-cedranes by a retro-Claisen/aldol pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pericyclic Reactions in Organic Synthesis)
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Review
Ring-Opening of Cyclodextrins: An Efficient Route to Pure Maltohexa-, Hepta-, and Octaoses
Organics 2021, 2(3), 287-305; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/org2030015 - 25 Aug 2021
Viewed by 299
Abstract
Many preparations of maltooligosaccharides have been described in literature, essentially using enzymatic or biotechnological processes. These compounds, derived from starch, are well-known as prebiotic agents. The use of maltohexa-, hepta-, and octaoses as synthons in organic synthesis was also well documented in literature. [...] Read more.
Many preparations of maltooligosaccharides have been described in literature, essentially using enzymatic or biotechnological processes. These compounds, derived from starch, are well-known as prebiotic agents. The use of maltohexa-, hepta-, and octaoses as synthons in organic synthesis was also well documented in literature. They can indeed be obtained as single compounds by the cyclodextrins’ ring-opening. This reaction has been studied for many years, varying the protecting and functional groups and the reaction conditions, leading to functionalized oligomaltoses. These compounds are of wide interest in various fields. They have a strong potential as scaffolds for multivalence in chemobiology, as building blocks for the production of biomimetic pseudo-glycopeptides, as well as monomers for the preparation of materials. In view of the importance of these oligomaltoses, this review focuses on the different methodologies allowing access to them via chemical and enzymatic ring-opening of cyclodextrins. Full article
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Article
Unveiling the Different Reactivity of Bent and Linear Three-Atom-Components Participating in [3 + 2] Cycloaddition Reactions
Organics 2021, 2(3), 274-286; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/org2030014 - 13 Aug 2021
Viewed by 292
Abstract
The reactivity of a series of pairs of bent and linear three-atom-component (B-TACs and L-TACs) participating in [3 + 2] cycloaddition (32CA) reactions towards ethylene and electrophilic dicyanoethylene (DCE) have been studied within the Molecular Electron Density Theory. While the pseudodiradical structure of [...] Read more.
The reactivity of a series of pairs of bent and linear three-atom-component (B-TACs and L-TACs) participating in [3 + 2] cycloaddition (32CA) reactions towards ethylene and electrophilic dicyanoethylene (DCE) have been studied within the Molecular Electron Density Theory. While the pseudodiradical structure of B-TACs changes to that of pseudoradical or carbenoid L-TACs upon dehydrogenation, zwitterionic B-TACs remain unchanged. Conceptual Density Functional Theory (CDFT) indices characterize five of the nine TACs as strong nucleophiles participating in polar reactions towards electrophilic ethylenes. The activation energies of the 32CA reactions with electrophilic DCE range from 0.5 to 22.0 kcal·mol1, being between 4.3 and 9.1 kcal·mol1 lower than those with ethylene. In general, B-TACs are more reactive than their L-TAC counterparts. A change in the regioselectivity is found in these polar 32CA reactions; in general, while B-TACs are meta regioselective, L-TACs are ortho regioselective. The geometrical parameters of the transition state structures suggest that the formation of the single bond involving the most electrophilic carbon of DCE is more advanced. A change in the asynchronicity in the reactions involving B-TACs and L-TACs is also found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry of Heterocycles)
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Review
Design, Synthesis, and Utility of Defined Molecular Scaffolds
Organics 2021, 2(3), 161-273; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/org2030013 - 11 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 772
Abstract
A growing theme in chemistry is the joining of multiple organic molecular building blocks to create functional molecules. Diverse derivatizable structures—here termed “scaffolds” comprised of “hubs”—provide the foundation for systematic covalent organization of a rich variety of building blocks. This review encompasses 30 [...] Read more.
A growing theme in chemistry is the joining of multiple organic molecular building blocks to create functional molecules. Diverse derivatizable structures—here termed “scaffolds” comprised of “hubs”—provide the foundation for systematic covalent organization of a rich variety of building blocks. This review encompasses 30 tri- or tetra-armed molecular hubs (e.g., triazine, lysine, arenes, dyes) that are used directly or in combination to give linear, cyclic, or branched scaffolds. Each scaffold is categorized by graph theory into one of 31 trees to express the molecular connectivity and overall architecture. Rational chemistry with exacting numbers of derivatizable sites is emphasized. The incorporation of water-solubilization motifs, robust or self-immolative linkers, enzymatically cleavable groups and functional appendages affords immense (and often late-stage) diversification of the scaffolds. Altogether, 107 target molecules are reviewed along with 19 syntheses to illustrate the distinctive chemistries for creating and derivatizing scaffolds. The review covers the history of the field up through 2020, briefly touching on statistically derivatized carriers employed in immunology as counterpoints to the rationally assembled and derivatized scaffolds here, although most citations are from the past two decades. The scaffolds are used widely in fields ranging from pure chemistry to artificial photosynthesis and biomedical sciences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Organics)
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Review
Development of Efficient and Selective Processes for the Synthesis of Commercially Important Chlorinated Phenols
Organics 2021, 2(3), 142-160; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/org2030012 - 08 Jul 2021
Viewed by 490
Abstract
para-Selective processes for the chlorination of phenols using sulphuryl chloride in the presence of various sulphur-containing catalysts have been successfully developed. Several chlorinated phenols, especially those derived by para-chlorination of phenol, ortho-cresol, meta-cresol, and meta-xylenol, are of significant [...] Read more.
para-Selective processes for the chlorination of phenols using sulphuryl chloride in the presence of various sulphur-containing catalysts have been successfully developed. Several chlorinated phenols, especially those derived by para-chlorination of phenol, ortho-cresol, meta-cresol, and meta-xylenol, are of significant commercial importance, but chlorination reactions of such phenols are not always as regioselective as would be desirable. We, therefore, undertook the challenge of developing suitable catalysts that might promote greater regioselectivity under conditions that might still be applicable for the commercial manufacture of products on a large scale. In this review, we chart our progress in this endeavour from early studies involving inorganic solids as potential catalysts, through the use of simple dialkyl sulphides, which were effective but unsuitable for commercial application, and through a variety of other types of sulphur compounds, to the eventual identification of particular poly(alkylene sulphide)s as very useful catalysts. When used in conjunction with a Lewis acid such as aluminium or ferric chloride as an activator, and with sulphuryl chloride as the reagent, quantitative yields of chlorophenols can be obtained with very high regioselectivity in the presence of tiny amounts of the polymeric sulphides, usually in solvent-free conditions (unless the phenol starting material is solid at temperatures even above about 50 °C). Notably, poly(alkylene sulphide)s containing longer spacer groups are particularly para-selective in the chlorination of m-cresol and m-xylenol, while, ones with shorter spacers are particularly para-selective in the chlorination of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, and o-cresol. Such chlorination processes result in some of the highest para/ortho ratios reported for the chlorination of phenols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Organics)
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