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Crops, Volume 1, Issue 2 (September 2021) – 5 articles

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Article
Growing Tomato under Protected Cultivation Conditions: Overall Effects on Productivity, Nutritional Yield, and Pest Incidences
Crops 2021, 1(2), 97-110; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/crops1020010 - 08 Sep 2021
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Abstract
Tomato continues to be one of the most important crops worldwide, and protected cultivation is practiced to overcome the biotic and abiotic stresses to which the plant are exposed during growth. In this study we evaluated the effect of colored net houses on [...] Read more.
Tomato continues to be one of the most important crops worldwide, and protected cultivation is practiced to overcome the biotic and abiotic stresses to which the plant are exposed during growth. In this study we evaluated the effect of colored net houses on the growth, yield and nutritional values, as well as the incidence of common pests under three different light conditions: (1) colored (magenta), (2) conventional (white), and open field conditions. A colored net house led the plants to grow taller with higher lycopene content, but recorded a higher number of whiteflies, compared to the conventional net house and open field conditions. Furthermore, plants under protected structures recorded lower SPAD values, but larger terminal leaflets, lower damage by leaf miners, but more damage caused by spider mites compared to those plants grown under open field conditions. Overall, we found that the use of colored net houses provided a positive effect on tomato production in terms of improvement in morphometric parameters, however, to obtain higher yields under this production system, it is important to reduce the elevated temperature and increase the relative humidity inside the protective structures to be adapted for local growing conditions in Taiwan. Full article
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Article
Salicylic Acid Pretreatment Modulates Wheat Responses to Glyphosate
Crops 2021, 1(2), 88-96; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/crops1020009 - 01 Sep 2021
Viewed by 292
Abstract
Glyphosate is an extensively used herbicide because of its non-selective action for weed control. Salicylic acid (SA) is a phenolic compound that has the potential to increase plant tolerance to diverse stresses. To test SA ability to modulate plant responses to glyphosate we [...] Read more.
Glyphosate is an extensively used herbicide because of its non-selective action for weed control. Salicylic acid (SA) is a phenolic compound that has the potential to increase plant tolerance to diverse stresses. To test SA ability to modulate plant responses to glyphosate we used young wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings grown as a water culture. Plants were sprayed with 1 mM SA, and 24 h later with 0.5 mM glyphosate. All measurements were performed 14 days after herbicide treatment. Wheat growth was reduced by glyphosate. Stress markers (proline and malondialdehyde) were significantly increased by glyphosate showing oxidative damages. Incapacity of wheat to cope with the oxidative stress was evidenced by reduction in thiols and phenolics content, accompanied by slight induction of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Enhanced activities of peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase were expected to participate in glyphosate detoxification. SA applied alone had no important effects on measured parameters. SA pretreatment decreased stress markers and caused additional amplification of antioxidant defense systems in glyphosate-treated plants. Growth was partially restored in combine-treated plants due to SA application. SA probably triggered antioxidant defense to cope with the herbicide stress. Full article
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Article
Can ‘On-Farm’ Seed Priming and Chitosan Seed Treatments Induce Host Defences in Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under Field Conditions?
Crops 2021, 1(2), 68-87; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/crops1020008 - 20 Aug 2021
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Abstract
Enhancing host defences through induced resistance, disease tolerance, and/or escape, in combination with current disease management regimes may be a valuable strategy to reduce pesticide use. Since both ‘on-farm’ seed priming (OSP) and chitosan priming (CHP) have been reported to confer varying levels [...] Read more.
Enhancing host defences through induced resistance, disease tolerance, and/or escape, in combination with current disease management regimes may be a valuable strategy to reduce pesticide use. Since both ‘on-farm’ seed priming (OSP) and chitosan priming (CHP) have been reported to confer varying levels of host defence, this study sought to investigate their potential to deliver disease control as a strategy for sustainable management of foliar pathogens in winter barley. Field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of OSP and CHP at two different field sites using three different cultivars under fungicide/non-fungicide regimes. Overall, no evidence was found to suggest that CHP or OSP can induce effective resistance in temperate field conditions. However, these field trials enabled the identification of candidate traits to deliver disease tolerance (and escape) for the primary and secondary spread of powdery mildew, i.e., large canopies and rapid stem elongation respectively. Thus, these seed treatments may deliver disease tolerance and escape traits, but these benefits are dependent upon successful establishment and vigour first. The integration of seed treatments into sustainable crop protection may be better undertaken with spring crops or in semi-arid agriculture where the added vigour at emergence can help compensate for negative environmental interactions. Full article
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Article
Diversity and Adaptation of Currently Grown Wheat Landraces and Modern Germplasm in Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkey
Crops 2021, 1(2), 54-67; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/crops1020007 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 636
Abstract
Collection of wheat landraces (WLR) was conducted in Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkey in 2010–2014. A representative subset of this collection was used in the current study and included 45 bread wheat landraces from Turkey, 19 from Iran, and 20 from Afghanistan. This material [...] Read more.
Collection of wheat landraces (WLR) was conducted in Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkey in 2010–2014. A representative subset of this collection was used in the current study and included 45 bread wheat landraces from Turkey, 19 from Iran, and 20 from Afghanistan. This material was supplemented by 73 modern cultivars and breeding lines adapted to semiarid conditions and irrigated conditions. Overall, 157 genotypes were tested in Turkey in 2018 and 2019 and in Afghanistan and Iran in 2019 under rainfed conditions to compare performance of WLR and modern material. The germplasm was genotyped using a high density Illumina Infinium 25K wheat SNP array and KASP markers for agronomic traits. The average grain yield ranged between 2.2 and 4.0 t/ha depending on the site and year. Three groups of landraces demonstrated similar average grain yield, though Afghanistan material was slightly higher yielding not only in Afghanistan but also in Turkey. Modern material outyielded the landraces in two environments out of four. The highest yielding landraces were competitive with the best modern germplasm. Frequency of gene Sus2-2B affecting 1000 kernel weight was 64% in WLR and only 3% in modern material. Presence of positive allele of Sus2-2B increased 1000 kernel weight by nearly 4%. Breeding strategy to improved landraces and modern cultivars is discussed. Full article
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Article
Biomass Yield and Nutritive Value of Rye (Secale cereale L.) and Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Forages While Grazed by Cattle
Crops 2021, 1(2), 42-53; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/crops1020006 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 456
Abstract
Management strategies that integrate crops and livestock may lengthen the productivity of seasonal pasture systems in agroecological zones with short growing seasons. The biomass yield and nutritive value of fall-planted rye (Secale cereale L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) forages were [...] Read more.
Management strategies that integrate crops and livestock may lengthen the productivity of seasonal pasture systems in agroecological zones with short growing seasons. The biomass yield and nutritive value of fall-planted rye (Secale cereale L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) forages were determined in an integrated crop–livestock system under rotational cattle (Bos taurus L.) grazing and organic conditions for seven weeks during the spring and summer in Minnesota, USA. Rye yielded greater forage biomass at the beginning of the grazing interval, while wheat yielded greater forage biomass in the latter part of the grazing interval. In general, wheat had greater crude protein and less neutral detergent fiber, compared to rye, throughout the grazing interval. The predicted total tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility of forages was ≥50 g 100 g−1 of neutral detergent fiber for at least the first four weeks of the grazing interval, indicating high forage digestibility in immature forages. Results from this study suggest that rye may provide more forage biomass for grazing earlier in the spring at the expense of lower nutritive quality, compared to wheat. Thus, the biomass yield and nutritional value of rye and wheat forages vary during the grazing interval, which informs producers of grazing schedule modifications in order to meet the nutritional demands of cattle. Full article
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