Special Issue "Applied Geochemistry and Clay Science"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 February 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Victoria Krupskaya
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Ore Geology, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Russian Academy of Science (IGEM RAS), 119017 Moscow, Russia
Interests: clays and clay minerals; mineral transformation due to geological and teсhnological processes; bentonite; radioactive waste isolation; sedimentology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I am pleased to invite you to contribute to this Special Issue, the main focus of which a combination of clay science, industrial mineralogy, and technogenesis.

The development of the economy leads to the formation of various technogenic processes, which can quickly lead to changes in the environment, biosphere, and technological parameters of various objects.

In this Special Issue, we invite papers discussing the impact of various anthropogenic/technogenic processes on the geological environment and biosphere, the use of clay materials in construction and the possible transformation of building materials over time, and the transformation of the chemical and mineralogical composition of clay minerals exposed to highly toxic including radioactive waste (RW). Additionally, we invite papers on the use of knowledge about clay minerals as a tool for solving various problems in the field of geological interpretation, facies analysis, art, pharmaceuticals, and, to a greater extent, for solving various environmental problems.

Clay minerals are difficult objects to study, so any research providing results aimed at methodological support of the analysis of clay materials and the development/implementation of an integrated analytical approach to the study of clay materials is of great significance.

Separately, studies aimed at studying the processes occurring in near-surface and deep geological disposal sites for radioactive waste, as well as at nuclear and radiation hazardous facilities after their decommissioning; the interaction of materials of engineered barrier systems (EBS); the transformation of radioactive waste matrices; the impact of pore water, temperature, pH of the environment. and other factors on the composition and properties of the EBS materials; and the behavior of bentonite in natural and model conditions of radioactive waste storage are invited.

Dr. Victoria Krupskaya
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Clay minerals
  • Waste matrix
  • Bentonite
  • Geochemistry
  • Radioactive waste
  • Technological processes
  • Technogenic processes
  • Engineered barriers
  • Microbiological impact
  • Properties of clay materials
  • Analysis of clay materials

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Mechanical Activation of Smectite-Based Nanocomposites for Creation of Smart Fertilizers
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 809; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12020809 - 13 Jan 2022
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Abstract
This research presents the mechanical creation of smart fertilizers from a mixture of smectite and urea in a 3:2 ratio by using the planetary milling technique. The smectite–urea composites show intercalation between urea and mineral, which increases steadily with increasing activation time. A [...] Read more.
This research presents the mechanical creation of smart fertilizers from a mixture of smectite and urea in a 3:2 ratio by using the planetary milling technique. The smectite–urea composites show intercalation between urea and mineral, which increases steadily with increasing activation time. A shift of X-Ray Diffraction basal reflections, intensities of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) peaks, and weight losses in thermogravimetric analysis (TG) document the systematic crystallo-chemical changes of the composites related to nitrogen interaction with activation. Observations of the nanocomposites by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) corroborate the inference. Nitrogen intercalates with smectite in the interlayer space and remains absorbed either within micro-aggregates or on the surface of activated smectites. Soil leaching tests reveal a slower rate of nitrogen than that of traditional urea fertilizers. Different forms of nitrogen within the composites cause their differential release rates to the soil. The formulated nanocomposite fertilizer enhances the quality and quantity of oat yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Geochemistry and Clay Science)
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Article
Sorption of 137Cs and 90Sr on Organic Sorbents
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(23), 11531; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112311531 - 05 Dec 2021
Viewed by 452
Abstract
The present study examines the sorption of Cs (I) and Sr (II) on organic sorbents in the pH range from 2 to 10, as well as the mechanisms of their binding. In order to determine the influence of the physical properties and the [...] Read more.
The present study examines the sorption of Cs (I) and Sr (II) on organic sorbents in the pH range from 2 to 10, as well as the mechanisms of their binding. In order to determine the influence of the physical properties and the quantity of functional groups of the organic sorbents on sorption, experiments were carried out on organic materials of varying degrees of metamorphism: high-moor peat, hard and brown coals and shungite. A detailed description of their mineral composition, cation exchange capacity, buffering capacity and elemental composition of sorbents is provided. XRD, XRF, SEM and BET adsorption methods were used for assaying. As a result of the conducted research, it can be concluded that Sr (II) showed a higher sorption per unit specific surface area than Cs (I) in the studied range of concentrations and pH values. Sr (II) sorption decreases in the following order: high-moor peat > brown coal > shungite > hard coal. The sorption of Cs (I) is highest on brown coal and lesser for high-moor peat, shungite and hard coal. It is suggested that Cs (I) and Sr (II) can be fixed on carboxyl functional groups and Cs (I), possibly, in insignificant amounts on phenolic hydroxyls of all four studied organic sorbents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Geochemistry and Clay Science)
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Article
Perspective Compounds for Immobilization of Spent Electrolyte from Pyrochemical Processing of Spent Nuclear Fuel
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(23), 11180; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112311180 - 25 Nov 2021
Viewed by 307
Abstract
Immobilization of spent electrolyte–radioactive waste (RW) generated during the pyrochemical processing of mixed nitride uranium–plutonium spent nuclear fuel is an acute task for further development of the closed nuclear fuel cycle with fast neutron reactors. The electrolyte is a mixture of chloride salts [...] Read more.
Immobilization of spent electrolyte–radioactive waste (RW) generated during the pyrochemical processing of mixed nitride uranium–plutonium spent nuclear fuel is an acute task for further development of the closed nuclear fuel cycle with fast neutron reactors. The electrolyte is a mixture of chloride salts that cannot be immobilized directly in conventional cement or glass matrix. In this work, a low-temperature magnesium potassium phosphate (MPP) matrix and two types of high-temperature matrices (sodium aluminoironphosphate (NAFP) glass and ceramics based on bentonite clay) were synthesized. Two systems (Li0.4K0.28La0.08Cs0.016Sr0.016Ba0.016Cl and Li0.56K0.40Cs0.02Sr0.02Cl) were used as spent electrolyte imitators. The phase composition and structure of obtained materials were studied by XRD and SEM-EDS methods. The differential leaching rate of Cs from MPP compound and ceramic based on bentonite clay was about 10−5 g/(cm2·day), and the rate of Na from NAFP glass was about 10−6 g/(cm2·day). The rate of 239Pu from MPP compound (leaching at 25 °C) and NAFP glass (leaching at 90 °C) was about 10−6 and 10−7 g/(cm2·day), respectively. All the synthesized materials demonstrated high hydrolytic, mechanical compression strength (40–50 MPa) even after thermal (up to 450 °C) and irradiation (up to 109 Gy) tests. The characteristics of the studied matrices correspond to the current requirements to immobilized high-level RW, that allow us to suggest these materials for industrial processing of the spent electrolyte. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Geochemistry and Clay Science)
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Article
An Application of Safety Assessment for Radioactive Waste Repository: Non-Equilibrium Transport of Tritium, Selenium, and Cesium in Crushed Granite with Different Path Lengths
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(20), 9750; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11209750 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 300
Abstract
Advection-dispersion experiments (ADE) were effectively designed for inadequate transport models through a calibration/validation process. HTO, selenium (Se), and cesium (Cs) transport in crushed granite were studied using a highly reliable, dynamic column device in order to obtain the retardation factors (R) and the [...] Read more.
Advection-dispersion experiments (ADE) were effectively designed for inadequate transport models through a calibration/validation process. HTO, selenium (Se), and cesium (Cs) transport in crushed granite were studied using a highly reliable, dynamic column device in order to obtain the retardation factors (R) and the dispersion coefficients (D) by fitting experimental breakthrough curves (BTCs) for various path lengths. In order to conduct a safety assessment (SA) of a deep geological repository for high-level radioactive waste, radionuclide transport in rock systems is necessary to clarify and establish a suitable model. A dynamic column with a radiotracer (HTO, Se(IV), and Cs) was applied to 2, 4, and 8 cm path lengths using a STANMOD simulation. The results showed similar results between the BTCs of Se and Cs by fitting a non-equilibrium sorption model due to the retardation effect. In fact, there was a relatively obvious sorption of Se and Cs in the BTCs obtained by fitting a retardation factor (R) value higher than 1. In addition, a two-region (physical) and a two-site (chemical) non-equilibrium model with either the lowest sum of squared residuals (SSQ) or the root mean square error (RMSE) were applied to determine the Se and Cs sorption mechanisms on granite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Geochemistry and Clay Science)
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