Special Issue "Exercise and Chronic Disease"

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Sarah L. West
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1 Department of Biology, Trent/Fleming School of Nursing, Trent University, LHS, D231, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9L 0G2, Canada
2 Translational Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada
Interests: exercise physiology; exercise and bone health; exercise in chronic disease; bone physiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Exercise is an important factor in maintaining health and wellness. Exercise has been demonstrated to help prevent chronic disease, treat symptoms associated with chronic disease, and in some cases help treat chronic disease itself (i.e., the use of “exercise as medicine”). However, disease-specific effects of exercise/the impact of exercise interventions is still an area that requires further research. A better understanding of what exercise prescriptions are best in various chronic diseases, and the effects of exercise on both physiological and psychosocial outcomes, is needed.

For this Special Issue “Exercise and Chronic Disease” in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, we invite submissions that examine the effects of exercise or physical activity on health in chronic disease, in both pediatric and adult cohorts. This includes, but is not limited to, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal and bone disease, obesity, rheumatological diseases, cancer, and other common or rare chronic diseases. Studies that examine how exercise can help prevent or treat chronic diseases and their outcomes (via exercise interventions, and cross-sectional or prospective evaluations) are welcome. Rigorous reviews of literature may also be considered. All manuscripts will be peer reviewed by experts in the field and are due in December 2021.

Dr. Sarah L. West
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • exercise
  • physical activity
  • chornic disease
  • health
  • exercise interventions
  • exercise as medicine
  • disease prevention

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Other

Editorial
Opportunities of Wearable Technology to Increase Physical Activity in Individuals with Chronic Disease: An Editorial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3124; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16173124 - 28 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1113
Abstract
In this editorial, we will discuss one promising tool to encourage physical activity participation in individuals with chronic disease: The use of wearable technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Chronic Disease)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Other

Article
Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Neuromodulation in Patients with Chronic Lateral Epicondylalgia: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4877; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18094877 - 03 May 2021
Viewed by 825
Abstract
Objective: The aim was to analyze effects of a percutaneous neuromodulation (PNM) treatment on the radial nerve, regarding pain, functionality, electrophysiologic excitability, and morphology, in patients with chronic lateral epicondylalgia (LE). Methods: Twenty-four patients with chronic unilateral elbow pain were recruited for this [...] Read more.
Objective: The aim was to analyze effects of a percutaneous neuromodulation (PNM) treatment on the radial nerve, regarding pain, functionality, electrophysiologic excitability, and morphology, in patients with chronic lateral epicondylalgia (LE). Methods: Twenty-four patients with chronic unilateral elbow pain were recruited for this preliminary study and were divided into two groups: control (n = 12) and PNM group (n = 12). The subjects in the PNM group received percutaneous peripheral neurostimulation with an acupuncture needle that was located next to the nerve with ultrasound guidance. Pain using a numerical rating scale (NRS), functional ability using patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation (PRTEE), radial nerve cross-sectional area measured by ultrasound, and chronaxie and accommodation index (AI) measured by the strength–duration curve were evaluated. Results: Both groups showed no differences in the baseline measurements (all p = 0.001). However, at the end of the treatment, there were significant differences between groups since only the PNM group significantly improved their values compared to their baseline values: level of pain and cross-sectional area (CSA) values showed a significant decrease while the PRTEE scores showed a significant improvement. Then, regarding AI, the PNM group showed significant improvement for the electrophysiologic nerve excitability pattern, reporting normal function in all radial nerves after treatment (p = 0.001). However, chronaxie values always reported similar values with no differences between groups (p >0.05); Conclusion: Ultrasound-PNM technique may be an interesting therapeutic tool for the treatment of chronic LE due to the improvement in the level of pain, functionality, nerve morphology, and excitability in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Chronic Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Icariin Treatment Enhanced the Skeletal Response to Exercise in Estrogen-Deficient Rats
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3779; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16193779 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 1007
Abstract
Estrogen deficiency frequently leads to a fall in estrogen receptor-α (ERα) numbers and then reduces the skeletal response to mechanical strain. It, however, is still unclear whether phytoestrogen administration will enhance the effects of exercise on the estrogen-deficient bone loss. This study aimed [...] Read more.
Estrogen deficiency frequently leads to a fall in estrogen receptor-α (ERα) numbers and then reduces the skeletal response to mechanical strain. It, however, is still unclear whether phytoestrogen administration will enhance the effects of exercise on the estrogen-deficient bone loss. This study aimed to determine the effect of Icariin treatment on the response of osteogenic formation to exercise in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Thirty-two 3-month old female Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly allocated into four groups: (1) Sham-operated (SO); (2) OVX; (3) OVX plus exercise (EX); and (4) OVX plus exercise and Icariin (EI). After 8-week interventions, the rats were killed and samples were collected for bone morphometry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Western blot analyses. EI interventions showed a greater improvement for the OVX-induced bone loss and the elevated serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) compared with EX only. Both EX and EI interventions bettered the OVX-related reduction of BV/TV and trabecular number and thickness, and decreased the enlargement of trabecular bone separation (Tb. Sp); the improvement for BV/TV and Tb. Sp was greater in EI group. Furthermore, EX and EI treatment significantly increased the number of ALP+ cells and mineralized nodule areas compared with OVX group; the change was higher in EI group. Additionally, in comparison to OVX rats, the protein and mRNA expression of β-catenin, phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt) or Akt, ERα, and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) in osteoblasts were elevated in EX and EI intervention rats, with greater change observed in EI group. The upregulated β-catenin and Akt mRNA levels in EX and EI groups was depressed by ICI182780 treatment, and the difference in β-catenin and Akt mRNA levels between EX and EI groups was no longer significant. Conclusively, the combination of Icariin and exercise significantly prevent OVX-induced bone loss and increase osteoblast differentiation and the ability of mineralization compared with exercise alone; the changes might be regulated partly by ERα/Akt/β-catenin pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Chronic Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Novel, Individualized Exercise Program for Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease Recovering from Bypass Surgery
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2127; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16122127 - 16 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1133
Abstract
The effectiveness of an individual six-month-long physical exercise program in improving health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is unclear. There is some evidence that an individual exercise program can be effective for this aim. The goal of this study was to compare an individual [...] Read more.
The effectiveness of an individual six-month-long physical exercise program in improving health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is unclear. There is some evidence that an individual exercise program can be effective for this aim. The goal of this study was to compare an individual six-month-long physical exercise program for patients with PAD (Peripheral Arterial Disease) with a traditional exercise program and find the effect of these programs on HRQOL and PAD risk factors. The study included patients who underwent femoral–popliteal artery bypass grafting surgery. Patients were divided into three groups: patients participating in an individual six-month-long physical exercise program (group I), in the standard physical activity program (group II), and in a control group (group III), with no subjects participating in rehabilitation II. Results: group I patients had a significantly (p < 0.001) higher HRQOL at 6 months after their surgery compared with groups II and III. The HRQOL scores were significantly (p < 0.05) lower after surgery among older (≥ 65), overweight participants, as well as among patients with diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases when comparing study results with patients without these risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Chronic Disease)
Article
Skeletal Muscle Dysfunction and Exercise Intolerance in Children Treated with Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant—A Pilot Feasibility Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(9), 1608; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16091608 - 08 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1104
Abstract
Haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is an intensive therapy for some pediatric hematological illnesses. Survivors are at risk for adverse effects including exercise intolerance. Peripheral tissue dysfunction may contribute to exercise intolerance; therefore, we examined the feasibility of a magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) [...] Read more.
Haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is an intensive therapy for some pediatric hematological illnesses. Survivors are at risk for adverse effects including exercise intolerance. Peripheral tissue dysfunction may contribute to exercise intolerance; therefore, we examined the feasibility of a magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) protocol to evaluate skeletal muscle metabolism in children post-HSCT. We measured demographic characteristics, aerobic exercise capacity (YMCA protocol), and skeletal muscle function in response to exercise (MRS; Siemens 3T MRI) in five children post-allogeneic HSCT and five age/body mass index-matched healthy controls (HCs). The mean age (± standard deviation) of the HSCT group and HC group were 11 ± 1.2 and 12.8 ± 2.4 years, respectively. Children post-HSCT had a lower peak aerobic exercise capacity compared to HCs (27.8 ± 3.4 vs. 40.3 ± 8.1 mL kg−1 min−1, respectively; p = 0.015). Exercise MRS testing protocols were successfully completed by all HSCT and HC participants; however, MRS-derived skeletal muscle metabolism variables were not different between the two groups. In conclusion, the use of exercise protocols in conjunction with MRS to assess peripheral skeletal muscle metabolism was achievable in children post-HSCT. In the future, larger studies should determine if skeletal muscle function is associated with exercise capacity in children post-HSCT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Chronic Disease)
Article
Cigarette Smoking Blunts Exercise-Induced Heart Rate Response among Young Adult Male Smokers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 1032; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16061032 - 21 Mar 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2022
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the exercise-induced heart rate response (HRR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in subjects caused by inhaling smoke from tobacco cigarettes (TC) and aerosolized vapor from electronic nicotine dispensing systems (ENDS) (commonly referred to as e-cigarettes (EC)). A randomized [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the exercise-induced heart rate response (HRR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in subjects caused by inhaling smoke from tobacco cigarettes (TC) and aerosolized vapor from electronic nicotine dispensing systems (ENDS) (commonly referred to as e-cigarettes (EC)). A randomized crossover study recruited 24 young adult male smokers with an average age of 23 years and with a smoking habit of at least two years. Heart rate response was recorded after a maximal multistage shuttle 20 m run test (MMST) under three different levels of nicotine: Control 0 mg nicotine of EC (C), 3 mg nicotine of EC (3EC), and 3 mg nicotine of TC (3TC). HRV was evaluated based on the beat-to-beat time interval during the running test. The results showed no statistically significant differences in the run time to exhaustion under the three conditions (C: 398 ± 151 s; 3EC: 399 ± 160 s; 3TC: 381 ± 150 s). Exercise-induced HRR was significantly attenuated under the TC condition (p < 0.05). Intriguingly, the HRV standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) during exercise significantly increased under 3EC and 3TC. The results showed that a significant acute autonomic cardiac modulation during exercise is induced by an acute episode of EC and TC smoking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Chronic Disease)
Article
Can an Exercise-Based Educational and Motivational Intervention be Durably Effective in Changing Compliance to Physical Activity and Anthropometric Risk in People with Type 2 Diabetes? A Follow-Up Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 701; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16050701 - 27 Feb 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1612
Abstract
Aims. A nine-month motivational exercise-based intervention was previously offered to subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). A year after the end of the intervention, compliance to physical activity (PA) and anthropometric indices of participants were analyzed to evaluate the durability of its effects. [...] Read more.
Aims. A nine-month motivational exercise-based intervention was previously offered to subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). A year after the end of the intervention, compliance to physical activity (PA) and anthropometric indices of participants were analyzed to evaluate the durability of its effects. Methods. PA levels, expressed as total energy expenditure per week, were assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Changes in Body Mass Index (BMI), A Body Shape Index (ABSI), Hip Index (HI) z-scores, the relative mortality risk related to each of these measures, and a combined Anthropometric Risk Index (ARI) were also evaluated. Results. Of a total of the 52 subjects examined (67.9% males, mean age 61.8 ± 6.0), 46 (88.4%) were still sufficiently active as defined by IPAQ thresholds at follow-up. PA levels, anthropometric indices and related risks improved at follow-up in respect to the baseline and to the end of the intervention, although only PA levels, BMI and related measures, and ARI risk changed significantly. Habitual PA increased significantly after the intervention (p < 0.01) and this increase correlated with changes in BMI z-scores (r = −0.29, p = 0.04). BMI risk was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in participants still active at follow-up. Conclusions. This study testifies to the persistence of compliance to PA and health benefits of a combined exercise-based and motivational intervention in subjects with T2D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Chronic Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Case Report
The Relationship between Physical Activity Levels and Mental Health in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury in South Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4423; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17124423 - 19 Jun 2020
Viewed by 902
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between physical activity (PA) levels and mental health in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Three hospitals in the Seoul metropolitan area were invited to recruit patients with SCI (n [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between physical activity (PA) levels and mental health in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Three hospitals in the Seoul metropolitan area were invited to recruit patients with SCI (n = 103). PA levels were measured by the Leisure Score Index of the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ). The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) questionnaire, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) were used to assess mental health. Results: Compared to the least physically active participants (1st tertile, 44.09 ± 52.74 min/week), the most physically active participants (3rd tertile, 670.86 ± 354.97 min/week) scored significantly lower on PHQ-9 (17.03 ± 5.70 vs. 12.49 ± 4.01, p < 0.001), GAD-7 (13.24 ± 4.78 vs. 9.86 ± 3.15, p < 0.001), while significantly higher MSPSS (51.24 ± 10.17 vs. 61.37 ± 11.90, p < 0.001) after the results were adjusted for age, gender, American Spinal Cord Injury Association impairment scale, and impaired spinal cord levels. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the PA was a significant predictor of depression (β = −1.50, p = 0.01), anxiety (β = −1.12, p = 0.02), and social support (β = 4.04, p = 0.01). Conclusion: Higher PA participation was associated with lower depression, anxiety, and higher social support scores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Chronic Disease)
Back to TopTop