Special Issue "Recent Advances in Dental Implants and Biomaterials"

A special issue of Journal of Functional Biomaterials (ISSN 2079-4983).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Neamat Hassan Abubakr
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Dental Medicine, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA
Interests: dental material; restorative dentistry; dental pain; dental anxiety; clinical trials
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Karl Kingsley
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA
Interests: dental materials; dental biomaterials; scaffolding; tissue engineering; biomechanics; regeneration; implants

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues, 

Recent advances in dentistry have led to improvements in diagnostic capabilities, as well as the rehabilitation of dental and oral tissues and the overall management and improvement of oral functioning. Dental biomaterials have played critical roles in these advances in rehabilitation and in the recovery of form and function.  

Many improvements have been made in the biomaterials used for dental amalgams and dental composites, as well as biomaterials for dental and maxillofacial grafting and tissue regeneration. The current revolution in nanotechnology and nanobiology has allowed for more innovation in the fields of bioactive glasses, resins, and polymers, with the potential for future applications in medicine and dentistry.

This Special Issue calls for recent studies from a range of fields in science and engineering that are poised to guide investigations on tissue-contacting biomaterials to control healing and advances in dental materials and their application using novel and interdisciplinary methods. and understand mechanisms, clinical perspectives, etc., which, overall, will be beneficial to healthcare.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Neamat Hassan Abubakr
Prof. Dr. Karl Kingsley
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Biomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dental materials
  • dental biomaterials
  • scaffolding
  • tissue engineering
  • biomechanics
  • regeneration
  • implants
  • polymers
  • resins
  • ionomers
  • nanotechnology
  • nanobiology
  • nanotechnology
  • bioactive restorative materials

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Functionalization with a Polyphenol-Rich Pomace Extract Empowers a Ceramic Bone Filler with In Vitro Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Pro-Osteogenic Properties
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(2), 31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb12020031 - 05 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 724
Abstract
Oral diseases and periodontitis in particular are a major health burden worldwide, because of their association with various systemic diseases and with conditions such as peri-implantitis. Attempts have been made over the years to reverse bone loss due to the host disproportionate inflammatory [...] Read more.
Oral diseases and periodontitis in particular are a major health burden worldwide, because of their association with various systemic diseases and with conditions such as peri-implantitis. Attempts have been made over the years to reverse bone loss due to the host disproportionate inflammatory response and to prevent failure of dental implants. To this end, the use of biomaterials functionalized with molecules characterized by anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties could represent a new frontier for regenerating functional periodontal tissues. In this study, a new ceramic granulated biomaterial, named Synergoss Red (SR), functionalized with a polyphenolic mixture extracted from pomace of the Croatina grape variety, is introduced. Following a preliminary in-depth characterization of the extract by HPLC analysis and of the biomaterial surface and composition, we performed evaluations of cytocompatibility and a biological response through in vitro assays. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of the identified phenolic molecules contained in SR were shown to downregulate inflammation in macrophages, to stimulate in osteoblast-like cells the expression of genes involved in deposition of the early bone matrix, and to mitigate bone remodeling by decreasing the RANKL/OPG ratio. Thanks to its cytocompatibility and assorted beneficial effects on bone regeneration, SR could be considered an innovative regenerative approach in periodontal therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Dental Implants and Biomaterials)
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Article
Comparative Study of Technologies for Tubule Occlusion and Treatment of Dentin Hypersensitivity
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(2), 27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb12020027 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 808
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the occluding/remineralization performance and resistance to acid attacks of the mineralization layer formed by a tooth-desensitizing gel containing amorphous calcium magnesium phosphate (ACMP) particles and compare it to six other desensitizing products available on the market. Similar comprehensive [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the occluding/remineralization performance and resistance to acid attacks of the mineralization layer formed by a tooth-desensitizing gel containing amorphous calcium magnesium phosphate (ACMP) particles and compare it to six other desensitizing products available on the market. Similar comprehensive studies are few and there is especially a lack of studies that are up to date. A dentin-disc model was used for in vitro evaluation of the desensitizing toothpastes/gels. Application of the products was performed twice daily for seven days. One set of specimens were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) directly after the final treatment and another set was evaluated after an acid challenge, exposing specimens to 2 wt% citric acid. The ACMP desensitizing gel was the only product resulting in complete occlusion by the formation of mineralized material on the dentin surface and inside the tubules. Particle deposition was dominant after treatment with the other desensitizing products, with little or no mineralization, resulting in partial occlusion only. Sensodyne Repair & Protect and Oral-B Pro-Expert showed the highest resistance toward acid attacks. Material inside the tubules remained relatively unaffected by acid attacks in all specimens. The results in this study indicated a great variability among the occluding agents in terms of occlusion and acid resistance of the mineralization layer. The high degree of occlusion and intra-tubular mineralization that could mitigate the effect of acid solubilization indicate that the ACMP desensitizing gel may be a superior option for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Dental Implants and Biomaterials)
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Article
Characterization of Dental Pulp Stem Cell Responses to Functional Biomaterials Including Mineralized Trioxide Aggregates
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(1), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb12010015 - 24 Feb 2021
Viewed by 673
Abstract
Introduction: Many studies in stem cell biology have demonstrated that dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) may be highly proliferative and capable of pluripotent differentiation into many different tissue types. Recent advances in stem cell research have outlined methods for directing in vitro or [...] Read more.
Introduction: Many studies in stem cell biology have demonstrated that dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) may be highly proliferative and capable of pluripotent differentiation into many different tissue types. Recent advances in stem cell research have outlined methods for directing in vitro or in vivo growth, viability, and proliferation, as well as differentiation of DPSC—although much remains to be discovered. Based upon this information, the primary objective of this study was to understand the functional biomaterials needed to more effectively direct DPSC viability, growth, and proliferation. Methods: Using an approved protocol, previously collected and isolated samples of DPSC from an existing repository were used. Previously established stem cell biomarkers (Sox-2, Oct-4, NANOG) from each isolate were correlated with their proliferation rates or doubling times to categorize them into rapid, intermediate, or slow-dividing multipotent DPSC. Growth factors and other functional dental biomaterials were subsequently tested to evaluate DPSC responses in proliferation, viability, and morphology. Results: Differential responses were observed among DPSC isolates to growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2), and functional biomaterials such as mineralized trioxide aggregates (MTA). The responsiveness of DPSC isolates did not correlate with any single factor but rather with a combination of proliferation rate and biomarker expression. Conclusions: These data strongly suggest that some, but not all, DPSC isolates are capable of a robust and significant in vitro response to differentiation stimuli, although this response is not universal. Although some biomarkers and phenotypes that distinguish and characterize these DPSC isolates may facilitate the ability to predict growth, viability, and differentiation potential, more research is needed to determine the other intrinsic and extrinsic factors that may contribute to and modulate these DPSC responses to these functional biomaterials for biotechnology and bioengineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Dental Implants and Biomaterials)
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Article
Temporomandibular Joint Prostheses: Optimal Materials for the Optimal Stomatognathic System Performance—Preliminary Study
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb12010007 - 26 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 680
Abstract
The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate alloplastic Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Prostheses against other treatment modalities regarding the jaw kinematics. Six patients with Temporomandibular Joint Prostheses, four with mandibular ramus Patient-Specific Implant (PSI) with condylar head preservation, and four after mandibular [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate alloplastic Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Prostheses against other treatment modalities regarding the jaw kinematics. Six patients with Temporomandibular Joint Prostheses, four with mandibular ramus Patient-Specific Implant (PSI) with condylar head preservation, and four after mandibular condylectomy were evaluated by the means of axiography (Cadiax Compact 2), which is the noninvasive three-dimensional study of condylar movements. The patients were also evaluated clinically for the mandibular movements. The study revealed that the significant movement limitations occurred bilaterally in patients fitted with TMJ prosthesis. For the protrusion movement, the vector length of the movement (L) for the TMJ prosthesis was 0.31 vs. 3.01 mm for the PSI (Kruskal–Wallis chi-squared = 9.1667, df = 2, p-value = 0.01022, post hoc Dunn p-value = 0.015) and for the laterotrusion to the operated side, the length of the vector (L) was 0.66 vs. 3.35 mm, respectively. Statistically significant differences between groups were most frequent for the laterotrusion to the unoperated side. The study shows that a further development on TMJ Prostheses geometry and materials is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Dental Implants and Biomaterials)
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Article
Evaluation of Hyaluronic Acid to Modulate Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Growth In Vitro
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(4), 72; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb11040072 - 01 Oct 2020
Viewed by 862
Abstract
Introduction: Previous studies have demonstrated that glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid (HA) is capable of mediating oral tumor growth. Some clinical evidence has suggested reduced HA expression predicts poor cancer prognosis and that HA-chemotherapy conjugates may function synergistically to inhibit oral tumor growth. Other studies [...] Read more.
Introduction: Previous studies have demonstrated that glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid (HA) is capable of mediating oral tumor growth. Some clinical evidence has suggested reduced HA expression predicts poor cancer prognosis and that HA-chemotherapy conjugates may function synergistically to inhibit oral tumor growth. Other studies have found conflicting results that suggest enhanced CD44-HA-mediated growth and proliferation. Due to the lack of clarity regarding HA function, the primary goal of this study was to investigate the effects of HA using well-characterized oral cancer cell lines. Methods: Using several commercially available oral squamous cell carcinoma lines (and a normal non-cancerous control), 96-well growth and viability assays were conducted using HA (alone and in combination with chemotherapeutic agents paclitaxel and PD98059). Results: Different results were observed in each of the cell lines evaluated. HA induced small, non-significant changes in cellular viability among each of the cell lines within a narrow range (1–8%), p = 0.207. However, HA induced differing effects on growth, with minimal, non-significant changes among some cell lines, such as SCC4 (+1.7%), CCL-30 (−2.8%), and SCC15 (−2.5%), p = 0.211 and more robust inhibition among other cell lines, SCC9 (−24.4%), SCC25 (−36.6%), and CAL27 (−47.8%), p = 0.0001. Differing effects were also observed with growth and viability under concomitant administration of HA with PD98059 or paclitaxel. Further analysis of these data revealed strong inverse (Pearson’s) correlations between initial baseline growth rate and responsiveness to HA administration, ranging from R = −0.27 to R = −0.883. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed differing responses to HA, which may be inversely correlated with intrinsic characteristics, such as the baseline growth rate. This may suggest that the more rapidly growing cell lines are more responsive to combination therapy with hyaluronic acid; an important finding that may provide insights into the mechanisms responsible for these observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Dental Implants and Biomaterials)
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Review

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Review
Effect of Resin Infiltration on Enamel: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(3), 48; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfb12030048 - 16 Aug 2021
Viewed by 460
Abstract
Subsurface enamel demineralization beneath an intact surface layer or white spots lesions (WSL) can and should be treated with non-invasive procedures to impede the development of a cavitated lesion. We aim to analyze if infiltrative resin improves enamel roughness, microhardness, shear bond strength, [...] Read more.
Subsurface enamel demineralization beneath an intact surface layer or white spots lesions (WSL) can and should be treated with non-invasive procedures to impede the development of a cavitated lesion. We aim to analyze if infiltrative resin improves enamel roughness, microhardness, shear bond strength, and penetration depth. MEDLINE [via Pubmed], Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, Web of Science, Scholar, and LILACS were searched until May 2021. Methodological quality was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Clinical Appraisal Checklist for Experimental Studies. Pairwise ratio of means (ROM) meta-analyses were carried out to compare the enamel properties after treatment with infiltrative resin on sound enamel and WSLs. From a total of 1604 articles, 48 studies were included. Enamel surface roughness decreased 35% in sound enamel (95%CI: 0.49–0.85, I2 = 98.2%) and 54% in WSLs (95%CI: 0.29–0.74, I2 = 98.5%). Microhardness reduced 24% in sound enamel (95%CI: 0.73–0.80, I2 = 99.1%) and increased by 68% in WSLs (95%CI: 1.51; 1.86, I2 = 99.8%). Shear bond strength reduced of 25% in sound enamel (95%CI: 0.60; 0.95, I2 = 96.9%) and increased by 89% in WSLs (95%CI: 1.28–2.79, I2 = 99.8%). Penetration depth was 65.39% of the WSLs (95%CI: 56.11–74.66, I2 = 100%). Infiltrative resins effectively promote evident changes in enamel properties in sound and WSLs. Future studies with long-term follow-ups are necessary to corroborate these results from experimental studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Dental Implants and Biomaterials)
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