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# Special Issue "Design Optimization and Performance Monitoring of Heat Exchangers"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

## Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Miguel J. Bagajewicz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA
Interests: process systems engineering; equipment basic design optimization financial engineering; product design; mathematical optimization methods
Prof. Dr. André Luiz Hemerly Costa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Chemistry, DOPI, Rio de Janeiro State University (UERJ), BR-20550900 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil
Interests: process systems engineering; equipment basic design optimization
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## Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The basic enginering design of heat exchangers requires the determination of a selected number of geometric dimensions (diameters, number of tubes, number of passes, etc., for shell and tube exchangers and similar data for other heat exchanger types). In the early years of limited computer power, the predominant procedure was one of trial and verification. If the guessed geometry renders a satisfactory heat transfer area and pressure drop, the procedure usually stops. If it does not, new dimensions are proposed. Although there are some rules to guide this process developed throughout the years, the end result is not an optimal exchanger, only a good one, depending on the expert performing the design. In the last few decades, several works have been presented adressing the problem using  mathematical models. These mathematical models consisted of a set of equations among which three sets are outstanding: the area verification equation (area larger than required), the heat transfer coefficients equations (using different heat transfer models) and the pressure drop equations. To obtain the optimal design, two objective functions are typically proposed: minimum area and minimum total annualized cost (area cost + pumping cost).  To solve these models, different types of tools were used. Previous methods were based on heuristics rules and/or enumeration. Later, metaheuristics and stochastic optimization tools were implemented. These proved to be effective once the parameters of these methods were properly tuned, but they never guarantee optimality, neither local or global, although they get close. Mathematical programming was used to attain these optima, first using MINLP procedures and later, through reformulation, some MILP models. In the recent years, new techniques were proposed departing from metaheuristics, enumeration, or mathematical programming techniques. In addition, the modeling of the exchangers is starting to depart from traditional LMTD-based procedures to develop models that are distributed, that is, including space related calculation of properties. These are important in cases where the physical properties vary significantly with temperature or when fouling is not uniform.  In parallel to the development of the aforementioned efforts, other advances were made in the direction of modeling fouling and using this knowledge to better design exchangers. Finally, the issue of monitoring the fouling and the translation into the scheduling of cleaning actions is raising popularity both in academic circles as well as in industry.

This Special Issue, entitled “Design Optimization and Performance Monitoring of Heat Exchangers,” aims to present novel advances in the development and application of computational modeling to address the aforementioned longstanding challenges in design and monitoring. Topics include, but are not limited to:

• Advanced modeling of heat exchangers of all types, including intensified exchangers, especially those that have not been thoroughly studied
• New heat exchanger geometries and their assessment
• Adanced procedures that improve design optimization computational time
• New approaches for fouling modeling as well as monitoring
• Novel ideas on scheduling of cleaning of preheating trains and heat exchanger network in general
Prof. Miguel J. Bagajewicz
Prof. André Luiz Hemerly Costa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

## Keywords

• Heat exchangers
• Heat Exchanger Design Optimization
• Fouling modeling
• Fouling monitoring
• Modelling

## Published Papers (1 paper)

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# Review

Review
A Review of Crystallization Fouling in Heat Exchangers
Processes 2021, 9(8), 1356; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9081356 - 01 Aug 2021
Viewed by 641
Abstract
A vast majority of heat exchangers suffer from unwanted deposition of material on the surface, which severely inhibits their performance and thus marks one of the biggest challenges in heat transfer. Despite numerous scientific investigations, prediction and prevention of fouling remain unresolved issues [...] Read more.
A vast majority of heat exchangers suffer from unwanted deposition of material on the surface, which severely inhibits their performance and thus marks one of the biggest challenges in heat transfer. Despite numerous scientific investigations, prediction and prevention of fouling remain unresolved issues in process engineering and are responsible for large economic losses and environmental damage. This review article focuses specifically on crystallization fouling, providing a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art of fouling in heat exchangers. The fundamentals of the topic are discussed, as the term fouling resistance is introduced along with distinct fouling behaviour, observed in laboratory and industrial environments. Insight into subsequent phases of the fouling process is provided, along with the accompanying microscale events. Furthermore, the effects of fluid composition, temperature, flow velocity, surface condition, nucleate boiling and composite fouling are comprehensively discussed. Fouling modelling is systematically reviewed, from the early work of Kern and Seaton to recently used artificial neural networks and computational fluid dynamics. Finally, the most common fouling mitigation approaches are presented, including design considerations and various on-line strategies, as well as off-line cleaning. According to our review, several topics require further study, such as the initial stage of crystal formation, the effects of ageing, the interplay of two or more fouling mechanisms and the underlying phenomena of several mitigation strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design Optimization and Performance Monitoring of Heat Exchangers)
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