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Article

Flavonoid Glycosides from Ziziphus jujuba var. inermis (Bunge) Rehder Seeds Inhibit α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone-Mediated Melanogenesis

1
Department of Marine Life Science, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
2
Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
3
Forest Biomaterials Research Center, National Institute of Forest Science, Jinju 52817, Korea
4
Department of Biochemistry, College of Oriental Medicine, Dong-Eui University, Busan 47227, Korea
5
Department of Chemistry, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52725, Korea
6
Korea Beauty Industry Development Institute, Jeju 63309, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David M. Pereira
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(14), 7701; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22147701
Received: 31 May 2021 / Revised: 11 July 2021 / Accepted: 15 July 2021 / Published: 19 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules on Melanogenesis and Melanoma)
Ziziphus jujuba extracts possess a broad spectrum of biological activities, such as antioxidant and anticancer activities in melanoma cancers. Nevertheless, the compounds contain high antioxidant capacities and anticancer activities in melanoma cells, shown to be effective in hyperpigmentation disorders, but whether flavonoid glycosides from Z. jujuba regulate anti-melanogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the anti-melanogenic activity of five flavonoid glycosides from Z. jujuba var. inermis (Bunge) Rehder seeds, including jujuboside A (JUA), jujuboside B (JUB), epiceanothic acid (EPA), betulin (BTL), and 6’’’-feruloylspinosin (FRS), in B16F10 melanoma cells and zebrafish larvae. According to our results, JUB, EPA, and FRS potently inhibited α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced melanogenesis and prevented hyperpigmentation in zebrafish larvae. In particular, under α-MSH-stimulated conditions, FRS most significantly inhibited α-MSH-induced intracellular and extracellular melanin content in B16F10 melanoma cells. Additionally, JUB, EPS, and FRS remarkably downregulated melanogenesis in α-MSH-treated zebrafish larvae, with no significant change in heart rate. Neither JUA nor BTA were effective in downregulating melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells and zebrafish larvae. Furthermore, JUB, EPA, and FRS directly inhibited in vitro mushroom tyrosinase enzyme activity. JUB, EPA, and FRS also downregulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and the phosphorylation of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), and subsequent microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase expression. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that JUB, EPA, and FRS isolated from Z. jujuba var. inermis (Bunge) Rehder seeds exhibit potent anti-melanogenic properties by inhibition of the cAMP-CERB-MITF axis and consequent tyrosinase activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ziziphus jujuba var. inermis (Bunge) Rehder; flavonoid glycoside Ziziphus jujuba var. inermis (Bunge) Rehder; flavonoid glycoside
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MDPI and ACS Style

Molagoda, I.M.N.; Lee, K.-T.; Athapaththu, A.M.G.K.; Choi, Y.-H.; Hwang, J.; Sim, S.-J.; Kang, S.; Kim, G.-Y. Flavonoid Glycosides from Ziziphus jujuba var. inermis (Bunge) Rehder Seeds Inhibit α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone-Mediated Melanogenesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 7701. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22147701

AMA Style

Molagoda IMN, Lee K-T, Athapaththu AMGK, Choi Y-H, Hwang J, Sim S-J, Kang S, Kim G-Y. Flavonoid Glycosides from Ziziphus jujuba var. inermis (Bunge) Rehder Seeds Inhibit α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone-Mediated Melanogenesis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(14):7701. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22147701

Chicago/Turabian Style

Molagoda, Ilandarage M.N., Kyoung-Tae Lee, Athapaththu M.G.K. Athapaththu, Yung-Hyun Choi, Jaeyoung Hwang, Su-Jin Sim, Sanghyuck Kang, and Gi-Young Kim. 2021. "Flavonoid Glycosides from Ziziphus jujuba var. inermis (Bunge) Rehder Seeds Inhibit α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone-Mediated Melanogenesis" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 14: 7701. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22147701

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