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Review

Astrocyte Activation in Neurovascular Damage and Repair Following Ischaemic Stroke

1
Brain Barriers Group, School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2321, Australia
2
Priority Research Centre for Stroke and Brain Injury, and Priority Research Centre for Brain & Mental Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2321, Australia
3
Hunter Medical Research Institute, New Lambton Heights, NSW 2305, Australia
4
Institute of Infection & Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L7 3EA, UK
5
School of Pharmacy and Bioengineering, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK
6
School of Medicine, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK
7
Neural Tissue Engineering: Keele (NTEK), Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK
8
Clinical Informatics and Neurosurgery Fellow, The Cleveland Clinic, 33 Grosvenor Square, London SW1X 7HY, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yuji Ueno
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(8), 4280; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22084280
Received: 7 March 2021 / Revised: 11 April 2021 / Accepted: 15 April 2021 / Published: 20 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroregeneration and Brain Repair after Stroke)
Transient or permanent loss of tissue perfusion due to ischaemic stroke can lead to damage to the neurovasculature, and disrupt brain homeostasis, causing long-term motor and cognitive deficits. Despite promising pre-clinical studies, clinically approved neuroprotective therapies are lacking. Most studies have focused on neurons while ignoring the important roles of other cells of the neurovascular unit, such as astrocytes and pericytes. Astrocytes are important for the development and maintenance of the blood–brain barrier, brain homeostasis, structural support, control of cerebral blood flow and secretion of neuroprotective factors. Emerging data suggest that astrocyte activation exerts both beneficial and detrimental effects following ischaemic stroke. Activated astrocytes provide neuroprotection and contribute to neurorestoration, but also secrete inflammatory modulators, leading to aggravation of the ischaemic lesion. Astrocytes are more resistant than other cell types to stroke pathology, and exert a regulative effect in response to ischaemia. These roles of astrocytes following ischaemic stroke remain incompletely understood, though they represent an appealing target for neurovascular protection following stroke. In this review, we summarise the astrocytic contributions to neurovascular damage and repair following ischaemic stroke, and explore mechanisms of neuroprotection that promote revascularisation and neurorestoration, which may be targeted for developing novel therapies for ischaemic stroke. View Full-Text
Keywords: stroke; astrocyte; neurovascular; neuroprotection; neurotoxicity; neurorestoration; neuroinflammation; secretion stroke; astrocyte; neurovascular; neuroprotection; neurotoxicity; neurorestoration; neuroinflammation; secretion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Patabendige, A.; Singh, A.; Jenkins, S.; Sen, J.; Chen, R. Astrocyte Activation in Neurovascular Damage and Repair Following Ischaemic Stroke. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 4280. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22084280

AMA Style

Patabendige A, Singh A, Jenkins S, Sen J, Chen R. Astrocyte Activation in Neurovascular Damage and Repair Following Ischaemic Stroke. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(8):4280. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22084280

Chicago/Turabian Style

Patabendige, Adjanie, Ayesha Singh, Stuart Jenkins, Jon Sen, and Ruoli Chen. 2021. "Astrocyte Activation in Neurovascular Damage and Repair Following Ischaemic Stroke" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 8: 4280. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22084280

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