Previous Issue
Volume 19, September

Mar. Drugs, Volume 19, Issue 10 (October 2021) – 52 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile Dampens Cell Migration of Human Neuroblastoma Cells
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 579; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100579 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2021
Abstract
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a common cancer in childhood, and lethal in its high-risk form, primarily because of its high metastatic potential. Targeting cancer cell migration, and thus preventing metastasis formation, is the rationale for more effective cancer therapy against NB. Previous studies have [...] Read more.
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a common cancer in childhood, and lethal in its high-risk form, primarily because of its high metastatic potential. Targeting cancer cell migration, and thus preventing metastasis formation, is the rationale for more effective cancer therapy against NB. Previous studies have described the leaf extract from Posidonia oceanica marine plant (POE) as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory agent and inhibitor of cancer cell migration. This study aims to examine the POE anti-migratory role in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and the underlying mechanisms of action. Wound healing and gelatin zymography assays showed that POE at early times inhibits cell migration and reduces pro-MMP-2 release into culture medium. By monitoring expression level of key autophagy markers by Western blot assay, a correlation between POE-induced cell migration inhibition and autophagy activation was demonstrated. Cell morphology and immunofluorescence analyses showed that POE induces neurite formation and neuronal differentiation at later times. These results suggest POE might act against cell migration by triggering early nontoxic autophagy. The POE-induced cellular morphological change toward cell differentiation might contribute to prolonging the phytocomplex anti-migratory effect to later times. Overall, these results encourage future in vivo studies to test POE applicability in neuroblastoma treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potential Role of Marine Compounds on Cell Migration)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Nutritional Value and Biofunctionalities of Two Edible Green Seaweeds (Ulva lactuca and Caulerpa racemosa) from Indonesia by Subcritical Water Hydrolysis
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 578; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100578 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2021
Abstract
Caulerpa racemosa (sea grapes) and Ulva lactuca (sea lettuces) are edible green seaweeds and good sources of bioactive compounds for future foods, nutraceuticals and cosmeceutical industries. In the present study, we determined nutritional values and investigated the recovery of bioactive compounds from C. [...] Read more.
Caulerpa racemosa (sea grapes) and Ulva lactuca (sea lettuces) are edible green seaweeds and good sources of bioactive compounds for future foods, nutraceuticals and cosmeceutical industries. In the present study, we determined nutritional values and investigated the recovery of bioactive compounds from C. racemosa and U. lactuca using hot water extraction (HWE) and subcritical water extraction (SWE) at different extraction temperatures (110 to 230 ºC). Besides significantly higher extraction yield, SWE processes also give higher protein, sugar, total phenolic (TPC), saponin (TSC), flavonoid contents (TFC) and antioxidant activities as compared to the conventional HWE process. When SWE process was applied, the highest TPC, TSC and TFC values were obtained from U. lactuca hydrolyzed at reaction temperature 230 ºC with the value of 39.82 ± 0.32 GAE mg/g, 13.22 ± 0.33 DE mg/g and 6.5 ± 0.47 QE mg/g, respectively. In addition, it also showed the highest antioxidant activity with values of 5.45 ± 0.11 ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE) mg/g and 8.03 ± 0.06 trolox equivalents (TE) mg/g for ABTS and total antioxidant, respectively. The highest phenolic acids in U. lactuca were gallic acid and vanillic acid. Cytotoxic assays demonstrated that C. racemosa and U. lactuca hydrolysates obtained by HWE and SWE did not show any toxic effect on RAW 264.7 cells at tested concentrations after 24 h and 48 h of treatment (p < 0.05), suggesting that both hydrolysates were safe and non-toxic for application in foods, cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals products. In addition, the results of this study demonstrated the potential of SWE for the production of high-quality seaweed hydrolysates. Collectively, this study shows the potential of under-exploited tropical green seaweed resources as potential antioxidants in nutraceutical and cosmeceutical products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutra-Cosmeceuticals from Algae for Health and Wellness)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
In Vitro Anti-Orthohantavirus Activity of the High-and Low-Molecular-Weight Fractions of Fucoidan from the Brown Alga Fucus evanescens
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 577; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100577 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2021
Abstract
The Hantaan orthohantavirus (genovariant Amur–AMRV) is a rodent-borne zoonotic virus; it is the causative agent of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. The currently limited therapeutic options require the development of effective anti-orthohantavirus drugs. The ability of native fucoidan from Fucus evanescens [...] Read more.
The Hantaan orthohantavirus (genovariant Amur–AMRV) is a rodent-borne zoonotic virus; it is the causative agent of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. The currently limited therapeutic options require the development of effective anti-orthohantavirus drugs. The ability of native fucoidan from Fucus evanescens (FeF) and its enzymatically prepared high-molecular-weight (FeHMP) and low-molecular-weight (FeLMP) fractions to inhibit different stages of AMRV infection in Vero cells was studied. The structures of derivatives obtained were determined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We found that fucoidan and its derivatives exhibited significant antiviral activity by affecting the early stages of the AMRV lifecycle, notably virus attachment and penetration. The FeHMP and FeLMP fractions showed the highest anti-adsorption activity by inhibiting AMRV focus formation, with a selective index (SI) > 110; FeF had an SI of ~70. The FeLMP fraction showed a greater virucidal effect compared with FeF and the FeHMP fraction. It was shown by molecular docking that 2O-sulphated fucotetrasaccharide, a main component of the FeLMP fraction, is able to bind with the AMRV envelope glycoproteins Gn/Gc and with integrin β3 to prevent virus–cell interactions. The relatively small size of these sites of interactions explains the higher anti-AMRV activity of the FeLMP fraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Antiviral Agents with Emphasis on Anti-HIV)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Laminarin, a Major Polysaccharide in Stramenopiles
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 576; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100576 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 97
Abstract
During the processes of primary and secondary endosymbiosis, different microalgae evolved to synthesis different storage polysaccharides. In stramenopiles, the main storage polysaccharides are β-1,3-glucan, or laminarin, in vacuoles. Currently, laminarin is gaining considerable attention due to its application in the food, cosmetic and [...] Read more.
During the processes of primary and secondary endosymbiosis, different microalgae evolved to synthesis different storage polysaccharides. In stramenopiles, the main storage polysaccharides are β-1,3-glucan, or laminarin, in vacuoles. Currently, laminarin is gaining considerable attention due to its application in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceuticals industries, and also its importance in global biogeochemical cycles (especially in the ocean carbon cycle). In this review, the structures, composition, contents, and bioactivity of laminarin were summarized in different algae. It was shown that the general features of laminarin are species-dependence. Furthermore, the proposed biosynthesis and catabolism pathways of laminarin, functions of key genes, and diel regulation of laminarin were also depicted and comprehensively discussed for the first time. However, the complete pathways, functions of genes, and diel regulatory mechanisms of laminarin require more biomolecular studies. This review provides more useful information and identifies the knowledge gap regarding the future studies of laminarin and its applications. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Saliniquinone Derivatives, Saliniquinones G−I and Heraclemycin E, from the Marine Animal-Derived Nocardiopsis aegyptia HDN19-252
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 575; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100575 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 197
Abstract
Four new anthraquinone derivatives, namely saliniquinones G−I (13) and heraclemycin E (4), were obtained from the Antarctic marine-derived actinomycete Nocardiopsis aegyptia HDN19-252, guided by the Global Natural Products Social (GNPS) molecular networking platform. Their structures, including absolute [...] Read more.
Four new anthraquinone derivatives, namely saliniquinones G−I (13) and heraclemycin E (4), were obtained from the Antarctic marine-derived actinomycete Nocardiopsis aegyptia HDN19-252, guided by the Global Natural Products Social (GNPS) molecular networking platform. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated by extensive NMR, MS, and ECD analyses. Compounds 1 and 2 showed promising inhibitory activity against six tested bacterial strains, including methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS), with MIC values ranging from 3.1 to 12.5 μM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Drug Discovery through Computer-Aided Approaches)
Article
Valorization of the Red Algae Gelidium sesquipedale by Extracting a Broad Spectrum of Minor Compounds Using Green Approaches
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 574; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100574 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 134
Abstract
Until now, the red algae Gelidium sesquipedale has been primarily exploited for agar production, leaving an undervalued biomass. In this work, the use of eco-friendly approaches employing ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and green solvents was investigated to valorize the algal minor compounds. The green [...] Read more.
Until now, the red algae Gelidium sesquipedale has been primarily exploited for agar production, leaving an undervalued biomass. In this work, the use of eco-friendly approaches employing ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and green solvents was investigated to valorize the algal minor compounds. The green methods used herein showed an attractive alternative to efficiently extract a broad spectrum of bioactive compounds in short extraction times (15 to 30 min vs. 8 h of the conventional method). Using the best UAE conditions, red seaweed extracts were characterized in terms of total phenolics (189.3 ± 11.7 mg GAE/100 g dw), flavonoids (310.7 ± 9.7 mg QE/100 g dw), mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) (Σ MAAs = 1271 mg/100 g dw), and phycobiliproteins (72.4 ± 0.5 mg/100 g dw). Additionally, produced algal extracts exhibited interesting antioxidant and anti-enzymatic activities for potential applications in medical and/or cosmetic products. Thus, this study provides the basis to reach a superior valorization of algal biomass by using alternative methods to extract biologically active compounds following eco-friendly approaches. Moreover, the strategies developed not only open new possibilities for the commercial use of Gelidium sesquipedale, but also for the valorization of different algae species since the techniques established can be easily adapted. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Microalgae as Sustainable Biofactories to Produce High-Value Lipids: Biodiversity, Exploitation, and Biotechnological Applications
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 573; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100573 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 149
Abstract
Microalgae are often called “sustainable biofactories” due to their dual potential to mitigate atmospheric carbon dioxide and produce a great diversity of high-value compounds. Nevertheless, the successful exploitation of microalgae as biofactories for industrial scale is dependent on choosing the right microalga and [...] Read more.
Microalgae are often called “sustainable biofactories” due to their dual potential to mitigate atmospheric carbon dioxide and produce a great diversity of high-value compounds. Nevertheless, the successful exploitation of microalgae as biofactories for industrial scale is dependent on choosing the right microalga and optimum growth conditions. Due to the rich biodiversity of microalgae, a screening pipeline should be developed to perform microalgal strain selection exploring their growth, robustness, and metabolite production. Current prospects in microalgal biotechnology are turning their focus to high-value lipids for pharmaceutic, nutraceutic, and cosmetic products. Within microalgal lipid fraction, polyunsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids are broadly recognized for their vital functions in human organisms. Microalgal-derived phytosterols are still an underexploited lipid resource despite presenting promising biological activities, including neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, neuromodulatory, immunomodulatory, and apoptosis inductive effects. To modulate microalgal biochemical composition, according to the intended field of application, it is important to know the contribution of each cultivation factor, or their combined effects, for the wanted product accumulation. Microalgae have a vital role to play in future low-carbon economy. Since microalgal biodiesel is still costly, it is desirable to explore the potential of oleaginous species for its high-value lipids which present great global market prospects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology Applications of Microalgae)
Review
Research Progress in Anti-Inflammatory Bioactive Substances Derived from Marine Microorganisms, Sponges, Algae, and Corals
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 572; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100572 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 136
Abstract
Inflammation is the body’s defense reaction in response to stimulations and is the basis of various physiological and pathological processes. However, chronic inflammation is undesirable and closely related to the occurrence and development of diseases. The ocean gives birth to unique and diverse [...] Read more.
Inflammation is the body’s defense reaction in response to stimulations and is the basis of various physiological and pathological processes. However, chronic inflammation is undesirable and closely related to the occurrence and development of diseases. The ocean gives birth to unique and diverse bioactive substances, which have gained special attention and been a focus for anti-inflammatory drug development. So far, numerous promising bioactive substances have been obtained from various marine organisms such as marine bacteria and fungi, sponges, algae, and coral. This review covers 71 bioactive substances described during 2015–2020, including the structures (65 of which), species sources, evaluation models and anti-inflammatory activities of these substances. This review aims to provide some reference for the research progress of marine-organism-derived anti-inflammatory metabolites and give more research impetus for their conversion to novel anti-inflammatory drugs. Full article
Article
Thraustochytrids of Mangrove Habitats from Andaman Islands: Species Diversity, PUFA Profiles and Biotechnological Potential
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 571; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100571 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 136
Abstract
Thraustochytrids are the most promising microbial source for the commercial production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for its application in the human health, aquaculture, and nutraceutical sectors. The present study isolated 127 thraustochytrid strains from mangrove habitats of the south Andaman Islands, India to [...] Read more.
Thraustochytrids are the most promising microbial source for the commercial production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for its application in the human health, aquaculture, and nutraceutical sectors. The present study isolated 127 thraustochytrid strains from mangrove habitats of the south Andaman Islands, India to study their diversity, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and biotechnological potential. The predominant strains were identified as belonging to two major genera (Thraustochytrium, Aurantiochytrium) based on morphological and molecular characteristics. The strain ANVKK-06 produced the maximum biomass of 5.42 g·L−1, while ANNK-03 exhibited the maximum total lipid (71.03%). Omega-3 PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) accumulated up to 11.03% in ANVKK-04, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) up to 8.65% in ANVKK-07, and DHA up to 47.19% in ANVKK-06. ANVKK-6 showed the maximum scavenging activity (84.79 ± 2.30%) while ANVKK-03 and ANVKK-10 displayed the highest antibacterial activity against human and fish pathogens, S. aureus (18.69 ± 1.2 mm) and V. parahaemolyticus (18.31 ± 1.0 mm), respectively. All strains were non-toxic as evident by negative blood agar hemolysis, thus, the thraustochytrids are suggested to be a potential source of DHA for application in the health care of human and fish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Thraustochytrids: Biology, Chemical Ecology and Biotechnology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus: The Nutraceutical Potential of an Unexploited Marine Resource
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 570; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100570 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 196
Abstract
Presently, there is a high demand for nutritionally enhanced foods, so it is a current challenge to look at new raw food sources that can supplement beneficially the human diet. The nutritional profile and key secondary metabolites of red seaweeds (Rhodophyta) are gaining [...] Read more.
Presently, there is a high demand for nutritionally enhanced foods, so it is a current challenge to look at new raw food sources that can supplement beneficially the human diet. The nutritional profile and key secondary metabolites of red seaweeds (Rhodophyta) are gaining interest because of this challenge. In this context, the possible use of the red seaweed Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (Gigartinales) as a novel nutraceutical source was investigated. As a result, we highlight the high mineral content of this seaweed, representing 29.35 g 100 g−1 of its dry weight (DW). Despite the low levels of calcium and phosphorus (0.26 and 0.20 g 100 g−1 DW, respectively), this seaweed is an interesting source of nitrogen and potassium (2.13 and 2.29 g−1 DW, accordingly). Furthermore, the high content of carbohydrates (56.03 g 100 g−1 DW), which acts as dietary fibers, confers a low caloric content of this raw food source. Thus, this study demonstrates that C. teedei var. lusitanicus is in fact an unexploited potential resource with the capability to provide key minerals to the human diet with promising nutraceutical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization of Bioactive Components in Edible Algae Ⅱ)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
3-D Culture of Marine Sponge Cells for Production of Bioactive Compounds
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 569; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100569 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 272
Abstract
Production of sponge-derived bioactive compounds in vitro has been proposed as an alternative to wild harvest, aquaculture, and chemical synthesis to meet the demands of clinical drug development and manufacture. Until recently, this was not possible because there were no marine invertebrate cell [...] Read more.
Production of sponge-derived bioactive compounds in vitro has been proposed as an alternative to wild harvest, aquaculture, and chemical synthesis to meet the demands of clinical drug development and manufacture. Until recently, this was not possible because there were no marine invertebrate cell lines. Recent breakthroughs in the development of sponge cell lines and rapid cell division in improved nutrient media now make this approach a viable option. We hypothesized that three-dimensional (3-D) cell cultures would better represent how sponges function in nature, including the production of bioactive compounds. We successfully cultured sponge cells in 3-D matrices using FibraCel® disks, thin hydrogel layers, and gel microdroplets (GMDs). For in vitro production of bioactive compounds, the use of GMDs is recommended. Nutrients and sponge products rapidly diffuse into and out of the 3-D matrix, the GMDs may be scaled up in spinner flasks, and cells and/or secreted products can be easily recovered. Research on scale-up and production is in progress in our laboratory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Sponge Biotechnology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Changing Trends in Paralytic Shellfish Poisonings Reflect Increasing Sea Surface Temperatures and Practices of Indigenous and Recreational Harvesters in British Columbia, Canada
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 568; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100568 (registering DOI) - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 255
Abstract
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) occurs when shellfish contaminated with saxitoxin or equivalent paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are ingested. In British Columbia, Canada, documented poisonings are increasing in frequency based on 62 investigations identified from 1941–2020. Two PSP investigations were reported between 1941 and [...] Read more.
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) occurs when shellfish contaminated with saxitoxin or equivalent paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are ingested. In British Columbia, Canada, documented poisonings are increasing in frequency based on 62 investigations identified from 1941–2020. Two PSP investigations were reported between 1941 and 1960 compared to 31 since 2001 (p < 0.0001) coincident with rising global temperatures (r2 = 0.76, p < 0.006). The majority of PSP investigations (71%) and cases (69%) were linked to self-harvested shellfish. Far more investigations involved harvests by indigenous communities (24%) than by commercial and recreational groups. Single-case-exposure investigations increased by more than 3.5 times in the decade 2011–2020 compared to previous periods. Clams (47%); mussels (26%); oysters (14%); scallops (6%); and, in more recent years, crabs (4%) were linked to illnesses. To guide understanding of self-harvesting consumption risks, we recommend collecting data to determine when PST-producing algae are present in high concentrations, improving the quality of data in online shellfish harvest maps to include dates of last testing; biotoxin testing results; and a description of bivalve species tested. Over reliance on toxin results in biomonitored species may not address actual consumption risks for unmonitored species harvested from the same area. We further recommend introducing phytoplankton monitoring in remote indigenous communities where self-harvesting is common and toxin testing is unavailable, as well as continuing participatory education about biotoxin risks in seafoods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Biotoxins)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Identifying Potential Antioxidant Properties from the Viscera of Sea Snails (Turbo cornutus)
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 567; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100567 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 232
Abstract
Turbo cornutus, the horned turban sea snail, is found along the intertidal and basaltic shorelines of Jeju Island, Korea. T. cornutus feeds on seaweeds (e.g., Undaria sp., and Ecklonia sp.) composed of diverse antioxidants. This study identified potential antioxidant properties from [...] Read more.
Turbo cornutus, the horned turban sea snail, is found along the intertidal and basaltic shorelines of Jeju Island, Korea. T. cornutus feeds on seaweeds (e.g., Undaria sp., and Ecklonia sp.) composed of diverse antioxidants. This study identified potential antioxidant properties from T. cornutus viscera tissues. Diverse extracts were evaluated for their hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activities. T. cornutus viscera protamex-assisted extracts (TVP) were purified by gel filtration chromatography (GFC), and potential antioxidant properties were analyzed for their amino acid sequences and its peroxidase inhibition effects by in silico molecular docking and in vitro analysis. According to the results, T. cornutus viscera tissues are composed of many protein contents with each over 50%. Among the extracts, TVP possessed the highest H2O2 scavenging activity. In addition, TVP-GFC-3 significantly decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and increased cell viability in H2O2-treated HepG2 cells without cytotoxicity. TVP-GFC-3 comprises nine low molecular bioactive peptides (ELR, VGPQ, TDY, ALPHA, PAH, VDY, WSDK, VFSP, and FAPQY). Notably, the peptides dock to the active site of the myeloperoxidase (MPO), especially TDY and FAPQY showed the MPO inhibition effects with IC50 values of 646.0 ± 45.0 µM and 57.1 ± 17.7 µM, respectively. Altogether, our findings demonstrated that T. cornutus viscera have potential antioxidant properties that can be used as high value-added ingredients. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
Targeted Isolation of a Cytotoxic Cyclic Hexadepsipeptide from the Mesophotic Zone Sponge-Associated Fungus Cymostachys sp. NBUF082
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 565; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100565 - 11 Oct 2021
Viewed by 224
Abstract
LC-MS/MS-based molecular networking facilitated the targeted isolation of a new cyclic hexadepsipeptide, cymodepsipeptide (1), and two known analogues, RF–2691A (2) and RF–2691B (3), from the fungus Cymostachys sp. NBUF082 that was derived from a mesophotic zone Aaptos [...] Read more.
LC-MS/MS-based molecular networking facilitated the targeted isolation of a new cyclic hexadepsipeptide, cymodepsipeptide (1), and two known analogues, RF–2691A (2) and RF–2691B (3), from the fungus Cymostachys sp. NBUF082 that was derived from a mesophotic zone Aaptos sponge collected near Apo Island. The constitution and configuration of 1 was elucidated through 1D and 2D NMR-spectroscopy, high resolution mass-spectrometry, and chemical degradations including Marfey’s analysis and chiral HPLC. It was observed that 1 was moderately cytotoxic against CCRF-CEM human acute lymphocytic leukemia cells in vitro with the IC50 value of 9.2 ± 1.1 μM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fungal Metabolites: Structures, Activities and Biosynthesis)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
The Potential Protective Effect and Possible Mechanism of Peptides from Oyster (Crassostrea hongkongensis) Hydrolysate on Triptolide-Induced Testis Injury in Male Mice
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 566; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100566 - 09 Oct 2021
Viewed by 297
Abstract
Peptides from oyster hydrolysate (OPs) have a variety of biological activities. However, its protective effect and exact mechanism on testicular injury remain poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of OPs on triptolide (TP)-induced testis damage and spermatogenesis dysfunction and [...] Read more.
Peptides from oyster hydrolysate (OPs) have a variety of biological activities. However, its protective effect and exact mechanism on testicular injury remain poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of OPs on triptolide (TP)-induced testis damage and spermatogenesis dysfunction and investigate its underlying mechanism. In this work, the TP-induced testis injury model was created while OPs were gavaged in mice for 4 weeks. The results showed that OPs significantly improved the sperm count and motility of mice, and alleviated the seminiferous tubule injury. Further study showed that OPs decreased malonaldehyde (MDA) level and increased antioxidant enzyme (SOD and GPH-Px) activities, attenuating oxidative stress and thereby reducing the number of apoptotic cells in the testis. In addition, OPs improved the activities of enzymes (LDH, ALP and ACP) related to energy metabolism in the testis and restored the serum hormone level of mice to normal. Furthermore, OPs promoted the expression of Nrf2 protein, and then increased the expression of antioxidant enzyme regulatory protein (HO-1 and NQO1) in the testis. OPs inhibited JNK phosphorylation and Bcl-2/Bax-mediated apoptosis. In conclusion, OPs have a protective effect on testicular injury and spermatogenesis disorders caused by TP, suggesting the potential protection of OPs on male reproduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Agents 2021)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
ARTP Mutagenesis of Schizochytrium sp. PKU#Mn4 and Clethodim-Based Mutant Screening for Enhanced Docosahexaenoic Acid Accumulation
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 564; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100564 - 07 Oct 2021
Viewed by 279
Abstract
Schizochytrium species are one of the best oleaginous thraustochytrids for high-yield production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6). However, the DHA yields from most wild-type (WT) strains of Schizochytrium are unsatisfactory for large-scale production. In this study, we applied the atmospheric and room-temperature plasma [...] Read more.
Schizochytrium species are one of the best oleaginous thraustochytrids for high-yield production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6). However, the DHA yields from most wild-type (WT) strains of Schizochytrium are unsatisfactory for large-scale production. In this study, we applied the atmospheric and room-temperature plasma (ARTP) tool to obtain the mutant library of a previously isolated strain of Schizochytrium (i.e., PKU#Mn4). Two rounds of ARTP mutagenesis coupled with the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor (clethodim)-based screening yielded the mutant A78 that not only displayed better growth, glucose uptake and ACCase activity, but also increased (54.1%) DHA content than that of the WT strain. Subsequent optimization of medium components and supplementation improved the DHA content by 75.5 and 37.2%, respectively, compared with that of mutant A78 cultivated in the unoptimized medium. Interestingly, the ACCase activity of mutant A78 in a medium supplemented with biotin, citric acid or sodium citrate was significantly greater than that in a medium without supplementation. This study provides an effective bioengineering approach for improving the DHA accumulation in oleaginous microbes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Potential Biomedical Applications of Collagen Filaments derived from the Marine Demosponges Ircinia oros (Schmidt, 1864) and Sarcotragus foetidus (Schmidt, 1862)
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 563; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100563 - 06 Oct 2021
Viewed by 294
Abstract
Collagen filaments derived from the two marine demosponges Ircinia oros and Sarcotragus foetidus were for the first time isolated, biochemically characterised and tested for their potential use in regenerative medicine. SDS-PAGE of isolated filaments revealed a main collagen subunit band of 130 kDa [...] Read more.
Collagen filaments derived from the two marine demosponges Ircinia oros and Sarcotragus foetidus were for the first time isolated, biochemically characterised and tested for their potential use in regenerative medicine. SDS-PAGE of isolated filaments revealed a main collagen subunit band of 130 kDa in both of the samples under study. DSC analysis on 2D membranes produced with collagenous sponge filaments showed higher thermal stability than commercial mammalian-derived collagen membranes. Dynamic mechanical and thermal analysis attested that the membranes obtained from filaments of S. foetidus were more resistant and stable at the rising temperature, compared to the ones derived from filaments of I. oros. Moreover, the former has higher stability in saline and in collagenase solutions and evident antioxidant activity. Conversely, their water binding capacity results were lower than that of membranes obtained from I. oros. Adhesion and proliferation tests using L929 fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes resulted in a remarkable biocompatibility of both developed membrane models, and gene expression analysis showed an evident up-regulation of ECM-related genes. Finally, membranes from I. oros significantly increased type I collagen gene expression and its release in the culture medium. The findings here reported strongly suggest the biotechnological potential of these collagenous structures of poriferan origin as scaffolds for wound healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical and Pharmacological Applications of Marine Collagen)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels: A Prominent Target of Marine Toxins
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 562; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100562 (registering DOI) - 05 Oct 2021
Viewed by 394
Abstract
Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are considered to be one of the most important ion channels given their remarkable physiological role. VGSCs constitute a family of large transmembrane proteins that allow transmission, generation, and propagation of action potentials. This occurs by conducting Na+ [...] Read more.
Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are considered to be one of the most important ion channels given their remarkable physiological role. VGSCs constitute a family of large transmembrane proteins that allow transmission, generation, and propagation of action potentials. This occurs by conducting Na+ ions through the membrane, supporting cell excitability and communication signals in various systems. As a result, a wide range of coordination and physiological functions, from locomotion to cognition, can be accomplished. Drugs that target and alter the molecular mechanism of VGSCs’ function have highly contributed to the discovery and perception of the function and the structure of this channel. Among those drugs are various marine toxins produced by harmful microorganisms or venomous animals. These toxins have played a key role in understanding the mode of action of VGSCs and in mapping their various allosteric binding sites. Furthermore, marine toxins appear to be an emerging source of therapeutic tools that can relieve pain or treat VGSC-related human channelopathies. Several studies documented the effect of marine toxins on VGSCs as well as their pharmaceutical applications, but none of them underlined the principal marine toxins and their effect on VGSCs. Therefore, this review aims to highlight the neurotoxins produced by marine animals such as pufferfish, shellfish, sea anemone, and cone snail that are active on VGSCs and discuss their pharmaceutical values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion Channels as Marine Drug Targets 2021)
Article
Scalarane-Type Sesterterpenoids from the Marine Sponge Lendenfeldia sp. Alleviate Inflammation in Human Neutrophils
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 561; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100561 - 30 Sep 2021
Viewed by 291
Abstract
Sponge-derived scalaranes are remarkable sesterterpenoids previously found to exhibit profound inhibitory effects against neutrophilic inflammation. In our current work, we constructed the metabolomic profile of marine sponge Lendenfeldia sp. for the first time using a tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) molecular networking approach. The [...] Read more.
Sponge-derived scalaranes are remarkable sesterterpenoids previously found to exhibit profound inhibitory effects against neutrophilic inflammation. In our current work, we constructed the metabolomic profile of marine sponge Lendenfeldia sp. for the first time using a tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) molecular networking approach. The results highlighted the rich chemical diversity of these scalaranes, motivating us to conduct further research to discover novel scalaranes targeting neutrophilic inflammation. MS- and NMR-assisted isolation and elucidation led to the discovery of seven new homoscalaranes, lendenfeldaranes K–Q (17), characterized by methylation at C-24, together with five known derivatives, lendenfeldarane B (8), 25-nor-24-methyl-12,24-dioxoscalar-16-en-22-oic acid (9), 24-methyl-12,24,25-trioxoscalar-16-en-22-oic acid (10), felixin B (11), and 23-hydroxy-20-methyldeoxoscalarin (12). Scalaranes 14 and 612 were assayed against superoxide anion generation and elastase release, which represented the neutrophilic inflammatory responses of respiratory burst and degranulation, respectively. The results indicated that 13 and 612 exhibited potential anti-inflammatory activities (IC50 for superoxide anion scavenging: 0.87~6.57 μM; IC50 for elastase release: 1.12~6.97 μM). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Antioxidant Bioactivity of Extracts from Beach Cast Leaves of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 560; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100560 - 30 Sep 2021
Viewed by 394
Abstract
The marine environment is a generous source of biologically active compounds useful for human health. In 50 years, about 25,000 bioactive marine compounds have been identified, with an increase of 5% per year. Peculiar feature of algae and plants is the production of [...] Read more.
The marine environment is a generous source of biologically active compounds useful for human health. In 50 years, about 25,000 bioactive marine compounds have been identified, with an increase of 5% per year. Peculiar feature of algae and plants is the production of secondary metabolites, such as polyphenols, synthesized as a form of adaptation to environmental stress. Posidonia oceanica is a Mediterranean endemic and dominant seagrass and represents a biologically, ecologically and geologically important marine ecosystem. Within this study, methanolic and ethanolic extracts were generated from fresh and dried Posidonia oceanica leaves, with the aim to employ and valorize the beach cast leaves. The best yield and antioxidant activity (polyphenols content equal to 19.712 ± 0.496 mg GAE/g and DPPH IC50 of 0.090 µg/µL.) were recorded in 70% ethanol extracts (Gd-E4) obtained from leaves dried for two days at 60 °C and ground four times. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of polyphenols compounds (the most abundant of which was chicoric acid) with antioxidant and beneficial properties. Bioactive properties of the Gd-E4 extracts were evaluated in vitro using fibroblast cells line (HS-68), subjected to UV induced oxidative stress. Pre-treatment of cells with Gd-E4 extracts led to significant protection against oxidative stress and mortality associated with UV exposure, thus highlighting the beneficial properties of antioxidants compounds produced by these marine plants against photo damage, free radicals and associated negative cellular effects. Beach cast leaves selection, processing and extraction procedures, and the in vitro assay results suggested the potentiality of a sustainable approach for the biotechnological exploitation of this resource and could serve a model for other marine resources. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Exogenous Antioxidants Improve the Accumulation of Saturated and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Schizochytrium sp. PKU#Mn4
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 559; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100559 - 30 Sep 2021
Viewed by 410
Abstract
Species of Schizochytrium are well known for their remarkable ability to produce lipids intracellularly. However, during their lipid accumulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated inevitably as byproducts, which if in excess results in lipid peroxidation. To alleviate such ROS-induced damage, seven different [...] Read more.
Species of Schizochytrium are well known for their remarkable ability to produce lipids intracellularly. However, during their lipid accumulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated inevitably as byproducts, which if in excess results in lipid peroxidation. To alleviate such ROS-induced damage, seven different natural antioxidants (ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, tea extract, melatonin, mannitol, sesamol, and butylated hydroxytoluene) were evaluated for their effects on the lipid accumulation in Schizochytrium sp. PKU#Mn4 using a fractional factorial design. Among the tested antioxidants, mannitol showed the best increment (44.98%) in total fatty acids concentration. However, the interaction effects of mannitol (1 g/L) and ascorbic acid (1 g/L) resulted in 2.26 ± 0.27 g/L and 1.45 ± 0.04 g/L of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (SFA and PUFA), respectively, in batch fermentation. These concentrations were further increased to 7.68 ± 0.37 g/L (SFA) and 5.86 ± 0.03 g/L (PUFA) through fed-batch fermentation. Notably, the interaction effects yielded 103.7% and 49.6% increment in SFA and PUFA concentrations in batch fermentation. The possible mechanisms underlining those increments were an increased maximum growth rate of strain PKU#Mn4, alleviated ROS level, and the differential expression of lipid biosynthetic genes andupregulated catalase gene. This study provides an applicable strategy for improving the accumulation of SFA and PUFA in thraustochytrids by exogenous antioxidants and the underlying mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology Applications of Microalgae)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Recent Updates on Marine Cancer-Preventive Compounds
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 558; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100558 - 29 Sep 2021
Viewed by 265
Abstract
The natural compounds derived from marine organisms often exhibit unique chemical structures and potent biological activities. Cancer-preventive activity is one of the rather new activities that has emerged and been extensively studied over the last decades. This review summarizes the recent updates on [...] Read more.
The natural compounds derived from marine organisms often exhibit unique chemical structures and potent biological activities. Cancer-preventive activity is one of the rather new activities that has emerged and been extensively studied over the last decades. This review summarizes the recent updates on the marine chemopreventive compounds covering the relevant literature published in 2013–2021 and following the previous comprehensive review by Stonik and Fedorov (Marine Drugs 2014, 12, 636–671). In the current article, only the molecules having an effect on malignant transformation (or related pathway and molecules), cancer stem cells, or carcinogen-induced in vivo tumor development were considered to be “true” cancer-preventive compounds and were, therefore, reviewed. Additionally, particular attention has been given to the molecular mechanisms of chemoprevention, executed by the reported marine compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evaluation of the Effects of Fucoidans from Fucus Species and Laminaria hyperborea against Oxidative Stress and Iron-Dependent Cell Death
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 557; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100557 (registering DOI) - 29 Sep 2021
Viewed by 301
Abstract
Fucoidans are algal polysaccharides that exhibit protective properties against oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate different fucoidans from brown seaweeds for their ability to protect against iron-dependent oxidative stress (ferroptosis), a main hallmark of retinal and brain diseases, including [...] Read more.
Fucoidans are algal polysaccharides that exhibit protective properties against oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate different fucoidans from brown seaweeds for their ability to protect against iron-dependent oxidative stress (ferroptosis), a main hallmark of retinal and brain diseases, including hemorrhage. We investigated five new high-molecular weight fucoidan extracts from Fucus vesiculosus, F. serratus, and F. distichus subsp. evanescens, a previously published Laminaria hyperborean extract, and commercially available extracts from F. vesiculosus and Undaria pinnatifida. We induced oxidative stress by glutathione depletion (erastin) and H2O2 in four retinal and neuronal cell lines as well as primary cortical neurons. Only extracts from F. serratus, F. distichus subsp. evanescens, and Laminaria hyperborea were partially protective against erastin-induced cell death in ARPE-19 and OMM-1 cells, while none of the extracts showed beneficial effects in neuronal cells. Protective fucoidans also attenuated the decrease in protein levels of the antioxidant enzyme GPX4, a key regulator of ferroptosis. This comprehensive analysis demonstrates that the antioxidant abilities of fucoidans may be cell type-specific, besides depending on the algal species and extraction method. Future studies are needed to further characterize the health-benefiting effects of fucoidans and to determine the exact mechanism underlying their antioxidative abilities. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Synthesis and Characterization of 2-Decenoic Acid Modified Chitosan for Infection Prevention and Tissue Engineering
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 556; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100556 - 29 Sep 2021
Viewed by 358
Abstract
Chitosan nanofiber membranes are recognized as functional antimicrobial materials, as they can effectively provide a barrier that guides tissue growth and supports healing. Methods to stabilize nanofibers in aqueous solutions include acylation with fatty acids. Modification with fatty acids that also have antimicrobial [...] Read more.
Chitosan nanofiber membranes are recognized as functional antimicrobial materials, as they can effectively provide a barrier that guides tissue growth and supports healing. Methods to stabilize nanofibers in aqueous solutions include acylation with fatty acids. Modification with fatty acids that also have antimicrobial and biofilm-resistant properties may be particularly beneficial in tissue regeneration applications. This study investigated the ability to customize the fatty acid attachment by acyl chlorides to include antimicrobial 2-decenoic acid. Synthesis of 2-decenoyl chloride was followed by acylation of electrospun chitosan membranes in pyridine. Physicochemical properties were characterized through scanning electron microscopy, FTIR, contact angle, and thermogravimetric analysis. The ability of membranes to resist biofilm formation by S. aureus and P. aeruginosa was evaluated by direct inoculation. Cytocompatibility was evaluated by adding membranes to cultures of NIH3T3 fibroblast cells. Acylation with chlorides stabilized nanofibers in aqueous media without significant swelling of fibers and increased hydrophobicity of the membranes. Acyl-modified membranes reduced both S. aureus and P.aeruginosa bacterial biofilm formation on membrane while also supporting fibroblast growth. Acylated chitosan membranes may be useful as wound dressings, guided regeneration scaffolds, local drug delivery, or filtration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Marine Chitin and Chitosan II)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Effects of a Fish Oil Rich in Docosahexaenoic Acid on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Oxidative Stress in Healthy Rats
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 555; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100555 - 29 Sep 2021
Viewed by 516
Abstract
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are associated with a lower risk of cardiometabolic diseases. However, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is easily oxidized, leading to cellular damage. The present study examined the effects of an increased concentration of DHA in fish oil (80% of total fatty [...] Read more.
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are associated with a lower risk of cardiometabolic diseases. However, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is easily oxidized, leading to cellular damage. The present study examined the effects of an increased concentration of DHA in fish oil (80% of total fatty acids) on cardiometabolic risk factors and oxidative stress compared to coconut oil, soybean oil, and fish oil containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA in a balanced ratio. Forty healthy male Sprague–Dawley rats were supplemented with corresponding oil for 10 weeks. Supplementation with the fish oil containing 80% DHA decreased plasma fat, plasma total cholesterol and muscle fat compared to the coconut oil and the soybean oil. Increasing concentrations of DHA induced incorporation of DHA and EPA in cell membranes and tissues along with a decrease in ω-6 arachidonic acid. The increase in DHA promoted lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and antioxidant response. Taken together, the increased concentration of DHA in fish oil reduced fat accumulation compared to the coconut oil and the soybean oil. This benefit was accompanied by high lipid peroxidation and subsequent protein carbonylation in plasma and in liver. In our healthy framework, the slightly higher carbonylation found after receiving fish oil containing 80% DHA might be a protecting mechanism, which fit with the general improvement of antioxidant defense observed in those rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Therapeutic Applications of Fish Oil)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Chemical Structure and Anticoagulant Property of a Novel Sulfated Polysaccharide from the Green Alga Cladophora oligoclada
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 554; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100554 - 29 Sep 2021
Viewed by 313
Abstract
Marine macroalgae are efficient producers of sulfated polysaccharides. The algal sulfated polysaccharides possess diverse bioactivities and peculiar chemical structures, and represent a great potential source to be explored. In the present study, a heparinoid-active sulfated polysaccharide was isolated from the green alga Cladophora [...] Read more.
Marine macroalgae are efficient producers of sulfated polysaccharides. The algal sulfated polysaccharides possess diverse bioactivities and peculiar chemical structures, and represent a great potential source to be explored. In the present study, a heparinoid-active sulfated polysaccharide was isolated from the green alga Cladophora oligoclada. Results of chemical and spectroscopic analyses indicated that the sulfated polysaccharide was composed of →6)-β-d-Galp-(1→, β-d-Galp-(1→, →6)-α-d-Glcp-(1→ and →3)-β-d-Galp-(1→ units with sulfate esters at C-2/C-4 of →6)-β-d-Galp-(1→, C-6 of →3)-β-d-Galp-(1→ and C-3 of →6)-α-d-Glcp-(1→ units. The branches consisting of β-d-Galp-(1→ and →6)-β-d-Galp-(1→ units were located in C-3 of →6)-β-d-Galp-(1→ units. The sulfated polysaccharide exhibited potent anticoagulant activity in vitro and in vivo as evaluated by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time, and the fibrinogen level. For the APTT, the signal for clotting time was more than 200 s at 100 μg/mL in vitro and at 15 mg/kg in vivo. The obvious thrombolytic activity of the sulfated polysaccharide in vitro was also found. The mechanism analysis of anticoagulant action demonstrated that the sulfated polysaccharide significantly inhibited the activities of all intrinsic coagulation factors, which were less than 1.0% at 50 μg/mL, but selectively inhibited common coagulation factors. Furthermore, the sulfated polysaccharide strongly stimulated the inhibition of thrombin by potentiating antithrombin-III (AT-III) or heparin cofactor-II, and it also largely promoted the inhibition of factor Xa mediated by AT-III. These results revealed that the sulfated polysaccharide from C. oligoclada had potential to become an anticoagulant agent for prevention and therapy of thrombotic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sulfur-Containing Marine Bioactives 2.0)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Marine Fungal Cerebroside Flavuside B Protects HaCaT Keratinocytes against Staphylococcus aureus Induced Damage
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 553; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100553 - 29 Sep 2021
Viewed by 272
Abstract
Cerebrosides are glycosylated sphingolipids, and in mammals they contribute to the pro-/anti-inflammatory properties and innate antimicrobial activity of the skin and mucosal surfaces. Staphylococcus aureus infection can develop, not only from minor scratches of the skin, but this pathogen can also actively promote [...] Read more.
Cerebrosides are glycosylated sphingolipids, and in mammals they contribute to the pro-/anti-inflammatory properties and innate antimicrobial activity of the skin and mucosal surfaces. Staphylococcus aureus infection can develop, not only from minor scratches of the skin, but this pathogen can also actively promote epithelial breach. The effect of cerebroside flavuside B from marine sediment-derived fungus Penicillium islandicum (Aniva Bay, the Sea of Okhotsk) on viability, apoptosis, total caspase activity, and cell cycle in human epidermal keratinocytes HaCaT line co-cultivated with S. aureus, as well as influence of flavuside B on LPS-treated HaCaT cells were studied. Influence of flavuside B on bacterial growth and biofilm formation of S. aureus and its effect on the enzymatic activity of sortase A was also investigated. It was found S. aureus co-cultivated with keratinocytes induces caspase-depended apoptosis and cell death, arrest cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase, and increases in cellular immune inflammation. Cerebroside flavuside B has demonstrated its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, substantially eliminating all the negative consequences caused by co-cultivation of keratinocytes with S. aureus or bacterial LPS. The dual action of flavuside B may be highly effective in the treatment of bacterial skin lesions and will be studied in the future in in vivo experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sediment Derived Fungi)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Applying Seaweed Compounds in Cosmetics, Cosmeceuticals and Nutricosmetics
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 552; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100552 - 29 Sep 2021
Viewed by 312
Abstract
The interest in seaweeds for cosmetic, cosmeceutics, and nutricosmetics is increasing based on the demand for natural ingredients. Seaweeds offer advantages in relation to their renewable character, wide distribution, and the richness and versatility of their valuable bioactive compounds, which can be used [...] Read more.
The interest in seaweeds for cosmetic, cosmeceutics, and nutricosmetics is increasing based on the demand for natural ingredients. Seaweeds offer advantages in relation to their renewable character, wide distribution, and the richness and versatility of their valuable bioactive compounds, which can be used as ingredients, as additives, and as active agents in the formulation of skin care products. Bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, proteins, peptides, amino acids, lipids, vitamins, and minerals, are responsible for the biological properties associated with seaweeds. Seaweed fractions can also offer technical features, such as thickening, gelling, emulsifying, texturizing, or moistening to develop cohesive matrices. Furthermore, the possibility of valorizing industrial waste streams and algal blooms makes them an attractive, low cost, raw and renewable material. This review presents an updated summary of the activities of different seaweed compounds and fractions based on scientific and patent literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutra-Cosmeceuticals from Algae for Health and Wellness)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Chitosan-Based Scaffold for Mineralized Tissues Regeneration
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19100551 - 28 Sep 2021
Viewed by 234
Abstract
Conventional bone grafting procedures used to treat bone defects have several limitations. An important aspect of bone tissue engineering is developing novel bone substitute biomaterials for bone grafts to repair orthopedic defects. Considerable attention has been given to chitosan, a natural biopolymer primarily [...] Read more.
Conventional bone grafting procedures used to treat bone defects have several limitations. An important aspect of bone tissue engineering is developing novel bone substitute biomaterials for bone grafts to repair orthopedic defects. Considerable attention has been given to chitosan, a natural biopolymer primarily extracted from crustacean shells, which offers desirable characteristics, such as being biocompatible, biodegradable, and osteoconductive. This review presents an overview of the chitosan-based biomaterials for bone tissue engineering (BTE). It covers the basic knowledge of chitosan in terms of biomaterials, the traditional and novel strategies of the chitosan scaffold fabrication process, and their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this paper integrates the relevant contributions in giving a brief insight into the recent research development of chitosan-based scaffolds and their limitations in BTE. The last part of the review discusses the next-generation smart chitosan-based scaffold and current applications in regenerative dentistry and future directions in the field of mineralized tissue regeneration. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Echinochrome A Protects against Ultraviolet B-induced Photoaging by Lowering Collagen Degradation and Inflammatory Cell Infiltration in Hairless Mice
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 550; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md19100550 - 28 Sep 2021
Viewed by 254
Abstract
Echinochrome A (Ech A, 7-ethyl-2,3,5,6,8-pentahydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) has been known to exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. However, no study has been carried out on the efficacy of Ech A against skin photoaging; this process is largely mediated by oxidative stress. Six-week-old male SKH-1 hairless mice [...] Read more.
Echinochrome A (Ech A, 7-ethyl-2,3,5,6,8-pentahydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) has been known to exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. However, no study has been carried out on the efficacy of Ech A against skin photoaging; this process is largely mediated by oxidative stress. Six-week-old male SKH-1 hairless mice (n = 36) were divided into five groups. Except for a group that were not treated (n = 4), all mice underwent ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposure for 8 weeks while applying phosphate-buffered saline or Ech A through intraperitoneal injection. UVB impaired skin barrier function, showing increased transepidermal water loss and decreased stratum corneum hydration. UVB induced dermal collagen degeneration and mast cell infiltration. Ech A injection was found to significantly lower transepidermal water loss while attenuating tissue inflammatory changes and collagen degeneration compared to the control. Furthermore, Ech A was found to decrease the relative expression of matrix metalloproteinase, tryptase, and chymase. Taken together, these results suggest that Ech A protects against UVB-induced photoaging in both functional and histologic aspects, causing a lowering of collagen degradation and inflammatory cell infiltration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quinonoid Pigments of Echinoderms)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop