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Article

Effects of Exercise and Diet on Body Composition and Physical Function in Older Hispanics with Type 2 Diabetes

1
Department of Physical Therapy, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33179, USA
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Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59075-000, RN, Brazil
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Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33179, USA
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Department of Undergraduate Nursing, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33179, USA
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Department of Humanities, Health and Society, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33179, USA
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Department of Physical Education, Midwestern Parana State University, Guarapuava 85040-167, PR, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8019; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158019
Received: 1 July 2021 / Revised: 25 July 2021 / Accepted: 27 July 2021 / Published: 29 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Therapy in Geriatrics)
Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM2) affects 9.3% of the U.S. population. Health disparities are evident in DM2; twice as many Hispanics as non-Hispanic Whites have DM2. The objective of this study was to pilot test the feasibility of implementing and evaluating trends of nutrition and exercise interventions to improve diabetes management and physical function in 29 disadvantaged older Hispanics with DM2. We delivered combined diet and exercise (n = 8) and diet-only (n = 6) interventions and compared the results to a control/no intervention group (n = 15). We cluster-randomized the participants into the three arms based on the senior center they attended. The interventions were delivered twice a week for 3 months (24 sessions) and assessments were conducted pre and post intervention. The results indicate the feasibility of implementing the interventions and slight improvements in both intervention groups compared to the control group. The diet-only group tended to have larger improvements on body composition measures (especially in muscle mass), while the diet + exercise group tended to have larger improvements on physical function (especially in chair stands). There was a high rate of attrition, especially in the diet + exercise group, but those who completed the intervention tended to have improvements in body composition and physical function. View Full-Text
Keywords: ethnicity; community dwelling; older adults; diabetes; ethnic groups ethnicity; community dwelling; older adults; diabetes; ethnic groups
MDPI and ACS Style

Vieira, E.R.; Cavalcanti, F.A.d.C.; Civitella, F.; Hollifield, M.; Caceres, S.; Carreno, J.; Gaillard, T.; Huffman, F.G.; Mora, J.C.; Queiroga, M.R. Effects of Exercise and Diet on Body Composition and Physical Function in Older Hispanics with Type 2 Diabetes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 8019. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158019

AMA Style

Vieira ER, Cavalcanti FAdC, Civitella F, Hollifield M, Caceres S, Carreno J, Gaillard T, Huffman FG, Mora JC, Queiroga MR. Effects of Exercise and Diet on Body Composition and Physical Function in Older Hispanics with Type 2 Diabetes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(15):8019. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158019

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vieira, Edgar R., Fabricia A.d.C. Cavalcanti, Fernanda Civitella, Monica Hollifield, Stephanie Caceres, Jorge Carreno, Trudy Gaillard, Fatma G. Huffman, Jorge C. Mora, and Marcos R. Queiroga 2021. "Effects of Exercise and Diet on Body Composition and Physical Function in Older Hispanics with Type 2 Diabetes" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 15: 8019. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158019

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