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Article

Molecular Characterization of Human Papillomavirus Type 159 (HPV159)

1
Division of Molecular Biology, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička Cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloška Cesta 4, 1105 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Stipan Jonjić, Dubravko Forčić and Andreja Ambriović-Ristov
Received: 20 July 2021 / Revised: 20 August 2021 / Accepted: 20 August 2021 / Published: 23 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Virology Research in Croatia)
Human papillomavirus type 159 (HPV159) was identified in an anal swab sample and preliminarily genetically characterized by our group in 2012. Here we present a detailed molecular in silico analysis that showed that the HPV159 viral genome is 7443 bp in length and divided into five early and two late genes, with conserved functional domains and motifs, and a non-coding long control region (LCR) with significant regulatory sequences that allow the virus to complete its life cycle and infect novel host cells. HPV159, clustering into the cutaneotropic Betapapillomavirus (Beta-PV) genus, is phylogenetically most similar to HPV9, forming an individual phylogenetic group in the viral species Beta-2. After testing a large representative collection of clinical samples with HPV159 type-specific RT-PCR, in addition to the anal canal from which the first HPV159 isolate was obtained, HPV159 was further detected in other muco-cutaneous (4/181, 2.2%), mucosal (22/764, 2.9%), and cutaneous (14/554, 2.5%) clinical samples, suggesting its extensive tissue tropism. However, because very low HPV159 viral loads were estimated in the majority of positive samples, it seemed that HPV159 mainly caused clinically insignificant infections of the skin and mucosa. Using newly developed, highly sensitive HPV159-specific nested PCRs, two additional HPV159 LCR viral variants were identified. Nevertheless, all HPV159 mutations were demonstrated outside important functional domains of the LCR, suggesting that the HPV159 viral variants were most probably not pathogenically different. This complete molecular characterization of HPV159 enhances our knowledge of the genome characteristics, tissue tropism, and phylogenetic diversity of Beta-PVs that infect humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: human papillomavirus; Betapapillomavirus; phylogenetic characterization; viral load; prevalence; tissue tropism human papillomavirus; Betapapillomavirus; phylogenetic characterization; viral load; prevalence; tissue tropism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marković, I.; Hošnjak, L.; Seme, K.; Poljak, M. Molecular Characterization of Human Papillomavirus Type 159 (HPV159). Viruses 2021, 13, 1668. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13081668

AMA Style

Marković I, Hošnjak L, Seme K, Poljak M. Molecular Characterization of Human Papillomavirus Type 159 (HPV159). Viruses. 2021; 13(8):1668. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13081668

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marković, Iva, Lea Hošnjak, Katja Seme, and Mario Poljak. 2021. "Molecular Characterization of Human Papillomavirus Type 159 (HPV159)" Viruses 13, no. 8: 1668. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13081668

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