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Article

Changes in Ecosystems and Ecosystem Services in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area since the Reform and Opening Up in China

by 1,2,3,4,†, 1,3,5,6,†, 7, 1,5, 1,2,3,5,* and 2,3
1
State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
2
School of Geography and Ocean Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
3
Collaborative Innovation Center for the South China Sea Studies, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
4
Department of Geography, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
5
College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
6
Innovation Academy of South China Sea Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
7
Department of Plants and Crops, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Contribute equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Marco Malavasi
Received: 10 March 2021 / Revised: 16 April 2021 / Accepted: 19 April 2021 / Published: 21 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS and RS in Ocean, Island and Coastal Zone)
Ecosystem services provide important support for the sustainable development of humans; these services are provided by various ecosystems, but they have been severely influenced by anthropogenic activities globally in the past several decades. To respond to the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations, this study investigated the changes in ecosystem structure and estimated the associated ecosystem services value (ESV) since China’s reform and opening-up policy in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA), one of the most developed and populous areas of China. Our results showed that dramatic changes in ecosystem structure occurred in the GBA, characterized by unpresented construction land sprawl (an average of 148 km2/yr) and extensive farmland loss (an average of 111 km2/yr). The change size and rate of ecosystems from 2000 to 2010 was the biggest and fastest, followed by that from 1990 to 2000. The ESV of the study area showed an overall decreasing trend, declining from 464 billion yuan to 346 billion yuan. The ESV supported by forest ecosystems and water body ecosystems made dominant contributions to the total ESV, ranging from 92% to 95%. Strong spatial heterogeneity of the ESV of the GBA might be noted throughout the study period, with lower values in the central region and higher values in the surrounding region. To realize sustainable development in the GBA; this study strongly suggests that local governments, and the public, scientifically use various ecosystems and their services, focusing on vigorously protecting ecosystems with high and important ESVs, such as water body, wetland, forest, and farmland ecosystems. View Full-Text
Keywords: ecosystem services value; ecosystem function; land-use changes; sustainable development ecosystem services value; ecosystem function; land-use changes; sustainable development
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, X.; Yan, F.; Zeng, Y.; Chen, M.; Su, F.; Cui, Y. Changes in Ecosystems and Ecosystem Services in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area since the Reform and Opening Up in China. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 1611. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs13091611

AMA Style

Wang X, Yan F, Zeng Y, Chen M, Su F, Cui Y. Changes in Ecosystems and Ecosystem Services in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area since the Reform and Opening Up in China. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(9):1611. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs13091611

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Xuege, Fengqin Yan, Yinwei Zeng, Ming Chen, Fenzhen Su, and Yikun Cui. 2021. "Changes in Ecosystems and Ecosystem Services in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area since the Reform and Opening Up in China" Remote Sensing 13, no. 9: 1611. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs13091611

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