1.1. Existing Approaches Based on CAD and GIS
1.2. BIM as a New Solution
1.2.1. Level of Developments
1.2.2. BIM Tools
1.2.3. Format Issue
1.3. Brick Heritage of the Ming Dynasty
1.4. Study Purposes and Paper Structure
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. The Stele Tower and Optical Measurements
2.2. Representing As-Built Information at Various LoDs
2.2.1. Host Model Linked with Raster Imageries (LoD 1)
2.2.2. As-Built Volume with Semantic-Aware Skins (LoD 2)
- As-built geometry contours. The contours that generated mass volumes were obtained by manually mapping the point cloud with splines with high density. Over 20 control points were used to define a vault section, and three contours were used to generate 3D vaulted shapes by lofting the contours.
- Semantic-rich skins. Once the solid volume penetrated by vaulted passages was generated, each surface was converted to a component (wall family) using “wall by face” in Revit. This enabled the skins of the volume to retain the same parametric geometries (wall thickness) and semantic data (material layers) as those inherently established (system family) in Revit.
2.2.3. Brick Units Attached with Custom Parameters (LoD 3)
- A NURBS surface was generated from the slices of the point cloud;
- The surface was divided into rectangles reflecting the stretcher-bond pattern;
- The rectangles were shrunk (considering mortar thickness) and extruded based on brick width and the thickness of each brick layer.
3.1. LoD 1: In Situ Maintenance
3.2. LoD 2: As-Built Drawings
3.3. LoD 3: Damage Contents at the Brick Level
4.1. Potential Applications of the Three LoDs
4.2. Limitations and Future Developments
- BIM representations have advantages in terms of centralizing as-built geometries and nongraphical attributes (e.g., damage contents), compared with conventional vector-based methods when applied to brick structures;
- As-built brick walls and vaults represented by parametric components (LoD 300 after BIMForum) can be generated by tracing point clouds, with reasonable modeling efforts, through default workflows in a commercial BIM application (Revit);
- A BIM representation based on individual brick units attached with custom semantics (LoD 400 after BIMForum) is feasible for local parts by employing OSS tools and an IFC proxy. The automated detections of brick shapes are crucial for automating the workflow globally at this LoD.
Conflicts of Interest
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