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Volume 9, September

Technologies, Volume 9, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 7 articles

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Article
Comparing Performance of 3D-Printed and Injection-Molded Fiber-Reinforced Composite Parts in Ring-Spinning Traveler Application
Technologies 2021, 9(4), 75; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/technologies9040075 - 12 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Fiber-reinforced 3D printing (3DP) technology is a recent addition to the material extrusion-based 3DP process unlocking huge potential to apply this technology for high-performance material fabrication with complex geometries. However, in order to take the full advantage of this technology, a comparative analysis [...] Read more.
Fiber-reinforced 3D printing (3DP) technology is a recent addition to the material extrusion-based 3DP process unlocking huge potential to apply this technology for high-performance material fabrication with complex geometries. However, in order to take the full advantage of this technology, a comparative analysis with existing technologies targeting a particular application is necessary to understand its commercial applicability. Here, an applied composite part, ring-spinning travelers, has been developed using the unique design features of fiber-reinforced 3DP technology that is beyond the capability of the currently used technology; the injection molding, quality, and performance of the printed and molded travelers were investigated and compared. The results demonstrated that fiber-reinforced 3DP is a promising technology that offers a lot of flexibility regarding reinforcement patterns and materials including both short and continuous fibers to tailor the performance, although the printed travelers showed poorer surface characteristics and wear resistance than the molded travelers. Based on the present analysis, a number of recommendations have been proposed on the design of the traveler to apply the technology effectively and use the printer to improvise and manipulate the performance of the travelers. Full article
Article
Greyhound Racing Track Lure Systems—Acoustical Measurements Within and Adjacent to the Starting Boxes
Technologies 2021, 9(4), 74; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/technologies9040074 - 11 Oct 2021
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Abstract
This study investigates and compares the acoustic signatures of a traditional wire-cable-pulled lure system and two alternative battery-operated lure systems jointly developed by Covey Associates Pty. Ltd. and Steriline Pty. Ltd. to eliminate the hazardous steel-wire cable and make the sport of greyhound [...] Read more.
This study investigates and compares the acoustic signatures of a traditional wire-cable-pulled lure system and two alternative battery-operated lure systems jointly developed by Covey Associates Pty. Ltd. and Steriline Pty. Ltd. to eliminate the hazardous steel-wire cable and make the sport of greyhound racing safer for greyhounds, participants and spectators. The acoustical measurements of these three lure systems were conducted at the Murray Bridge greyhound racing track. The lure sounds were measured by the high-frequency Brüel & Kjær (B&K) Type 4191 microphones for the 395 m and 455 m starts at two positions: within the starting box and on the track adjacent to the starting boxes. The measurements capture the sounds that the greyhounds hear before and after the opening of the starting box gate. The frequency-domain analysis and sound quality analysis were conducted to compare the lure sounds. It was found when the battery-lure was installed with all nylon rollers, it presented less sound energy and lower frequency than the traditional wire-cable-pulled lure. When two of the nylon rollers were replaced with steel rollers, the battery-operated lure emitted a louder and higher frequency sound than the traditional wire-cable-pulled lure. The different acoustic characteristics of these lure systems suggest future research is warranted on the reaction of greyhounds to different lure sounds, particularly their excitement level within the starting box as the lure approaches. This initial research also suggests some greyhounds may not clearly hear the battery-operated lure with all nylon rollers approaching the starting boxes and the timing of these greyhounds to jump may be delayed, particularly during high wind conditions. Full article
Article
Heat Treatment Consideration in Structural Simulations of Machine Elements: Analysis of a Starter Clutch Barrel
Technologies 2021, 9(4), 73; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/technologies9040073 - 09 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Consideration of heat treatment in simulations of structural components and its impact on predictions of behaviour during operation is analysed here. An automotive machine element with a complex geometry and dynamic load is analysed rather than a standard laboratory specimen under controlled conditions. [...] Read more.
Consideration of heat treatment in simulations of structural components and its impact on predictions of behaviour during operation is analysed here. An automotive machine element with a complex geometry and dynamic load is analysed rather than a standard laboratory specimen under controlled conditions. The heat treatment analysis of a starter clutch barrel has been performed in DANTE followed by a structural analysis in ANSYS 2019 R3 during operation simulating a load cycle due to the start of an internal combustion engine. The heat treatment simulation consisted of carburisation, quenching and tempering. First, the carbon content and its distribution have been simulated. Next, the hardness of the starter clutch barrel and its distribution have been analysed with respect to the carbon distribution and hardness-dependent material properties of the AISI/SAE 4142 steel. Finally, the stress field after the heat treatment and during the operation of the starter clutch barrel has been thoroughly evaluated and compared to the simulation without the consideration of the heat treatment. Results of the simulation show that the heat treatment introduces favourable compressive stresses at the critical location of the starter clutch barrel and reduces the effective amplitude of the equivalent stress during the operation. Furthermore, the results of the simulation prove that heat treatment should be considered already during the early stages of the R & D process as it can have a decisive effect on the operational behaviour of the structural component. Moreover, a non-consideration of the heat treatment can lead into erroneous conclusions regarding the suitability of machine elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Technology)
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Article
Comparison of Clinical Parameters in Dental Implant Therapy between Implant Site Development Using Porcine- and Bovine-Derived Xenografts
Technologies 2021, 9(4), 72; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/technologies9040072 - 01 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the effects of two xenografts, i.e., porcine- and bovine-derived xenografts, on dental implant therapy after implant site development. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study involved adults who underwent dental implantation between January 2012 and [...] Read more.
Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the effects of two xenografts, i.e., porcine- and bovine-derived xenografts, on dental implant therapy after implant site development. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study involved adults who underwent dental implantation between January 2012 and December 2020. Various patient and implant-site characteristics were collected from the patient records. The implant-surgery clinical parameters of the porcine- and bovine-derived xenografts used for implant site development were analyzed and compared. Results: A total of 116 subjects with 168 dental implants were included in this study. There was less soft bone in the porcine bone group of the maxilla. However, there was less soft bone and a greater percentage of “primary stability ≥35 N” in the bovine bone group of the mandible. However, no significant differences in regrafting rate, post-operative infection rate, or implant survival rate were found between the bovine and porcine bone groups. Conclusion: The effects of implant site development using bovine- and porcine-origin xenografts are comparable in terms of the implant-therapy clinical parameters, including the regrafting rate and implant survival rate. Thus, the choice of xenografts could be made according to the patient’s religious requirements. However, the reported results should be used with caution, considering the limitations of this retrospective study. Full article
Article
Shape-Memory Properties of 3D Printed Cubes from Diverse PLA Materials with Different Post-Treatments
Technologies 2021, 9(4), 71; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/technologies9040071 - 29 Sep 2021
Viewed by 225
Abstract
Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) belongs to the 3D printable materials which show shape-memory properties, i.e., which can recover their original shape after a deformation if they are heated above the glass transition temperature. This makes PLA quite an interesting material for diverse applications, such [...] Read more.
Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) belongs to the 3D printable materials which show shape-memory properties, i.e., which can recover their original shape after a deformation if they are heated above the glass transition temperature. This makes PLA quite an interesting material for diverse applications, such as bumpers, safety equipment for sports, etc. After investigating the influence of the infill design and degree, as well as the pressure orientation on the recovery properties of 3D printed PLA cubes in previous studies, here we report on differences between different PLA materials as well as on the impact of post-treatments after 3D printing by solvents or by heat. Our results show not only large differences between materials from different producers, but also a material-dependent impact of the post treatments. Generally, it is possible to tailor the mechanical and recovery properties of 3D printed PLA parts by choosing the proper material in combination with a chemical or temperature post-treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing: Principles and Applications)
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Article
The Protocol and Feasibility Results of a Preliminary Instagram-Based Physical Activity Promotion Study
Technologies 2021, 9(4), 70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/technologies9040070 - 29 Sep 2021
Viewed by 245
Abstract
Background: Social media-based interventions are commonly used mode of delivery for physical activity promotion interventions. Instagram is an understudied social media platform and our purpose was to describe a detailed study protocol and report the feasibility of an Instagram-based physical activity promotion intervention. [...] Read more.
Background: Social media-based interventions are commonly used mode of delivery for physical activity promotion interventions. Instagram is an understudied social media platform and our purpose was to describe a detailed study protocol and report the feasibility of an Instagram-based physical activity promotion intervention. Method: Participants (n = 45) were recruited and randomized to follow one of three Instagram accounts for 3 months. The groups included a control, a popular fitness account, and two intervention groups. Participants were asked to complete weekly surveys for four weeks, at a 2-month follow up, and at a 3-month follow up. Participants were incentivized by being entered into a drawing for a free wearable activity monitor. Results: The intervention rate was 40% while the retention rate after four weeks was 33.3% and 22.2% after three months. Participants in the intervention groups reported higher education from the study account, enjoyment, and satisfaction. Conclusion: Although the study was well-received, more research is needed to determine how to increase retention within an Instagram-based intervention. Researchers should consider methods for participant identification, variations of interactive content, and extending the intervention period when designing their own study. Full article
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Review
The Promise of Turning Induced Deformation Process for Synthesizing Magnesium Based Materials with Superior Mechanical Response
Technologies 2021, 9(4), 69; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/technologies9040069 - 22 Sep 2021
Viewed by 426
Abstract
In recent times, an alternative synthesis pathway involving severe plastic deformation for Mg-based materials has been explored involving the generation of turnings according to a set of machining parameters and cold compaction into billets followed by hot extrusion. This is known as the [...] Read more.
In recent times, an alternative synthesis pathway involving severe plastic deformation for Mg-based materials has been explored involving the generation of turnings according to a set of machining parameters and cold compaction into billets followed by hot extrusion. This is known as the turning induced deformation (TID) method and has shown potential to alter the properties of resulting Mg-based materials for the better, not to mention economic benefits arising from this processing method. This work summarizes exploratory efforts involving this method for synthesis of Mg-based materials. The TID method resulted in overall superior properties compared to conventional processing methods, while two distinct parameters (high depth of cut and low cutting speed) were found to have significant positive influence on the final material properties, and as such are considered to be suitable basis on which further exploratory work in this field may be conducted. Full article
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