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Toxics, Volume 9, Issue 12 (December 2021) – 44 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): We investigated the association of prenatal co-exposure to organochlorines and metals with cognitive flexibility among a diverse group of adolescents living near a Superfund site in Massachusetts. We observed adverse associations of the chemical mixture and manganese with the Delis Kaplan Executive Function System Trail-Making and Color-Word Interference measures of cognitive flexibility. This study is among the first to provide evidence of an adverse association of prenatal exposure to a chemical mixture with cognitive flexibility in adolescence, a time of substantial executive function development. View this paper.
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Review
Heavy Metal Accumulation in Rice and Aquatic Plants Used as Human Food: A General Review
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 360; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120360 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 829
Abstract
Aquatic ecosystems are contaminated with heavy metals by natural and anthropogenic sources. Whilst some heavy metals are necessary for plants as micronutrients, others can be toxic to plants and humans even in trace concentrations. Among heavy metals, cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), [...] Read more.
Aquatic ecosystems are contaminated with heavy metals by natural and anthropogenic sources. Whilst some heavy metals are necessary for plants as micronutrients, others can be toxic to plants and humans even in trace concentrations. Among heavy metals, cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) cause significant damage to aquatic ecosystems and can invariably affect human health. Rice, a staple diet of many nations, and other aquatic plants used as vegetables in many countries, can bioaccumulate heavy metals when they grow in contaminated aquatic environments. These metals can enter the human body through food chains, and the presence of heavy metals in food can lead to numerous human health consequences. Heavy metals in aquatic plants can affect plant physicochemical functions, growth, and crop yield. Various mitigation strategies are being continuously explored to avoid heavy metals entering aquatic ecosystems. Understanding the levels of heavy metals in rice and aquatic plants grown for food in contaminated aquatic environments is important. Further, it is imperative to adopt sustainable management approaches and mitigation mechanisms. Although narrowly focused reviews exist, this article provides novel information for improving our understanding about heavy metal accumulation in rice and aquatic plants, addressing the gaps in literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Risk Assessment and Management)
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Article
Diacetyl Vapor Inhalation Induces Mixed, Granulocytic Lung Inflammation with Increased CD4+CD25+ T Cells in the Rat
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 359; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120359 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 521
Abstract
Diacetyl (DA) is a highly reactive alpha diketone associated with flavoring-related lung disease. In rodents, acute DA vapor exposure can initiate an airway-centric, inflammatory response. However, this immune response has yet to be fully characterized in the context of flavoring-related lung disease progression. [...] Read more.
Diacetyl (DA) is a highly reactive alpha diketone associated with flavoring-related lung disease. In rodents, acute DA vapor exposure can initiate an airway-centric, inflammatory response. However, this immune response has yet to be fully characterized in the context of flavoring-related lung disease progression. The following studies were designed to characterize the different T cell populations within the lung following repetitive DA vapor exposures. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 200 parts-per-million DA vapor for 5 consecutive days × 6 h/day. Lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed for changes in histology by H&E and Trichrome stain, T cell markers by flow cytometry, total BALF cell counts and differentials, BALF IL17a and total protein immediately, 1 and 2 weeks post-exposure. Lung histology and BALF cell composition demonstrated mixed, granulocytic lung inflammation with bronchial lymphoid aggregates at all time points in DA-exposed lungs compared to air controls. While no significant change was seen in percent lung CD3+, CD4+, or CD8+ T cells, a significant increase in lung CD4+CD25+ T cells developed at 1 week that persisted at 2 weeks post-exposure. Further characterization of this CD4+CD25+ T cell population identified Foxp3+ T cells at 1 week that failed to persist at 2 weeks. Conversely, BALF IL-17a increased significantly at 2 weeks in DA-exposed rats compared to air controls. Lung CD4+CD25+ T cells and BALF IL17a correlated directly with BALF total protein and inversely with rat oxygen saturations. Repetitive DA vapor exposure at occupationally relevant concentrations induced mixed, granulocytic lung inflammation with increased CD4+CD25+ T cells in the rat lung. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Biological Threats, Hazard Potential and Countermeasures)
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Article
Contributions of Traffic and Industrial Emission Reductions to the Air Quality Improvement after the Lockdown of Wuhan and Neighboring Cities Due to COVID-19
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 358; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120358 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 433
Abstract
Wuhan was locked down from 23 January to 8 April 2020 to prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Both public and private transportation in Wuhan and its neighboring cities in Hubei Province were suspended or restricted, and the manufacturing [...] Read more.
Wuhan was locked down from 23 January to 8 April 2020 to prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Both public and private transportation in Wuhan and its neighboring cities in Hubei Province were suspended or restricted, and the manufacturing industry was partially shut down. This study collected and investigated ground monitoring data to prove that the lockdowns of the cities had significant influences on the air quality in Wuhan. The WRF-CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting-Community Multiscale Air Quality) model was used to evaluate the emission reduction from transportation and industry sectors and associated air quality impact. The results indicate that the reduction in traffic emission was nearly 100% immediately after the lockdown between 23 January and 8 February and that the industrial emission tended to decrease by about 50% during the same period. The industrial emission further deceased after 9 February. Emission reduction from transportation and that from industry was not simultaneous. The results imply that the shutdown of industry contributed significantly more to the pollutant reduction than the restricted transportation. Full article
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Article
Air Quality in the Harbin-Changchun Metropolitan Area in Northeast China: Unique Episodes and New Trends
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 357; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120357 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Because of the unique geographical, climate, and anthropogenic emission characteristics, it is meaningful to explore the air pollution in the Harbin-Changchun (HC) metropolitan area. In this study, the Air Quality Index (AQI) and the corresponding major pollutant were investigated for the HC cities, [...] Read more.
Because of the unique geographical, climate, and anthropogenic emission characteristics, it is meaningful to explore the air pollution in the Harbin-Changchun (HC) metropolitan area. In this study, the Air Quality Index (AQI) and the corresponding major pollutant were investigated for the HC cities, based on the air quality data derived from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center. The number of days with the air quality level of “good” gradually increased during recent years, pointing to an improvement of the air quality in HC. It was also found that ozone, a typical secondary pollutant, exhibited stronger inter-city correlations compared to typical primary pollutants such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. In addition, for nearly all the HC cities, the concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) decreased substantially in 2020 compared to 2015. However, this was not the case for ozone, with the most significant increase of ozone observed for HC’s central city, Harbin. This study highlights the importance of ozone reduction for further improving HC’s air quality, and the importance of agricultural fire control for eliminating heavily-polluted and even off-the-charts PM2.5 episodes. Full article
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Case Report
Forensic Toxicological and Medico-Legal Evaluation in a Case of Incongruous Drug Administration in Terminal Cancer Patients
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 356; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120356 - 16 Dec 2021
Viewed by 470
Abstract
Background: In most cases, palliative care is prescribed to adults diagnosed with cancer. The definition of the most suitable therapy for an effective sedation in terminal cancer patients still represents one of the most challenging goals in medical practice. Due to their poor [...] Read more.
Background: In most cases, palliative care is prescribed to adults diagnosed with cancer. The definition of the most suitable therapy for an effective sedation in terminal cancer patients still represents one of the most challenging goals in medical practice. Due to their poor health, the correct dosing of drugs used for deep palliative sedation in terminal cancer patients, often already on polypharmacological therapy, can be extremely complicated, also considering possible drug-to-drug interactions that could lead to an increased risk of overdose and/or incongruous administration with fatal outcomes. The case of a terminal cancer patient is presented, focusing on the “adequacy” of administered therapy. Materials and Methods: A young male, affected by Ewing sarcoma, attending a palliative care at his own home, died soon after midazolam administration. Toxicological and histological analyses were performed on body fluids and organ fragments. Results and Discussion: Morphological reliefs evidenced a neoplastic mass, composed of lobulated tissue with a lardy, pinkish-gray consistency, extending from the pleural surface to the lung parenchyma, also present at the sacrum region (S1–S5), at the anterior mediastinum level, occupying the entire left pleural cavity, and infiltrating the ipsilateral lung. Metastatic lesions diffused to rachis and lumbar structures. The brain presented edema and congestion. Toxicological analyses evidenced blood midazolam concentrations in the range of 0.931–1.690 µg/mL, while morphine was between 0.266 and 0.909 µg/mL. Death was attributed to cardiorespiratory depression because of a synergic action between morphine and midazolam. The pharmacological interaction between midazolam and morphine is discussed considering the clinical situation of the patient. The opportunity to proceed with midazolam administration is discussed starting from guidelines recommendation. Finally, professional liability outlines are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Identification of Drug Abuse)
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The Research of Toxicity and Sensitization Potential of PEGylated Silver and Gold Nanomaterials
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 355; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120355 - 16 Dec 2021
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polymer used for surface modification of important substances in the modern pharmaceutical industry and biopharmaceutical fields. Despite the many benefits of PEGylation, there is also the possibility that the application and exposure of the substance may cause adverse [...] Read more.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polymer used for surface modification of important substances in the modern pharmaceutical industry and biopharmaceutical fields. Despite the many benefits of PEGylation, there is also the possibility that the application and exposure of the substance may cause adverse effects in the body, such as an immune response. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the sensitization responses that could be induced through the intercomparison of nanomaterials of the PEG-coated group with the original group. We selected gold/silver nanomaterials (NMs) for original group and PEGylated silver/gold NMs in this study. First, we measured the physicochemical properties of the four NMs, such as size and zeta potential under various conditions. Additionally, we performed the test of the NM’s sensitization potential using the KeratinoSens™ assay for in vitro test method and the LLNA: 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-FCM for in vivo test method. The results showed that PEGylated-NMs did not lead to skin sensitization according to OECD TG 442 (alternative test for skin sensitization). In addition, gold nanomaterial showed that cytotoxicity of PEGylated-AuNMs was lower than AuNMs. These results suggest the possibility that PEG coating does not induce an immune response in the skin tissue and can lower the cytotoxicity of nanomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Studies on Toxic Chemicals: Properties and Characteristics)
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Article
Toxicity Assessment of a Single Dose of Poly(ethylene glycol) Diglycidyl Ether (PEGDE) Administered Subcutaneously in Mice
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 354; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120354 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 436
Abstract
Poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDE) is widely used to cross-link polymers, particularly in the pharmaceutical and biomaterial sectors. However, the subcutaneous toxicity of PEGDE has not yet been assessed. PEGDE samples (500–40,000 μg/mouse) were subcutaneously injected into the paraspinal dorsum of BALB/c male [...] Read more.
Poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDE) is widely used to cross-link polymers, particularly in the pharmaceutical and biomaterial sectors. However, the subcutaneous toxicity of PEGDE has not yet been assessed. PEGDE samples (500–40,000 μg/mouse) were subcutaneously injected into the paraspinal dorsum of BALB/c male mice. Cage-side observations were carried out with measurement of organ weight, body weight variation, and feed intake, as well as histopathological characterization on day 28 post-exposure. Mice that received 40,000 μg of PEGDE showed severe toxic response and had to be euthanized. Subcutaneous injection of PEGDE did not alter feed intake and organ weight; however, the body weight variation of mice injected with 20,000 μg of PEGDE was significantly lower than that of the other groups. Exposure to 10,000 and 20,000 μg of PEGDE induced epidermal ulcer formation and hair loss. The histology of skin tissue in mice administered with 20,000 μg of PEGDE showed re-epithelialized or unhealed wounds. However, the liver, spleen, and kidneys were histologically normal. Collectively, PEGDE, particularly above 10,000 μg/mouse, caused subcutaneous toxicity with ulceration, but no toxicity in the other organs. These results may indicate the optimal concentration of subcutaneously injected PEGDE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
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Alterations in Regional Brain Regional Volume Associated with Dioxin Exposure in Men Living in the Most Dioxin-Contaminated Area in Vietnam: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Analysis Using Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM)
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 353; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120353 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 469
Abstract
To clarify the influence of dioxin exposure on brain morphometry, the present study investigated associations between dioxin exposure at high levels and brain structural irregularities in 32 Vietnamese men. Two exposure markers were used: blood dioxin levels, as a marker of exposure in [...] Read more.
To clarify the influence of dioxin exposure on brain morphometry, the present study investigated associations between dioxin exposure at high levels and brain structural irregularities in 32 Vietnamese men. Two exposure markers were used: blood dioxin levels, as a marker of exposure in adulthood, and perinatal dioxin exposure, estimated by maternal residency in a dioxin-contaminated area during pregnancy. All subjects underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We analyzed correlations between regional gray matter volumes and blood dioxin levels, and compared regional volumes between men with and without perinatal dioxin exposure using the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) tool from Statistical Parametric Mapping 12 (SPM12). Blood 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was associated with low volume of the medial temporal pole and fusiform gyrus. Toxic equivalency (TEQ)-PCDDs were correlated with low medial temporal pole volume. However, 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD was associated with high middle frontal gyrus and cerebellum volume. In men with perinatal dioxin exposure, the left inferior frontal gyrus pars orbitalis volume was significantly lower than in those without perinatal exposure. These results suggest that dioxin exposure during the perinatal period and in adulthood may alter regional brain volume, which might lead to cognitive deficits and unusual social emotional behavior in Vietnamese men living in dioxin-contaminated areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds and Human Health)
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Article
Spatially and Temporally Resolved Ambient PM2.5 in Relation to Preterm Birth
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 352; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120352 - 14 Dec 2021
Viewed by 432
Abstract
Growing evidence suggests that maternal exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during pregnancy is associated with preterm birth; however, few studies have examined critical windows of exposure, which can help elucidate underlying biologic mechanisms and inform public health messaging for [...] Read more.
Growing evidence suggests that maternal exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during pregnancy is associated with preterm birth; however, few studies have examined critical windows of exposure, which can help elucidate underlying biologic mechanisms and inform public health messaging for limiting exposure. Participants included 891 mother–newborn pairs enrolled in a U.S.-based pregnancy cohort study. Daily residential PM2.5 concentrations at a 1 × 1 km2 resolution were estimated using a satellite-based hybrid model. Gestational age at birth was abstracted from electronic medical records and preterm birth (PTB) was defined as <37 completed weeks of gestation. We used Critical Window Variable Selection to examine weekly PM2.5 exposure in relation to the odds of PTB and examined sex-specific associations using stratified models. The mean ± standard deviation PM2.5 level averaged across pregnancy was 8.13 ± 1.10 µg/m3. PM2.5 exposure was not associated with an increased odds of PTB during any gestational week. In sex-stratified models, we observed a marginal increase in the odds of PTB with exposure occurring during gestational week 16 among female infants only. This study does not provide strong evidence supporting an association between weekly exposure to PM2.5 and preterm birth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prenatal Exposures and Children’s Health)
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Article
Association between Levels of Urine Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate Metabolites and Heart Rate Variability in Young Adults
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 351; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120351 - 12 Dec 2021
Viewed by 507
Abstract
Phthalate exposure is associated with cardiovascular risk. Among the various phthalates, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a deleterious plasticizer in our daily lives. This study investigated the association between DEHP exposure and the alteration of heart rate variability (HRV). During 2017–2019, we recruited 974 [...] Read more.
Phthalate exposure is associated with cardiovascular risk. Among the various phthalates, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a deleterious plasticizer in our daily lives. This study investigated the association between DEHP exposure and the alteration of heart rate variability (HRV). During 2017–2019, we recruited 974 young adults to investigate the effects of living environments and dietary habits on cardiometabolic disorders in Taiwan. We quantitatively analyzed urinary metabolites of DHEP. A continuous electrocardiogram was recorded to obtain a 5-min ECG. Time-domain and frequency-domain HRV analyses were performed. Multiple linear regression showed that urinary oxidized DEHP metabolites MEHHP and MEOHP were associated with decreased HRV after controlling for associated cardiovascular risk factors. A higher MEHHP level was associated with a lower triangular interpolation of NN interval histogram (TINN), very low frequency (VLF), and low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio. A higher MEOHP level was associated with a decreased LF/HF ratio. In addition, trend analysis showed that higher MEHHP and MEOHP quantiles were significantly associated with a decreased LF/HF ratio. DEHP is a potentially harmful and invisible chemical. The urinary DEHP metabolites MEHHP and MEOHP are associated with decreased HRV, indicating an adverse effect on autonomic balance in young adults in Taiwan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasticizer Exposure: Harmful Impact on Human Health)
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Article
Fast and Environment-Friendly GC-MS Method for Eleven Organophosphorus Flame Retardants in Indoor Air, Dust, and Skin Wipes
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 350; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120350 - 11 Dec 2021
Viewed by 639
Abstract
Organophosphorus based flame retardants (OPFRs) extensively used as alternatives to banned polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane have been garnering interest due to the possibility that these compounds may have less significant impact on human and environmental health. Long pretreatment time, larger consumption of [...] Read more.
Organophosphorus based flame retardants (OPFRs) extensively used as alternatives to banned polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane have been garnering interest due to the possibility that these compounds may have less significant impact on human and environmental health. Long pretreatment time, larger consumption of organic solvents, matrix interferents, and cross-contamination were found in previous studies while assessing OPFRs in indoor environments. We developed and optimized the extraction methods and simultaneous analysis of 11 OPFRs in indoor air, dust and skin wipe samples using the GC-MS approach. The proposed methods were validated using a standard addition approach, dust SRM 2585 and the real samples. Our procedures enabled the analyst to effectively limit coextracted interferences and simultaneous analytical methods of 11 target OPFRs for three matrices were achieved. The validation was performed according to standard guidelines (relative errors were identified by the analytes: −19% to 18% for indoor air, −11% to 14% for house dust, −15% to 16% for skin wipe). Good practices for quality assurance and quality control were well stated. The current high-Eco-scored methods could be categorized as “an excellent green analysis”. All analytes for the target OPFRs were detected in the real samples of indoor air, house dust and skin wipe collected from ten Taiwanese homes. Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate and tris(chloroisopropyl) phosphate were the most abundant OPFRs. Rapid, green and cost-effective GC-MS methods were developed and validated for the analysis of eleven OPFRs in indoor air, house dust and skin wipes. Full article
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Antagonistic Effects of Enrofloxacin on Carbendazim-Induced Developmental Toxicity in Zebrafish Embryos
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 349; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120349 - 10 Dec 2021
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Carbendazim (CAR) and enrofloxacin (ENF) are frequently detected in fruits and meat products, respectively. Since most people consume fruits, vegetables, and meat products, combined exposure is possible, necessitating further evaluation of toxic interactions. In this study, the developmental toxicity of separate and combined [...] Read more.
Carbendazim (CAR) and enrofloxacin (ENF) are frequently detected in fruits and meat products, respectively. Since most people consume fruits, vegetables, and meat products, combined exposure is possible, necessitating further evaluation of toxic interactions. In this study, the developmental toxicity of separate and combined exposure was examined in zebrafish embryos. Carbendazim exposure at 0.79 mg/L and above significantly affected developmental parameters, while enrofloxacin alone had no substantial effects on these developmental parameters within the selected concentration range (0.10–0.40 mg/L). Surprisingly, ENF antagonized the CAR-evoked reduction in the 48 hpf (hours post-fertilization) hatching rate and the increases in the 96 hpf malformation and lethality rates. The results revealed that the antagonism might be associated with reciprocal effects of these compounds on metabolism-related genes, such as cyp7a1 and apoa1a. These results reveal a complex interaction between ENF and CAR on metabolic regulation during development and highlight the importance of combined assessment for agents with the potential for simultaneous exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
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Article
Manganese-Induced Neurotoxicity through Impairment of Cross-Talk Pathways in Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line SH-SY5Y Differentiated with Retinoic Acid
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 348; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120348 - 09 Dec 2021
Viewed by 588
Abstract
Manganese (Mn) is an important element; yet acute and/or chronic exposure to this metal has been linked to neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative illnesses such as Parkinson’s disease and others via an unknown mechanism. To better understand it, we exposed a human neuroblastoma cell model [...] Read more.
Manganese (Mn) is an important element; yet acute and/or chronic exposure to this metal has been linked to neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative illnesses such as Parkinson’s disease and others via an unknown mechanism. To better understand it, we exposed a human neuroblastoma cell model (SH-SY5Y) to two Mn chemical species, MnCl2 and Citrate of Mn(II) (0–2000 µM), followed by a cell viability assay, transcriptomics, and bioinformatics. Even though these cells have been chemically and genetically modified, which may limit the significance of our findings, we discovered that by using RA-differentiated cells instead of undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cell line, both chemical species induce a similar toxicity, potentially governed by disruption of protein metabolism, with some differences. The MnCl2 altered amino acid metabolism, which affects RNA metabolism and protein synthesis. Citrate of Mn(II), however, inhibited the E3 ubiquitin ligases–target protein degradation pathway, which can lead to the buildup of damaged/unfolded proteins, consistent with histone modification. Finally, we discovered that Mn(II)-induced cytotoxicity in RA-SH-SY5Y cells shared 84 percent of the pathways involved in neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurotoxicity of Environmental Metal Toxicants)
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Ecological Effects of Benzyl Chloride on Different Korean Aquatic Indigenous Species Using an Artificial Stream Mesocosm Simulating a Chemical Spill
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 347; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120347 - 09 Dec 2021
Viewed by 419
Abstract
In this study, an artificial stream mesocosm consisting of a head tank, faster-flowing riffle section, gravel section, pool section, lower-run section, and tail tank was installed to simulate a chemical spill in a river. The responses of freshwater periphyton algae, crustacea (Moina [...] Read more.
In this study, an artificial stream mesocosm consisting of a head tank, faster-flowing riffle section, gravel section, pool section, lower-run section, and tail tank was installed to simulate a chemical spill in a river. The responses of freshwater periphyton algae, crustacea (Moina macrocopa), freshwater worm (Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri), benthic midge (Glyptotendipes tokunagai), and fish (Zacco platypus and Aphyocypris chinensis) were observed after exposure to benzyl chloride (classified as an accident preparedness substance, APS) at concentrations of 1, 2, and 4 µL/L for 22.5 h. Higher concentrations increased the inhibition (photosynthetic efficiency decrease) of periphyton algae and the mortality of M. macrocopa, whereas the reproduction of the female cladoceran decreased in the 4 µL/L treatment. Mortality of fish did not occur or was lower (≤20%) at all concentrations; however, toxic symptoms were observed for some time after chemical exposure termination and later, symptoms receded. G. tokunagai mortality increased at all concentrations except the control after seven days, and no significant toxic effects were observed in L. hoffmeisteri. The hazardous concentration of benzyl chloride was calculated as 94 µg/L. This study showed the different sensitivities of each species to benzyl chloride. The findings can assist in environmental risk assessment of APSs after chemical spills to protect Korean aquatic species. Full article
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Protracted Impairment of Maternal Metabolic Health in Mouse Dams Following Pregnancy Exposure to a Mixture of Low Dose Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals, a Pilot Study
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 346; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120346 - 09 Dec 2021
Viewed by 486
Abstract
Pregnancy, a period of increased metabolic demands coordinated by fluctuating steroid hormones, is an understudied critical window of disease susceptibility for later-life maternal metabolic health. Epidemiological studies have identified associations between exposures to various endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with an increased risk for metabolic [...] Read more.
Pregnancy, a period of increased metabolic demands coordinated by fluctuating steroid hormones, is an understudied critical window of disease susceptibility for later-life maternal metabolic health. Epidemiological studies have identified associations between exposures to various endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with an increased risk for metabolic syndrome, obesity, and diabetes. Whether such adverse outcomes would be heightened by concurrent exposures to multiple EDCs during pregnancy, consistent with the reality that human exposures are to EDC mixtures, was examined in the current pilot study. Mouse dams were orally exposed to relatively low doses of four EDCs: (atrazine (10 mg/kg), bisphenol-A (50 µg/kg), perfluorooctanoic acid (0.1 mg/kg), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (0.036 µg/kg)), or the combination (MIX), from gestational day 7 until birth or for an equivalent 12 days in non-pregnant females. Glucose intolerance, serum lipids, weight, and visceral adiposity were assessed six months later. MIX-exposed dams exhibited hyperglycemia with a persistent elevation in blood glucose two hours after glucose administration in a glucose tolerance test, whereas no such effects were observed in MIX-exposed non-pregnant females. Correspondingly, MIX dams showed elevated serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL). There were no statistically significant differences in weight or visceral adipose; MIX dams showed an average visceral adipose volume to body volume ratio of 0.09, while the vehicle dams had an average ratio of 0.07. Collectively, these findings provide biological plausibility for the epidemiological associations observed between EDC exposures during pregnancy and subsequent maternal metabolic dyshomeostasis, and proof of concept data that highlight the importance of considering complex EDC mixtures based of off common health outcomes, e.g., for increased risk for later-life maternal metabolic effects following pregnancy. Full article
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Carbonyl Composition and Electrophilicity in Vaping Emissions of Flavored and Unflavored E-Liquids
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 345; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120345 - 09 Dec 2021
Viewed by 573
Abstract
It has been demonstrated that propylene glycol (PG), vegetable glycerin (VG), and flavoring chemicals can thermally degrade to form carbonyls during vaping, but less is known about carbonyl emissions produced by transformation of flavoring chemicals and the interactive effects among e-liquid constituents. This [...] Read more.
It has been demonstrated that propylene glycol (PG), vegetable glycerin (VG), and flavoring chemicals can thermally degrade to form carbonyls during vaping, but less is known about carbonyl emissions produced by transformation of flavoring chemicals and the interactive effects among e-liquid constituents. This study characterized carbonyl composition and levels in vaping emissions of PG-VG (e-liquid base solvents) and four e-liquid formulations flavored with trans-2-hexenol, benzyl alcohol, l-(-)-menthol, or linalool. Utilizing gas chromatography (GC)- and liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS) methods, 14 carbonyls were identified and quantified. PG-VG emitted highest levels of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein. However, flavored e-liquids contributed to the production of a wider variety of carbonyls, with some carbonyls directly corresponding to the oxidation of alcohol moieties in flavoring compounds (e.g., trans-2-hexenol and benzyl alcohol transformed into trans-2-hexenal and benzaldehyde, respectively). Detections of formaldehyde-GSH and trans-2-hexenal-GSH adducts signify interactions of carbonyls with biological nucleophiles. The global reactivity descriptors (I, A, μ, η, and ω) and condensed Fukui parameters (fk0, fk, fk+, and dual-descriptor) were computed to elucidate site reactivities of selected simple and α,β-unsaturated carbonyls found in vaping emissions. Overall, this study highlights carbonyl emissions and reactivities and their potential health risk effects associated with vaping. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
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Combined Toxicity of Xenobiotics Bisphenol A and Heavy Metals on Zebrafish Embryos (Danio rerio)
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 344; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120344 - 09 Dec 2021
Viewed by 505
Abstract
Environmental pollutants may cause adverse effects on the immune system of aquatic organisms. This study revealed that combination of environmental pollutants and Bisphenol A(BPA) could cause an acute inflammatory response in zebrafish larvae as shown by body alterations, which may imply a common [...] Read more.
Environmental pollutants may cause adverse effects on the immune system of aquatic organisms. This study revealed that combination of environmental pollutants and Bisphenol A(BPA) could cause an acute inflammatory response in zebrafish larvae as shown by body alterations, which may imply a common immunotoxicity mechanism for most environmental pollutants. In the present study we evaluated the toxicity after co-exposure of BPA and Cd or Cr (III) in zebrafish embryos and larvae, and the oxidative stress pathway involved. Evaluation of lethal and developmental endpoints such as hatching, edema, malformations, abnormal heart rate and survival rate were evaluated after 96 h of exposure. Combination of BPA at 10 μM with Cd or Cr at 0.5 μM exposure induce malformations at 96 hpf in zebrafish larvae, as well as significantly increases oxidative stress and induce apoptosis on larvae. Our study suggested how environmental pollutant showed a synergistic effect at common not-effective doses, promoting decrease of antioxidant defense and contrasted fish development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Health Effects of Heavy Metal)
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Review
Safety Risks of Plant Fiber/Plastic Composites (PPCs) Intended for Food Contact: A Review of Potential Hazards and Risk Management Measures
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 343; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120343 - 09 Dec 2021
Viewed by 479
Abstract
Plant fiber/plastic composites (PPCs), with the benefits of low cost and easy processing, have been widely used in the production of various food contact products. They are generally considered to be economical and environmentally friendly because of their natural raw materials (plant fibers) [...] Read more.
Plant fiber/plastic composites (PPCs), with the benefits of low cost and easy processing, have been widely used in the production of various food contact products. They are generally considered to be economical and environmentally friendly because of their natural raw materials (plant fibers) and recommended to be one of the ideal alternatives to traditional petrochemical-based plastics. However, in addition to plastic resins and plant fibers, some indispensable additives are involved in the production process of PPCs, which may pose food safety risks. To date, excessive migration of hazardous substances (such as melamine) has been reported in some products made of PPCs, and the safety and applicability of PPCs as food contact materials need to be further studied. In this paper, the main raw materials of PPCs used for food contact are taken as the pointcut to analyze the possible hazards, sources of hazards, and existing risk management measures in various countries. The conclusion shows that PPCs used for food contact may have potential safety risks at present. However, systematic research on migration methods and safety assessment are still insufficient, and further studies are needed regarding the main safety risks and migration patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment of Food Contact Materials/Articles)
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Article
Alterations in CNS Functions and DNA Methylation in Rats after 24 h Exposure to Peat Smoke
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 342; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120342 - 08 Dec 2021
Viewed by 418
Abstract
The use of a developed experimental model of a natural fire made it possible to assess the consequences of 24 h exposure to peat combustion products in albino rats. Peat smoke exposure leads to behavioral disturbances in rats, characterized by an increase in [...] Read more.
The use of a developed experimental model of a natural fire made it possible to assess the consequences of 24 h exposure to peat combustion products in albino rats. Peat smoke exposure leads to behavioral disturbances in rats, characterized by an increase in locomotor activity and an increased level of anxiety. Indicators of brain bioelectrical activity of the exposed animals supported the state of anxiety and psychoemotional stress. Epigenetic changes in the blood cells of exposed animals were revealed under 24 h exposure to peat smoke, characterized by a decrease in the level of global DNA methylation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
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Article
Heavy Metals in the Fish Tenualosa ilisha Hamilton, 1822 in the Padma–Meghna River Confluence: Potential Risks to Public Health
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 341; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120341 - 08 Dec 2021
Viewed by 638
Abstract
Hilsa shad (Tenulosa ilisha) is Bangladesh’s most important single-species fishery that contributes to 11% of total catch and employment for millions of people. However, heavy metals (HMs) toxicity in the edible organs of T. ilisha and their plausible public health [...] Read more.
Hilsa shad (Tenulosa ilisha) is Bangladesh’s most important single-species fishery that contributes to 11% of total catch and employment for millions of people. However, heavy metals (HMs) toxicity in the edible organs of T. ilisha and their plausible public health threats have received weak attention. To provide insights on this issue, we determined, using ICP-MS, the concentration of Zn, Cu, Cr (VI), Pb, and Cd in the edible organs of five different sizes of T. ilisha and the surface water collected from the Padma–Meghna River confluence, Chandpur (Bangladesh). Multivariate analysis indicated that T. ilisha gills and liver contained higher HMs than muscle, and the surface water was below the safety limits. The study revealed that only Cr crossed the safety limits and bioaccumulated in the smaller-sized gills and liver. To assess the public health risks, target hazard quotient (THQ), total THQ (TTHQ) and carcinogenic (CR) risks were calculated. Only Cr imposed non-carcinogenic risks to consumers, while TTHQ showed higher chronic health risks. There was no CR risk measured for consumers, except for the largest-sized gills for children. Randomly positive relations between HMs and sizes were found; whereas, consistently positive relations were found among the tissue types. The outcomes of our study may aid policymakers in managing pollutants, especially the Cr sources in the greater Chandpur regions. Full article
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Article
Determination of Median Lethal Concentration (LC50) for Endosulfan, Heptachlor and Dieldrin Pesticides to African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus and Their Impact on Its Behavioral Patterns and Histopathological Responses
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 340; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120340 - 08 Dec 2021
Viewed by 585
Abstract
Pesticides such as endosulfan, heptachlor and dieldrin persist in aquatic environments as a result of their resistance to biodegradation. However, there is no adequate information about the toxicity of endosulfan, heptachlor and dieldrin to the aquatic organism, African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)—a [...] Read more.
Pesticides such as endosulfan, heptachlor and dieldrin persist in aquatic environments as a result of their resistance to biodegradation. However, there is no adequate information about the toxicity of endosulfan, heptachlor and dieldrin to the aquatic organism, African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)—a high valued widely distributed commercially interesting species. The current experiment was performed with the aim to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50) of endosulfan, heptachlor and dieldrin to African catfish (Clarias gariepinus); their behavioral abnormalities and histopathological alterations in several vital organs. A total of 324 juvenile fish were exposed for 96 h to six concentrations of endosulfan and dieldrin at 0, 0.001, 0.002, 0.004, 0.008 and 0.016 ppm, and to heptachlor at concentrations of 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, 0.16 and 0.32 ppm for dose-response tests. The study demonstrated that the species is highly susceptible to those contaminants showing a number of behavioral abnormalities and histopathological changes in gill, liver and muscle. The 96-h LC50 value of endosulfan, dieldrin and heptachlor for the African catfish was found as 0.004 (0.001−0.01) mg/L, 0.006 mg/L and 0.056 (0.006−0.144) mg/L, respectively. Abnormal behaviors such as erratic jerky swimming, frequent surfacing movement with gulping of air, secretion of mucus on the body and gills were observed in response to the increasing exposure concentrations. Histopathological alterations of liver, gill and muscle tissues were demonstrated as vacuolization in hepatocytes, congestion of red blood cells (RBCs) in hepatic portal vein; deformed secondary lamellae and disintegrated myotomes with disintegrated epidermis, respectively. These findings are important to monitor and responsibly manage pesticide use in and around C. gariepinus aquacultural areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity of Contaminants on Aquatic Organisms)
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Case Report
Overdose of Quetiapine—A Case Report with QT Prolongation
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 339; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120339 - 07 Dec 2021
Viewed by 635
Abstract
Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug used to treat bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder. Although several studies describe the adverse effects of intoxication with Quetiapine, only a few report an extreme overdose without comedications that lead to a life threat. We [...] Read more.
Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug used to treat bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder. Although several studies describe the adverse effects of intoxication with Quetiapine, only a few report an extreme overdose without comedications that lead to a life threat. We present a case of a 75-year-old male who tried to attempt suicide by ingesting 28 g of Quetiapine. During the management in the emergency department, both serum and urine samples were collected, allowing a complete pharmacokinetic analysis to be conducted, from the admission to the discharge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poisoning Caused by Medicines and Drugs of Abuse)
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Article
Early Pregnancy Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution among Late-Onset Preeclamptic Cases Is Associated with Placental DNA Hypomethylation of Specific Genes and Slower Placental Maturation
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 338; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120338 - 06 Dec 2021
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia (PE). Some suggested mechanisms behind this association are changes in placental DNA methylation and gene expression. The objective of this study was to identify how early pregnancy [...] Read more.
Exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia (PE). Some suggested mechanisms behind this association are changes in placental DNA methylation and gene expression. The objective of this study was to identify how early pregnancy exposure to ambient nitrogen oxides (NOx) among PE cases and normotensive controls influence DNA methylation (EPIC array) and gene expression (RNA-seq). The study included placentas from 111 women (29 PE cases/82 controls) in Scania, Sweden. First-trimester NOx exposure was assessed at the participants’ residence using a dispersion model and categorized via median split into high or low NOx. Placental gestational epigenetic age was derived from the DNA methylation data. We identified six differentially methylated positions (DMPs, q < 0.05) comparing controls with low NOx vs. cases with high NOx and 14 DMPs comparing cases and controls with high NOx. Placentas with female fetuses showed more DMPs (N = 309) than male-derived placentas (N = 1). Placentas from PE cases with high NOx demonstrated gestational age deceleration compared to controls with low NOx (p = 0.034). No differentially expressed genes (DEGs, q < 0.05) were found. In conclusion, early pregnancy exposure to NOx affected placental DNA methylation in PE, resulting in placental immaturity and showing sexual dimorphism. Full article
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Article
Exposure to Sub-Lethal Doses of Permethrin Is Associated with Neurotoxicity: Changes in Bioenergetics, Redox Markers, Neuroinflammation and Morphology
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 337; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120337 - 06 Dec 2021
Viewed by 519
Abstract
Permethrin (PERM) is a member of the class I family of synthetic pyrethroids. Human use has shown that it affects different systems, with wide health dysfunctions. Our aim was to determine bioenergetics, neuroinflammation and morphology changes, as redox markers after subacute exposure to [...] Read more.
Permethrin (PERM) is a member of the class I family of synthetic pyrethroids. Human use has shown that it affects different systems, with wide health dysfunctions. Our aim was to determine bioenergetics, neuroinflammation and morphology changes, as redox markers after subacute exposure to PERM in rats. We used MDA determination, protein carbonyl assay, mitochondrial O2 consumption, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a deep histopathological analysis of the hippocampus. PERM (150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg body weight/day, o.v.) increased lipoperoxidation and carbonylated proteins in a dose-dependent manner in the brain regions. The activities of antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, reductase, S-transferase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase showed an increase in all the different brain areas, with dose-dependent effects in the cerebellum. Cytokine profiles (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) increased in a dose-dependent manner in different brain tissues. Exposure to 150 mg/kg of permethrin induced degenerated and/or dead neurons in the rat hippocampus and induced mitochondrial uncoupling and reduction of oxidative phosphorylation and significantly decreased the respiratory parameters state 3-associated respiration in complex I and II. PERM exposure at low doses induces reactive oxygen species production and imbalance in the enzymatic antioxidant system, increases gene expression of pro-inflammatory interleukins, and could lead to cell damage mediated by mitochondrial functional impairment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
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Article
Effect of Pulmonary Inflammation by Surface Functionalization of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 336; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120336 - 06 Dec 2021
Viewed by 476
Abstract
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are used in various industries such as food additives, cosmetics, and biomedical applications. In this study, we evaluated lung damage over time by three types of ZnO NPs (L-serine, citrate, and pristine) following the regulation of functional groups [...] Read more.
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are used in various industries such as food additives, cosmetics, and biomedical applications. In this study, we evaluated lung damage over time by three types of ZnO NPs (L-serine, citrate, and pristine) following the regulation of functional groups after a single intratracheal instillation to rats. The three types of ZnO NPs showed an acute inflammatory reaction with increased LDH and inflammatory cell infiltration in the alveoli 24 h after administration. Especially in treatment with L-serine, citrate ZnO NPs showed higher acute granulocytic inflammation and total protein induction than the pristine ZnO NPs at 24 h. The acute inflammatory reaction of the lungs recovered on day 30 with bronchoalveolar fibrosis. The concentrations of IL-4, 6, TNF-α, and eotaxin in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) decreased over time, and the levels of these inflammation indicators are consistent with the following inflammatory cell data and acute lung inflammation by ZnO NP. This study suggests that single inhalation exposure to functionalized ZnO NPs may cause acute lung injury with granulocytic inflammation. Although it can recover 30 days after exposure, acute pulmonary inflammation in surface functionalization means that additional studies of exposure limits are needed to protect the workers that produce it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity Assessment of Ambient Nanoparticles)
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Article
Urinary Organophosphate Metabolites and Metabolic Biomarkers of Conventional and Organic Farmers in Thailand
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 335; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120335 - 04 Dec 2021
Viewed by 432
Abstract
Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are used by most farmers to remove insects and to increase productivity; however, questions remain on the long-term health impacts of their use. This study assessed the relationship between OP biomarker levels and metabolic biomarker parameters. Conventional farmers (n [...] Read more.
Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are used by most farmers to remove insects and to increase productivity; however, questions remain on the long-term health impacts of their use. This study assessed the relationship between OP biomarker levels and metabolic biomarker parameters. Conventional farmers (n = 213) and organic farmers (n = 225) were recruited, interviewed, and had physical health examinations. Serum glucose and lipid profiles, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins (HDL), and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were measured. The average age, gender, education, and self-reported agricultural work time, work in second jobs, smoking status, alcohol consumption, insecticide use at home, home location near farmlands and years of pesticide use were significantly different between the conventional and organic farmers. The urinary OP metabolite levels were also significantly different between the two groups. With an increase in urinary diethyl phosphate, dimethyl phosphate and dialkyl phosphate metabolites, the total cholesterol, LDL and HDL, were significantly increased for all farmers after controlling for age, gender, alcohol consumption, years of pesticide use, and home location near farmlands. The results are consistent with our previous studies which suggests that pesticide usage, especially organophosphates, may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke among Thai farmers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Epidemiology)
Article
Reactive Organic Suspensions Comprising ZnO, TiO2, and Zeolite Nanosized Adsorbents: Evaluation of Decontamination Efficiency on Soman and Sulfur Mustard
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 334; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120334 - 03 Dec 2021
Viewed by 455
Abstract
This paper comprises an extensive study on the evaluation of decontamination efficiency of three types of reactive organic suspensions (based on nanosized adsorbents) on two real chemical warfare agents: soman (GD) and sulfur mustard (HD). Three types of nanoparticles (ZnO, TiO2, [...] Read more.
This paper comprises an extensive study on the evaluation of decontamination efficiency of three types of reactive organic suspensions (based on nanosized adsorbents) on two real chemical warfare agents: soman (GD) and sulfur mustard (HD). Three types of nanoparticles (ZnO, TiO2, and zeolite) were employed in the decontamination formulations, for enhancing the degradation of the toxic agents. The efficacy of each decontamination solution was investigated by means of GC-MS analysis, considering the initial concentration of toxic agent and the residual toxic concentration, measured at different time intervals, until the completion of the decontamination process. The conversion of the two chemical warfare agents (HD and GD) into their decontamination products was also monitored for 24 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Biological Threats, Hazard Potential and Countermeasures)
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Article
Detecting Arsenic Contamination Using Satellite Imagery and Machine Learning
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 333; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120333 - 03 Dec 2021
Viewed by 638
Abstract
Arsenic, a potent carcinogen and neurotoxin, affects over 200 million people globally. Current detection methods are laborious, expensive, and unscalable, being difficult to implement in developing regions and during crises such as COVID-19. This study attempts to determine if a relationship exists between [...] Read more.
Arsenic, a potent carcinogen and neurotoxin, affects over 200 million people globally. Current detection methods are laborious, expensive, and unscalable, being difficult to implement in developing regions and during crises such as COVID-19. This study attempts to determine if a relationship exists between soil’s hyperspectral data and arsenic concentration using NASA’s Hyperion satellite. It is the first arsenic study to use satellite-based hyperspectral data and apply a classification approach. Four regression machine learning models are tested to determine this correlation in soil with bare land cover. Raw data are converted to reflectance, problematic atmospheric influences are removed, characteristic wavelengths are selected, and four noise reduction algorithms are tested. The combination of data augmentation, Genetic Algorithm, Second Derivative Transformation, and Random Forest regression (R2=0.840 and normalized root mean squared error (re-scaled to [0,1]) = 0.122) shows strong correlation, performing better than past models despite using noisier satellite data (versus lab-processed samples). Three binary classification machine learning models are then applied to identify high-risk shrub-covered regions in ten U.S. states, achieving strong accuracy (=0.693) and F1-score (=0.728). Overall, these results suggest that such a methodology is practical and can provide a sustainable alternative to arsenic contamination detection. Full article
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Article
The Parental Pesticide and Offspring’s Epigenome Study: Towards an Integrated Use of Human Biomonitoring of Exposure and Effect Biomarkers
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 332; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120332 - 02 Dec 2021
Viewed by 615
Abstract
In Morocco, due to the lack of education and the presence of a counterfeit market, pesticides constitute a major problem to be addressed by occupational and environmental health agencies. This paper aims to introduce the PaPOE (Parental Pesticides and Offspring Epigenome) prospective study [...] Read more.
In Morocco, due to the lack of education and the presence of a counterfeit market, pesticides constitute a major problem to be addressed by occupational and environmental health agencies. This paper aims to introduce the PaPOE (Parental Pesticides and Offspring Epigenome) prospective study and its goals, to motivate the study rationale and design, and to examine comprehensively whether multi-residue exposure to commonly used pesticides could induce epigenetic alterations through the oxidative stress pathway. The PaPOE project includes a cross-sectional study assessing the occupational exposure among 300 farmworkers in Meknes, and initiates a birth cohort of 1000 pregnant women. Data and biological samples are collected among farmworkers, and throughout pregnancy, and at birth. Oxidative stress biomarkers include Glutathione, Malondialdehyde, and 8-OHdG. Global and gene-specific DNA methylation is assessed. The study began enrollment in 2019 and is ongoing. As of 30 June 2021, 300 farmworkers and 125 pregnant women have enrolled. The results are expected to showcase the importance of biomonitoring for understanding individual risks, and to identify a number of regions where DNA methylation status is altered in the pesticides-exposed population, paving the way for an integrated biomonitoring system in Morocco and Africa to assess environmental exposures and their long-term health consequences. Full article
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Article
Biokinetic Evaluation of Contrast Media Loaded Carbon Nanotubes Using a Radiographic Device
Toxics 2021, 9(12), 331; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxics9120331 - 02 Dec 2021
Viewed by 485
Abstract
Considerable progress has been made in various fields of applied research on the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Because CNTs are fibrous nanomaterials, biosafety of CNTs has been discussed. The biokinetic data of CNTs, such as using the radioisotope of carbon and surface [...] Read more.
Considerable progress has been made in various fields of applied research on the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Because CNTs are fibrous nanomaterials, biosafety of CNTs has been discussed. The biokinetic data of CNTs, such as using the radioisotope of carbon and surface labeling of CNTs, have been reported. However, the use of radioisotopes requires a special facility. In addition, there are problems in the surface labeling of CNTs, including changes in surface properties and labels eliminating over time. In order to solve these problems and properly evaluate the biokinetics of CNTs, the authors synthesize peapods with platinum (Pt) encapsulated within the hollow region of Double-Walled CNTs (DWCNTs) and develop a new system to evaluate biokinetics using widely available imaging equipment. In the cell assay, no significant difference is observed with and without Pt in CNTs. In animal studies, radiography of the lungs of rats that inhaled Pt-peapods show the detectability of Pt inside the CNTs. This new method using Pt-peapods enables image evaluation with a standard radiographic imaging device without changing the surface property of the CNTs and is effective for biokinetics evaluation of CNTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of the (Eco)Toxicity of Nanomaterials)
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