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Reports, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 10 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The principles of behavioral economics can be used to help families to make healthy and sustainable choices. Here, a child is attracted to healthy food by a “smiley face” emoticon. Our article presents a primer on behavioral economics and describes applications that can lead to better health decisions. View this paper
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Case Report
Immunological Response to SARS-CoV-2 Is Sustained by Vitamin D: A Case Presentation of One-Year Follow-Up
Reports 2021, 4(2), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4020018 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 560
Abstract
Vitamin D is necessary for normal bone development and conservation. Moreover, it has extraskeletal effects, which play a pivotal role as a modulator of innate and adaptive immune responses. Many studies have highlighted the beneficial effect of vitamin D in protecting against acute [...] Read more.
Vitamin D is necessary for normal bone development and conservation. Moreover, it has extraskeletal effects, which play a pivotal role as a modulator of innate and adaptive immune responses. Many studies have highlighted the beneficial effect of vitamin D in protecting against acute respiratory viral infection, including COVID-19. Within this context, we described the effect of vitamin D supplementation in the immunological response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Long-term IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses were assessed in a cohort of twenty-two subjects diagnosed with COVID-19 by chemiluminescence assay (CLIA). Among them, a 61-year-old nurse undergoing vitamin D therapy showed a positive IgG response against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid over nine months after infection, suggesting vitamin D played a role in modulating early antibody response against SARS-CoV-2. This result provides evidence of a positive effect of vitamin D on the decrease of functional humoral immunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case Reports in Infectious Diseases 2020)
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Article
Regulation of TREM1-Mediated Inflammation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells
Reports 2021, 4(2), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4020017 - 09 Jun 2021
Viewed by 623
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), accounting for more than 90% of cases of primary liver cancer, is the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Chronic inflammation precedes the development of cirrhosis and HCC. TREM (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell)-1 is an inflammatory [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), accounting for more than 90% of cases of primary liver cancer, is the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Chronic inflammation precedes the development of cirrhosis and HCC. TREM (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell)-1 is an inflammatory marker and amplifier of inflammation that signals through PI3K and ERK1/2 to activate transcription factors, resulting in increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, causing chronic inflammation and predisposing the liver to carcinogenesis. Thus, targeting TREM-1 in HCC might be a potential therapeutic target. A low level of vitamin D has been associated with chronic inflammation and poor prognosis in HCC. Thus, we evaluated the effect of vitamin D on TREM-1 expression in the HCC cell line. Additionally, the effects of high mobility group box-1, lipopolysaccharide, and transcription factor PU.1 on the expression of TREM-1 in normal liver cells and HCC cells have been investigated in the presence and absence of vitamin D. The results showed increased expression of TREM-1 in HCC cells and with IL-6, TNF-α, LPS, and rHMGB-1 and decreased expression with calcitriol. Calcitriol also attenuated the effect of IL-6, TNF-α, LPS, and rHMGB-1 on TREM-1. Calcitriol treatment attenuated the proliferation, migration, and invasion of HCC cells. These results (in vitro) provide molecular and biochemical evidence that calcitriol significantly attenuates the expression of mediators of inflammation, and thus might be used therapeutically together with conventional treatment to delay the progression of HCC. Additionally, the negative regulation of TREM-1 by PU.1 suggests PU.1 as a potential therapeutic target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case Reports in Oncology)
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Review
Behavioral Economics: A Primer and Applications to the UN Sustainable Development Goal of Good Health and Well-Being
Reports 2021, 4(2), 16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4020016 - 04 Jun 2021
Viewed by 771
Abstract
Behavioral economics (BE) is a relatively new field within economics that incorporates insights from psychology that can be harnessed to improve economic decision making with the potential to enhance good health and well-being of individuals and societies, the third of the United Nations [...] Read more.
Behavioral economics (BE) is a relatively new field within economics that incorporates insights from psychology that can be harnessed to improve economic decision making with the potential to enhance good health and well-being of individuals and societies, the third of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. While some of the psychological principles of economic decision making were described as far back as the 1700s by Adam Smith, BE emerged as a discipline in the 1970s with the groundbreaking work of psychologists Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky. We describe the basic concepts of BE, heuristics (decision-making shortcuts) and their associated biases, and the BE strategies framing, incentives, and economic nudging to overcome these biases. We survey the literature to identify how BE techniques have been employed to improve individual choice (focusing on childhood obesity), health policy, and patient and healthcare provider decision making. Additionally, we discuss how these BE-based efforts to improve health-related decision making can lead to sustaining good health and well-being and identify additional health-related areas that may benefit from including principles of BE in decision making. Full article
Case Report
Rapid Clinical and Radiological Improvement in a Patient with Severe COVID-19 Infection Treated with Convalescent Plasma
Reports 2021, 4(2), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4020015 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 507
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected more than 100 million people worldwide. One of the major presentations is pneumonia. Patients are classified as severe when they have an arterial oxygen saturation of less than 94% on breathing room air. We present a case of [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected more than 100 million people worldwide. One of the major presentations is pneumonia. Patients are classified as severe when they have an arterial oxygen saturation of less than 94% on breathing room air. We present a case of a healthy 29-year-old man who had severe COVID-19 pneumonia and responded dramatically to two doses of convalescent plasma. This case underlines the importance of administering the plasma in the first few days of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case Reports in Infectious Diseases 2020)
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Case Report
Urinary Bladder Metastasis from Gastric Cancer: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Reports 2021, 4(2), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4020014 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 497
Abstract
Bladder metastasis from gastric cancer is a unique clinical entity, which can be revealed infrequently in patients with metastatic gastric cancer. Secondary neoplasms to the bladder are also a less frequent clinical entity representing only 15% of all bladder neoplasms. Gastric cancers consist [...] Read more.
Bladder metastasis from gastric cancer is a unique clinical entity, which can be revealed infrequently in patients with metastatic gastric cancer. Secondary neoplasms to the bladder are also a less frequent clinical entity representing only 15% of all bladder neoplasms. Gastric cancers consist of an exceptionally small percentage of all secondary bladder neoplasms. Until now only 27 cases were recorded in the international medical literature. The current work analyzes a 65-year old male patient who presented initially with a locally advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. He was treated with a combination of total gastrectomy and perioperative chemotherapy. Eight months later presented a relapse with bladder metastasis, liver metastasis and peritoneal involvement. Furthermore, in this manuscript, we conducted a review of the recorded cases with bladder metastasis from gastric cancer. In the most of cases the diagnosis of bladder metastasis was metachronous with an average time of presentation in four years after the primary diagnosis of gastric cancer and most of the patients of our review presented with urinary symptoms at the time of diagnosis of bladder metastasis. Concerning the management of the metastatic disease surgical management with total or partial cystectomy was performed in 11% of patients and TUR was performed in 22% of patients. Palliative chemotherapy for the management of metastatic disease was initiated in 46% of patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case Reports in Oncology)
Interesting Images
“Black Ovaries”: An Uncommon Case of First Systemic Recurrence of Melanoma
Reports 2021, 4(2), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4020013 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 498
Abstract
Here we describe a rare case of a 48-year-old woman with a previous history of malignant melanoma (pT2a pathological stage, IB clinical stage) occurring about five years previously. She complained of abdominal pain and pelvic discomfort, diagnosed as a consequence of a bilateral [...] Read more.
Here we describe a rare case of a 48-year-old woman with a previous history of malignant melanoma (pT2a pathological stage, IB clinical stage) occurring about five years previously. She complained of abdominal pain and pelvic discomfort, diagnosed as a consequence of a bilateral ovarian solid masses completely occupying the recto-uterine space. She underwent laparotomy surgery with total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Gross examination of the excised material revealed an unusual grey-black bilateral ovarian tumor; a histopathological diagnosis of ovarian bilateral metastatic melanoma was made. Imaging study (CT/MRI) did not reveal metastasis in other zones of the body. Melanoma metastasis usually affects the skin, liver, brain and lungs, and rarely gynecological localizations. On the other hand, most bilateral ovarian tumors are comprised of serous carcinoma, mature teratoma and gastrointestinal carcinoma metastasis. Exceptionally, primary ovarian melanoma may arise in mature ovarian cystic teratomas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case Reports in Oncology)
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Case Report
Targeted Therapy with Sirolimus and Nivolumab in a Child with Refractory Multifocal Anaplastic Ependymoma
Reports 2021, 4(2), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4020012 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 598
Abstract
Pediatric ependymoma (EPN) is the third most common central nervous system (CNS) tumor, with 90% arising intracranially. Management typically involves maximal surgical resection and radiotherapy, but patients’ outcome is poor. Moreover, there are only a few therapeutical options available for recurrent or refractory [...] Read more.
Pediatric ependymoma (EPN) is the third most common central nervous system (CNS) tumor, with 90% arising intracranially. Management typically involves maximal surgical resection and radiotherapy, but patients’ outcome is poor. Moreover, there are only a few therapeutical options available for recurrent or refractory disease. In this report, we present the case of a 7-year-old girl with relapsed refractory multifocal grade III EPN who failed conventional treatments and experienced a stable and durable response to the immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICPI) nivolumab in association with the mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) inhibitor sirolimus. This experimental therapy was targeted on immune phenotypical analyses of the patient’s last relapse tumor sample, and this procedure should be routinely done to find new possible therapeutical approaches in recurrent solid tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case Reports of Autoimmune Diseases)
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Case Report
Reactive Infectious Mucosal Eruptions (RIME) Secondary to Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection
Reports 2021, 4(2), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4020011 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 696
Abstract
Reactive infectious mucosal eruptions (RIME) following Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is a rare and poorly understood clinical presentation that can pose a diagnostic challenge. We report the case of a previously healthy 21-year old male with a cough, fever, numerous penile and mouth ulcers, [...] Read more.
Reactive infectious mucosal eruptions (RIME) following Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is a rare and poorly understood clinical presentation that can pose a diagnostic challenge. We report the case of a previously healthy 21-year old male with a cough, fever, numerous penile and mouth ulcers, and severe conjunctivitis. Several differential diagnoses, including Herpes simplex infection, were considered before Chlamydia pneumoniae was established as the causative agent. The patient’s condition improved following treatment with clarithromycin and prednisolone tablets, and he had almost fully recovered at follow-up 10 days after discharge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case Reports in Infectious Diseases 2020)
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Article
Colonial War: When the Years Rekindle the Suffering—A Pilot Study
Reports 2021, 4(2), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4020010 - 28 Apr 2021
Viewed by 653
Abstract
For more than 150 years, traumatic stress has been a recurrent topic of medical and psychological studies, in which war-related experiences remain to be addressed. Although veterans have been considered a high-risk group for the development of stress-related diseases, the impact of aging [...] Read more.
For more than 150 years, traumatic stress has been a recurrent topic of medical and psychological studies, in which war-related experiences remain to be addressed. Although veterans have been considered a high-risk group for the development of stress-related diseases, the impact of aging on the trauma process is an unexplored field. This study aimed to analyze the aging-related factors that may influence the emergence of traumatic stress symptoms in war veterans. The clinical data of 29 Colonial War Portuguese veterans were verified in order to identify the main diagnoses, and the frequency of health service use. Through thematic analysis of the transcripts of 10 interviews with veterans diagnosed with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), the main symptoms and factors that led them to mental health services were identified. In addition, a literature review on mental health and psychological trauma was conducted to provide an overview of the knowledge on this topic. Aging seems to be an opportunity to face conflicts which have been kept hidden throughout veterans’ lives. Social stigmatization and the non-recognition of traumatic stress as a disease influenced the Portuguese veterans’ silence, which could be broken with the aging process. Retirement, physical illness, death of close friends or family members, and loss of autonomy may contribute to the onset of trauma-related symptoms. Full article
Case Report
Aeromonas sobria Induced Sepsis Complicated with Necrotizing Fasciitis in a Child with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Reports 2021, 4(2), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4020009 - 26 Mar 2021
Viewed by 868
Abstract
Aeromonas species are gram negative and able to induce systemic diseases (i.e., gastrointestinal, respiratory, and cardiovascular, diseases, in addition to infection of brain and soft tissues). In this study, we describe the development of necrotizing fasciitis in a young immunocompromised girl, with a [...] Read more.
Aeromonas species are gram negative and able to induce systemic diseases (i.e., gastrointestinal, respiratory, and cardiovascular, diseases, in addition to infection of brain and soft tissues). In this study, we describe the development of necrotizing fasciitis in a young immunocompromised girl, with a low response to drug treatment and who died after some months. Full article
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