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Smart Cities, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2022) – 22 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This work proposes a dynamic pricing scheme for charging electric vehicles (EVs). As charging EVs is becoming a standard commercial service, charging station operators are adopting new ways for optimizing their operations. We use the Markov decision process (MDP)-based model of revenue- or utilization-maximizing dynamic pricing problem faced by charging station operators. We solve this problem using the Monte Carlo Tree Search algorithm and evaluate it in simulation using problem instances based on a real-world dataset of EV charging sessions. We show that our approach provides near-optimal pricing decisions in milliseconds for large-scale problems, significantly increasing revenue or utilization over the flat-rate baseline under a range of parameters. View this paper
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Review
Technology Developments and Impacts of Connected and Autonomous Vehicles: An Overview
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 382-404; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities5010022 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1473
Abstract
The scientific advancements in the vehicle and infrastructure automation industry are progressively improving nowadays to provide benefits for the end-users in terms of traffic congestion reduction, safety enhancements, stress-free travels, fuel cost savings, and smart parking, etc. The advances in connected, autonomous, and [...] Read more.
The scientific advancements in the vehicle and infrastructure automation industry are progressively improving nowadays to provide benefits for the end-users in terms of traffic congestion reduction, safety enhancements, stress-free travels, fuel cost savings, and smart parking, etc. The advances in connected, autonomous, and connected autonomous vehicles (CV, AV, and CAV) depend on the continuous technology developments in the advanced driving assistance systems (ADAS). A clear view of the technology developments related to the AVs will give the users insights on the evolution of the technology and predict future research needs. In this paper, firstly, a review is performed on the available ADAS technologies, their functions, and the expected benefits in the context of CVs, AVs, and CAVs such as the sensors deployed on the partial or fully automated vehicles (Radar, LiDAR, etc.), the communication systems for vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure networking, and the adaptive and cooperative adaptive cruise control technology (ACC/CACC). Secondly, for any technologies to be applied in practical AVs related applications, this study also includes a detailed review in the state/federal guidance, legislation, and regulations toward AVs related applications. Last but not least, the impacts of CVs, AVs, and CAVs on traffic are also reviewed to evaluate the potential benefits as the AV related technologies penetrating in the market. Based on the extensive reviews in this paper, the future related research gaps in technology development and impact analysis are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Connected and Autonomous Vehicles)
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Article
Designing Geographic Information System Based Property Tax Assessment in India
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 364-381; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities5010021 - 16 Mar 2022
Viewed by 971
Abstract
Property tax is the primary source of revenue for municipal bodies. In India, municipal corporations are facing issues in property tax collection, and the primary reason for it is a lack of count of assessed properties under its jurisdiction. Also, the storage of [...] Read more.
Property tax is the primary source of revenue for municipal bodies. In India, municipal corporations are facing issues in property tax collection, and the primary reason for it is a lack of count of assessed properties under its jurisdiction. Also, the storage of information on the properties is mainly based on manual efforts, which leads to data redundancy and failure to appropriate tax collection. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) consists of technology, personnel, and resources to create, maintain, visualize, search, and share geospatial data and services. The study has been carried out in the Hauz Khas Ward, South Delhi Municipal Corporation, Delhi. This paper aims to develop a spatial database for property tax management. It includes capturing the building footprint, road, land use such as parks, paved area, drains, and demarcation of boundaries such as locality slums, based on a regular grid net with a cell size of 250 m by 250 m. The generated geospatial database has been finally used to evaluate parameters for property tax calculation. Moreover, this spatial database can be organized as different models for any web-based application for municipal services. This study provides a working example of a GIS-based property tax collection solution for whole of India and other South-Asian countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Finance in Smart-Cities)
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Article
A Decentralized Blockchain-Based Trust Management Framework for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 348-363; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities5010020 - 12 Mar 2022
Viewed by 888
Abstract
Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) are one of the pillars of the Internet of Vehicles, they provide plenty of applications ranging from safety to entertainment. Safety applications largely depend on reliable and authentic traffic-related data. However, ensuring the data reliability and authenticity is [...] Read more.
Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) are one of the pillars of the Internet of Vehicles, they provide plenty of applications ranging from safety to entertainment. Safety applications largely depend on reliable and authentic traffic-related data. However, ensuring the data reliability and authenticity is facing many challenges due mainly to the scalability of VANETs such as the high speed, the long roads, and the open nature of VANETs. This paper addresses these challenges by proposing a decentralized Blockchain-based trust management framework (BC-TMF) aiming to compute trust metrics for vehicles. These trust metrics rely on the authenticity of the messages. Each vehicle assesses the authenticity of the received messages in real-time, calculates a local trust metric for the originator of such messages, then shares it with a miner. Periodically each miner aggregates the received trust metrics into global trust metrics, then packs them in a block. To investigate the efficiency and consistency of the proposed framework, extensive simulations are conducted. The obtained results show that the proposed BC-TMF has an excellent capability in computing accurate trust metrics for vehicles. Besides, it outperforms the existing ones in terms of the accuracy of computed trust metrics, particularly for malicious vehicles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Smart Transportation)
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Article
A Survey of Adaptive Multi-Agent Networks and Their Applications in Smart Cities
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 318-347; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities5010019 - 09 Mar 2022
Viewed by 853
Abstract
The world is moving toward a new connected world in which millions of intelligent processing devices communicate with each other to provide services in transportation, telecommunication, and power grids in the future’s smart cities. Distributed computing is considered one of the efficient platforms [...] Read more.
The world is moving toward a new connected world in which millions of intelligent processing devices communicate with each other to provide services in transportation, telecommunication, and power grids in the future’s smart cities. Distributed computing is considered one of the efficient platforms for processing and management of massive amounts of data collected by smart devices. This can be implemented by utilizing multi-agent systems (MASs) with multiple autonomous computational entities by memory and computation capabilities and the possibility of message-passing between them. These systems provide a dynamic and self-adaptive platform for managing distributed large-scale systems, such as the Internet-of-Things (IoTs). Despite, the potential applicability of MASs in smart cities, very few practical systems have been deployed using agent-oriented systems. This research surveys the existing techniques presented in the literature that can be utilized for implementing adaptive multi-agent networks in smart cities. The related literature is categorized based on the steps of designing and controlling these adaptive systems. These steps cover the techniques required to define, monitor, plan, and evaluate the performance of an autonomous MAS. At the end, the challenges and barriers for the utilization of these systems in current smart cities, and insights and directions for future research in this domain, are presented. Full article
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Article
Energy Community in Action—Energy Citizenship Contract as Tool for Climate Neutrality
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 294-317; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities5010018 - 06 Mar 2022
Viewed by 808
Abstract
Cities are responsible for 65% of energy consumption and for the 70% of CO2 emissions. Incisive actions are fundamental to bring cities towards climate neutrality by 2050 working by and for the citizens. For this reason, the “100 climate-neutral cities Mission” anticipates [...] Read more.
Cities are responsible for 65% of energy consumption and for the 70% of CO2 emissions. Incisive actions are fundamental to bring cities towards climate neutrality by 2050 working by and for the citizens. For this reason, the “100 climate-neutral cities Mission” anticipates the target of climate neutrality by 2030. The objective of this paper, developed within the H2020 GRETA project—GReen Energy Transition Actions (GA101022317), is to investigate energy communities and climate city contracts as key interventions to face the ambitious goal of implementing citizens-centered and climate-neutral cities. To achieve this objective, this paper is structured as follows: (1) an updated framework of European and Italian legislation concerning energy communities; (2) an overview of climate city contracts’ definition and key aspects; (3) a selection and analysis of energy communities’ case studies; (4) a description of already developed pilot climate city contracts. The results provide more advanced knowledge about EU energy communities strategies and about the possible contractual agreements that can guarantee commitment between parties and can allow the active participation of citizens in the energy system. The lessons learned contribute to the application in the GRETA Italian case study, whose first participation activities are also described in the paper. Full article
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Article
Spatial Analysis of Economic Activities as a Tool for Effective Urban Policies
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 276-293; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities5010017 - 04 Mar 2022
Viewed by 774
Abstract
The economic activities of each city greatly shape and predict their development as well as make them more competitive both locally and globally. In the last two decades, as part of the international economic crisis, Greece has been at the center of changes [...] Read more.
The economic activities of each city greatly shape and predict their development as well as make them more competitive both locally and globally. In the last two decades, as part of the international economic crisis, Greece has been at the center of changes that have resulted in the closure of thousands of businesses. This significantly affected Greek cities by changing their economic profile and robustness via the spatial distribution of their economic activities. Economic geography, as a sector that examines the geographical distribution of economic activities, is an important methodological base for analysing business locations and urban spatial processes. This paper aims to analyse, through a combination of economic geography theories and spatial analysis methods, the spatial patterns of economic activities and to identify urban areas that are resilient in difficult times of crisis. Thus cities that have the ability, via the proposed analysis/methodological framework, to control and evaluate their economic profile and prospects, can be transformed into smart cities by adopting ad hoc urban renaissance and resilient policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
A Cluster-Based Approach Using Smartphone Data for Bike-Sharing Docking Stations Identification: Lisbon Case Study
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 251-275; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities5010016 - 03 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1032
Abstract
Urban mobility is a massive issue in the current century, being widely promoted the need of adopting sustainable solutions regarding transportation within large urban centres. The evolution of technologies has democratised smart cities to better plan and manage their mobility solutions, without compromising [...] Read more.
Urban mobility is a massive issue in the current century, being widely promoted the need of adopting sustainable solutions regarding transportation within large urban centres. The evolution of technologies has democratised smart cities to better plan and manage their mobility solutions, without compromising the social, economic, and environmental impacts. Pursuing the carbon neutrality and the climate agreement goals, soft mobility is one of the most popular emerging methods to provide greener alternatives regarding mobility. Among these transportation modes are the bicycle, which has been widely used in several public systems across the world, one of them being in Lisbon. This article provides a decision support system for bike-sharing docking stations for three council parishes of the city, namely, Parque das Nações, Marvila, and Beato. Taking advantage of clustering methods and GSM data from a telecommunication operator, this study pretends to highlight a novel approach to identify soft mobility hotspots, in specific bike-sharing docking stations, for suited mobility management systems in Lisbon’s city centre. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges for the Development of Sustainable Smart Cities)
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Article
Economic Framework of Smart and Integrated Urban Water Systems
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 241-250; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities5010015 - 02 Mar 2022
Viewed by 767
Abstract
Smart and integrated urban water systems have important roles in advancing smart cities, but their contributions go much further by supplying needed public services and connecting other sectors to meet sustainability goals. Achieving integration and gaining access to financing are obstacles to implementing [...] Read more.
Smart and integrated urban water systems have important roles in advancing smart cities, but their contributions go much further by supplying needed public services and connecting other sectors to meet sustainability goals. Achieving integration and gaining access to financing are obstacles to implementing smart water systems and both are implicit in the economic framework of smart cities. Problems in financing the start-up of smart water systems are reported often. The local and diverse nature of water systems is another barrier because an approach that works in one place may not work in another with different conditions. The paper identifies the challenges posed by the economic framework and provides examples from four cities with diverse characteristics. It outlines pathways to advance implementation of smart water systems by improving control strategies, advancing instrumentation and control technologies, and most of all, to help transform cities by raising customer awareness and trust through reliable and useful water information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Finance in Smart-Cities)
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Article
Dynamic Pricing for Charging of EVs with Monte Carlo Tree Search
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 223-240; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities5010014 - 27 Feb 2022
Viewed by 876
Abstract
As electric vehicles (EVs) are slowly becoming a common occurrence on roads, commercial EV charging is becoming a standard commercial service. With this development, charging station operators are looking for ways to make their charging services more profitable or allocate the available resources [...] Read more.
As electric vehicles (EVs) are slowly becoming a common occurrence on roads, commercial EV charging is becoming a standard commercial service. With this development, charging station operators are looking for ways to make their charging services more profitable or allocate the available resources optimally. Dynamic pricing is a proven technique to increase revenue in markets with heterogeneous demand. This paper proposes a Markov Decision Process (MDP)-based approach to revenue- or utilization- maximizing dynamic pricing for charging station operators. We implement the method using a Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) algorithm and evaluate it in simulation using a range of problem instances based on a real-world dataset of EV charging sessions. We show that our approach provides near-optimal pricing decisions in milliseconds for large-scale problems, significantly increasing revenue or utilization over the flat-rate baseline under a range of parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and Opportunities in Electromobility)
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Article
Models for Supporting Mobility as a Service (MaaS) Design
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 206-222; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities5010013 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 954
Abstract
Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is the new approach in transportation systems that allows users to use different transport services as a single option, by using digital platforms and with integrated design. In MaaS many actors can be identified: MaaS operators, MaaS companies, [...] Read more.
Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is the new approach in transportation systems that allows users to use different transport services as a single option, by using digital platforms and with integrated design. In MaaS many actors can be identified: MaaS operators, MaaS companies, MaaS users, citizens, system manager/planner. In order to be able to design the system in an integrated way, it is necessary to identify comprehensive methodologies that make it possible to reach sustainability targets in a context where the decisions to be taken are shared between several operators and affect users and citizens. In this paper, the methods to be adopted for the design of an integrated transport service system have been studied. The main aim of this paper concerns the specification of transport system models for estimating the effects of decision-makers’ actions on MaaS. The consolidated design methodologies of transport networks have been extended in the context of the MaaS. The paper reports a methodology that can be used and describes the main models to be used, which derive from consolidated specifications in the field of transport systems engineering. The methodologies have to be integrated into Intelligent and Communication Technology systems to build the Intelligent Transport System in the MaaS environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Electric Vehicle Charging Load Allocation at Residential Locations Utilizing the Energy Savings Gained by Optimal Network Reconductoring
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 177-205; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities5010012 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 992
Abstract
In this study, a two-stage methodology based on the energy savings gained by optimal network reconductoring was developed for the sizing and allocation of electric vehicle (EV) charging load at the residential locations in urban distribution systems. During the first stage, the Flower [...] Read more.
In this study, a two-stage methodology based on the energy savings gained by optimal network reconductoring was developed for the sizing and allocation of electric vehicle (EV) charging load at the residential locations in urban distribution systems. During the first stage, the Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA) was applied to minimize the annual energy losses of the radial distribution system through optimum network reconductoring. A multi-objective function was formulated to minimize investment, peak loss, and annual energy loss costs at different load factors. The results obtained with the flower pollination algorithm were compared with the particle swarm optimization algorithm. In the second stage, a simple heuristic procedure was developed for the sizing and allocation of EV charging load at every node of the distribution system utilizing part of the annual energy savings obtained by optimal network reconductoring. The number of electric cars, electric bikes, and electric scooters that can be charged at every node was computed while maintaining the voltage and branch current constraints. The simulation results were demonstrated on 123 bus and 51 bus radial distribution networks to validate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Full article
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Article
SmartNoshWaste: Using Blockchain, Machine Learning, Cloud Computing and QR Code to Reduce Food Waste in Decentralized Web 3.0 Enabled Smart Cities
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 162-176; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities5010011 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 18339
Abstract
Food waste is an important social and environmental issue that the current society faces, where one third of the total food produced is wasted or lost every year while more than 820 million people around the world do not have access to adequate [...] Read more.
Food waste is an important social and environmental issue that the current society faces, where one third of the total food produced is wasted or lost every year while more than 820 million people around the world do not have access to adequate food. However, as we move towards a decentralized Web 3.0 enabled smart city, we can utilize cutting edge technologies such as blockchain, artificial intelligence, cloud computing and many more to reduce food waste in different phases of the supply chain. In this paper, we propose SmartNoshWaste—a blockchain based multi-layered framework utilizing cloud computing, QR code and reinforcement learning to reduce food waste. We also evaluate SmartNoshWaste on real world food data collected from the nosh app to show the efficacy of the proposed framework and we are able to reduce food waste by 9.46% in comparison to the originally collected food data based on the experimental evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain Technologies for Smart Cities)
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Article
Barcelona under the 15-Minute City Lens: Mapping the Accessibility and Proximity Potential Based on Pedestrian Travel Times
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 146-161; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities5010010 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1406
Abstract
Many academics, urban planners and policymakers subscribe to the benefits of implementing the concept of the 15-Minute City (FMC) in metropolises across the globe. Despite the interest raised by the concept, and other variants of chrono-urbanism, to date, only a few studies have [...] Read more.
Many academics, urban planners and policymakers subscribe to the benefits of implementing the concept of the 15-Minute City (FMC) in metropolises across the globe. Despite the interest raised by the concept, and other variants of chrono-urbanism, to date, only a few studies have evaluated cities from the FMC perspective. Most studies on the subject also lack a proper well-defined methodology that can properly assess FMC conditions. In this context, this study contributes to the development of an appropriate FMC-measuring method by using network analysis for services and activities in the City of Barcelona (Catalonia, northeastern Spain). By using network analyst and basing our analysis on cadastral parcels, this study is able to detail the overall accessibility conditions of the city and its urban social functions based on the FMC perspective. The resulting spatial synthetic index is enhanced with the creation of partial indexes measuring the impact of education, provisioning, entertainment, public and non-motorized transport, and care facilities. The results show that most residents of this dense and compact city live in areas with proximity to services, that can clearly be labeled as FMC, although there are some shortfalls in peripheral areas. Results validate the FMC methodology as a viable method to highlight spatial inequalities at the microscale level, a valuable tool for the development of effective planning policies. Full article
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Article
Bauhaus.MobilityLab: A Living Lab for the Development and Evaluation of AI-Assisted Services
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 133-145; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities5010009 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 888
Abstract
With the vision “Innovation by experiment” the Bauhaus.MobilityLab started in July 2020 as a living lab in the district Brühl of the city Erfurt, Thuringia, Germany. As a unique project, it is coupling the sectors mobility, logistics and energy into a unified living [...] Read more.
With the vision “Innovation by experiment” the Bauhaus.MobilityLab started in July 2020 as a living lab in the district Brühl of the city Erfurt, Thuringia, Germany. As a unique project, it is coupling the sectors mobility, logistics and energy into a unified living lab. It allows to design, develop and evaluate innovative services to increase the quality of life in the city. Bauhaus.MobilityLab offers access to live smart city data of different domains and provides a set of powerful artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms for data processing, analytics and forecasting. In contrast to existing platforms, its uniqueness is the available and integrated living lab. It allows directly rolling out new smart city services and to evaluate the impact in the real world. This paper describes the implementation of the technical platform supporting the Bauhaus.MobilityLab, realized according to the DIN SPEC 91357 as an open urban platform. It focuses on data sharing based on the concepts of the International Data Spaces and the integration of AI algorithms. The concepts are presented based on examples in the energy domain. Full article
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Smart Cities in 2021
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 131-132; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities5010008 - 29 Jan 2022
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Article
Soft Assets Consideration in Smart and Resilient City Development
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 108-130; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities5010007 - 26 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1093
Abstract
For a smart city, soft or non-physical assets share an important capital component with many impacts in different contexts. They enable a city to deliver and mainstream a people-centered policy in addition to the benefits provided by traditional, hard infrastructure. Soft assets can [...] Read more.
For a smart city, soft or non-physical assets share an important capital component with many impacts in different contexts. They enable a city to deliver and mainstream a people-centered policy in addition to the benefits provided by traditional, hard infrastructure. Soft assets can involve social and human capital, knowledge, participation, and innovative approaches that drive value in the city. However, it is always a challenge for city policy makers to identify and strengthen these soft assets using a systemic approach due to their inherent characteristics. This paper argues that soft assets should be strategically integrated into the development process of smart and resilient cities. Therefore, exploring various approaches to prioritize soft asset consideration would provide helpful guidelines to city policy makers for municipal value creation, and identify where the greatest needs for soft or intangible assets lie. This paper examines how to identify and decide which soft assets should take priority in smart and resilient cities. The findings can assist policy makers in their consideration of an optimal mix and balance of soft assets required in the city to improve living structures for a people-centered approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Defining and Debating on Smart Cities or Smart Buildings)
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Article
A Comprehensive Methodology for Assessing the Impact of Smart City Interventions: Evidence from Espoo Transformation Process
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 90-107; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities5010006 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 983
Abstract
In recent years, the world’s population living in cities has been rapidly increasing. Cities are transforming their infrastructure in a smarter and more efficient way so that sustainable development forms part of their long-term strategy. However, this transformation does not always result in [...] Read more.
In recent years, the world’s population living in cities has been rapidly increasing. Cities are transforming their infrastructure in a smarter and more efficient way so that sustainable development forms part of their long-term strategy. However, this transformation does not always result in expected benefits due to a variety of factors such as an absence of social acceptance, a lack of holistic design and the development of unilateral interventions. An analysis of the scientific literature related to the evaluation of the impact of smart city actions revealed a gap in the holistic methods for their assessment. To this end, an accurate evaluation of implemented smart solutions focusing on the energy domain is necessary in order to assess the expected and realized impact of each solution. This paper proposes a seven-step methodology for assessing the impact of smart city interventions and presents a use case for the city of Espoo. A number of major findings were the outcome of our research and development work, such as the need for a thorough analysis of the long-term vision of the city, a combined top-down and bottom-up approach and the ongoing cooperation between all stakeholders involved in urban planning and transformation, in which necessary Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are defined. Full article
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Article
Participatory Governance of Smart Cities: Insights from e-Participation of Putrajaya and Petaling Jaya, Malaysia
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 71-89; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities5010005 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1106
Abstract
Participatory governance is widely viewed as an essential element of realizing planned smart cities. Nonetheless, the implementation of e-participation platforms, such as the websites and mobile applications of civic authorities, often offer ambiguous information on how public voices may influence e-decision-making. This study [...] Read more.
Participatory governance is widely viewed as an essential element of realizing planned smart cities. Nonetheless, the implementation of e-participation platforms, such as the websites and mobile applications of civic authorities, often offer ambiguous information on how public voices may influence e-decision-making. This study aims to examine the status of participatory governance from the angle of e-participation platforms and from the broader scope of linking e-platforms to a smart city blueprint. In order to achieve this aim, the study focuses on shedding light on the e-governance space given to smart city realization in a developing country context—i.e., Malaysia. The Putrajaya and Petaling Jaya smart cities of Malaysia were selected as the testbeds of the study, which used the multiple case study methodology and multiple data collection designs. The analyses were done through the qualitative observations and quantitative descriptive statistics. The results revealed that both of the investigated smart city cases remained limited in their provision of e-decision-making space. The inefficiency of implementing planned initiatives to link the city blueprints to e-platforms was also evidenced. The study evidenced that the political culture of e-decision-making is undersized in Malaysia, which hinders the achievement of e-democracy in the smart cities’ development. This study has contributed a case report on a developing country’s smart cities, covering the participatory issues from the angle of e-participation and e-platforms. Full article
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Article
Fixed and Mobile Low-Cost Sensing Approaches for Microclimate Monitoring in Urban Areas: A Preliminary Study in the City of Bolzano (Italy)
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 54-70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities5010004 - 08 Jan 2022
Viewed by 839
Abstract
In the current scenario of massive urbanization and global climate change, an intelligent monitoring of the environmental variables is becoming fundamental to ensure good living conditions in cities. Indeed, the acquisition of data with high spatiotemporal resolution can enable the assessment of environmental [...] Read more.
In the current scenario of massive urbanization and global climate change, an intelligent monitoring of the environmental variables is becoming fundamental to ensure good living conditions in cities. Indeed, the acquisition of data with high spatiotemporal resolution can enable the assessment of environmental vulnerabilities in urban areas towards the definition of responsive adaptation and mitigation strategies. In this context, the current work presents a two-fold approach based on low-cost cloud-connected sensors for (i) fixed and (ii) mobile monitoring of several environmental parameters. This paper, which focuses on the measurement aspects of the urban micro-climate, describes in detail the hardware and software components of both approaches, and how to exploit them for setting up a field campaign. The methods were tested in the city of Bolzano (Italy), demonstrating their suitability for identifying the spatial variability of the microclimate in relation to the urban morphology, and for highlighting the presence of the urban heat island and estimating its intensity. Full article
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Article
Operation of the Egyptian Power Grid with Maximum Penetration Level of Renewable Energies Using Corona Virus Optimization Algorithm
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 34-53; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities5010003 - 05 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1387
Abstract
Countries around the world are looking forward to fully sustainable energy by the middle of the century to meet Paris climate agreement goals. This paper presents a novel algorithm to optimally operate the Egyptian grid with maximum renewable power generation, minimum voltage deviation [...] Read more.
Countries around the world are looking forward to fully sustainable energy by the middle of the century to meet Paris climate agreement goals. This paper presents a novel algorithm to optimally operate the Egyptian grid with maximum renewable power generation, minimum voltage deviation and minimum power losses. The optimal operation is performed using Corona Virus Algorithm (CVO). The proposed CVO is compared to the Teaching and Learning-Based Optimization (TLBO) algorithm in terms of voltage deviation, power losses and share of renewable energies. The real demand, solar irradiance and wind speed in typical winter and summer days are considered. The 2020 Egyptian grid model is developed, simulated, and optimized using DIgSILENT software application. The results have proved the effectiveness of the proposed CVO, compared to the TLBO, to operate the grid with the highest share possible of renewables. The paper is a step forward to achieve Egyptian government targets to reach 20% and 42% penetration level of renewable energies by 2022 and 2035, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Section Smart Grids)
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Article
Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Site Selection for Smart Community Demonstration Projects
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 22-33; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities5010002 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 765
Abstract
Definition and imagination of an ideal city can be traced back to the origin of garden city in UK about 100 years ago. Since then, many different names and topics have been proposed and smart city is the one most recently proposed. Starting [...] Read more.
Definition and imagination of an ideal city can be traced back to the origin of garden city in UK about 100 years ago. Since then, many different names and topics have been proposed and smart city is the one most recently proposed. Starting from 2000, more and more countries have developed various demonstration projects for the promotion of smart city in order to provide total solution for the promotion of sustainable development and social welfare. In fact, some of them have been successfully carried out. Some researchers in Taiwan argue that the current mechanism by which government subsidies are allocated for smart city demonstration projects warrants improvement. A comprehensive literature review determined that the development potential of smart cities should be prioritized in site selection for such demonstration projects. This study developed an evaluation framework on the basis of multi-criteria evaluation methods to enable the identification of suitable smart city demonstration sites. Evaluation criteria were first identified through the Delphi method. Next, the weights of each criterion were derived through the analytic hierarchy process. Furthermore, the capability of the proposed evaluation model was determined through simulation testing. Four demonstration sites are simulated, they are: Taipower Smart Community, Yinlin Technology University campus, Taichung Creative Cultural Park, and Asian New Bay Area in Kaohsiung, It is expected that the research findings in this thesis can be helpful to the future decision for the demo site selection of smart city. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Making a Building Smart with a Co-Created and Continuously Evolving Enjoyable Service Entity—Insights from a Collaborative Study
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 1-21; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities5010001 - 24 Dec 2021
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Abstract
Buildings shape cities as those cities grow from and nurture people living and working within the built environment. Thus, the conceptualization of smart building should be brought closer to the smart city initiatives that particularly target ensuring and enhancing the sustainability and quality [...] Read more.
Buildings shape cities as those cities grow from and nurture people living and working within the built environment. Thus, the conceptualization of smart building should be brought closer to the smart city initiatives that particularly target ensuring and enhancing the sustainability and quality of urban life. In this paper, we propose that a smart building should be interlinked with a smart city surrounding it; it should provide good experiences to its various occupants and it should be in an ongoing state of evolving as an ecosystem, wherein different stakeholders can join to co-produce, co-provide and co-consume services. Smart buildings require a versatile set of smart services based on digital solutions, solutions in the built environment and human activities. We conducted a multiphase collaborative study on new service opportunities guided by a Design Thinking approach. The approach brought people, technology, and business perspectives together and resulted in key service opportunities that have the potential to make the buildings smart and provide enjoyable experience to the occupants who support their living and working activities in smart cities. This paper provides the resulting practical implications as well as proposes future avenues for research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Defining and Debating on Smart Cities or Smart Buildings)
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