Next Issue
Volume 1, September
Previous Issue
Volume 1, March

Parasitologia, Volume 1, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 6 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Enteric Protists in Asymptomatic Schoolchildren and Their Legal Guardians in Madrid, Spain
Parasitologia 2021, 1(2), 83-94; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/parasitologia1020010 - 02 May 2021
Viewed by 487
Abstract
Asymptomatic carriage of diarrhoea-causing enteric protist parasites in the general population is poorly understood, particularly in medium- to high-income countries. This molecular epidemiological survey investigates the presence, molecular diversity, and household transmission of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Blastocystis sp., and Enterocystozoon bieneusi [...] Read more.
Asymptomatic carriage of diarrhoea-causing enteric protist parasites in the general population is poorly understood, particularly in medium- to high-income countries. This molecular epidemiological survey investigates the presence, molecular diversity, and household transmission of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Blastocystis sp., and Enterocystozoon bieneusi in schoolchildren aged 2–13 years (n = 74) and their legal guardians (n = 6) in Madrid, Spain. Enteroparasite detection and genotyping was conducted in stool samples by molecular (PCR and Sanger sequencing) methods. Potential associations linked to infections were investigated through epidemiological questionnaires. Giardia duodenalis was the most prevalent enteric parasite found (14%, 95% CI: 7.1–23), followed by Blastocystis sp. (10%, 95% CI: 6.2–22) and Cryptosporidium spp. (3.8%, 95% CI: 0.78–11). None of the participants tested positive for E. bieneusi. Sequence analyses revealed the presence of G. duodenalis assemblage B, sub-assemblage BIV in a single child. The three Cryptosporidium isolates obtained were assigned to C. hominis, two of them belonging to the gp60 subtype IbA10G2. Four Blastocystis subtypes were identified including ST2 (38%, 3/8), ST3 (25%, 2/8), ST4 (25%, 2/8), and ST8 (12%, 1/8). All G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium isolates were detected in children only. Blastocystis ST3 and ST4 were circulating in members of the same household. Blastocystis carriage rates increased with the age of the participants. Presence of diarrhoea-causing enteric protists was common in apparently healthy children. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Environmental Correlates of Prevalence of an Intraerythrocytic Apicomplexan Infecting Caribbean Damselfish
Parasitologia 2021, 1(2), 69-82; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/parasitologia1020009 - 02 May 2021
Viewed by 579
Abstract
Parasites are an integral part of coral reef ecosystems due to their influences on population dynamics, biodiversity, community structure, and food web connectivity. The Phylum Apicomplexa contains ubiquitous animal associates including the causative agents of globally important human diseases such as malaria and [...] Read more.
Parasites are an integral part of coral reef ecosystems due to their influences on population dynamics, biodiversity, community structure, and food web connectivity. The Phylum Apicomplexa contains ubiquitous animal associates including the causative agents of globally important human diseases such as malaria and cryptosporidiosis. Despite their ubiquity, little is known about the biology, ecology, or distribution of these microorganisms in natural animal populations. In the US Virgin Islands, the dusky damselfish (Stegastes adustus) had a high but variable incidence of a Haemohormidium-like blood apicomplexan among 30 sites sampled. Microscopic analyses of blood smears allowed us to group these fish as infected, having low intensity infections, or uninfected. Regression analyses detected no significant differences in the condition indices (expressed as length–mass ratio). However, infection was clearly associated with potentially extremely high leukocyte counts among infected S. adustus that were not seen in uninfected fish. These results suggested the potential for some impact on the host. Linear mixed effects models indicated that S. adustus population density and meridional flow velocity were the main predictors of apicomplexan prevalence, with presence of other Stegastes species, population distance from watershed, zonal flow velocity, the complexity of the surrounding habitat, and season not showing any significant relationship with fish infection. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Lice, Flies, Mites, and Ticks on Raptors (Accipitriformes, Falconiformes and Strigiformes) in Rescue Centers in Central Italy
Parasitologia 2021, 1(2), 61-68; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/parasitologia1020008 - 16 Apr 2021
Viewed by 633
Abstract
This study aims to assess the occurrence of external arthropods on deceased raptors in rescue centers in Tuscany, central Italy. The examined diurnal raptors include 17 common buzzards (Buteo buteo), two European honey buzzards (Pernis apivorus), seven sparrowhawks ( [...] Read more.
This study aims to assess the occurrence of external arthropods on deceased raptors in rescue centers in Tuscany, central Italy. The examined diurnal raptors include 17 common buzzards (Buteo buteo), two European honey buzzards (Pernis apivorus), seven sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), six common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), a western osprey (Pandion haliaetus), and a peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). Nocturnal raptors included seven barn owls (Tyto alba), ten tawny owls (Strix aluco), 22 little owls (Athene noctua) and two scops owls (Otus scops). The skin and the feathers of each animal were examined, and arthropods were collected, fixed, and microscopically identified. In 48 out of the 75 examined birds (64%), at least a single arthropod species was found. Identified arthropods included chewing lice (Degeeriella fulva, D. rufa, Colpocephalum turbinatum, C. apivorus, Nosopon lucidum, N. clayae, Craspedorrhyncus platystomus, Laemobothrion tinnunculi, Kurodaia subpachygaster, Strigiphilus cursitans), hippoboscid flies (Ornithomya avicularia), chigger and feather mites (Kramerella lunulata, K. lyra, Kramerella sp., Glaucalges attenuatus, Hieracolichus nisi, Hieracolichus sp., Neotrombicula autumnalis) and ticks (Haemaphysalis sp.). Most of the identified mite, fly and tick species are the first records in raptors in Italy. Moreover, this study presents the first record of Hieracolichus sp. and N. autumnalis mites in P. haliaetus and F. tinnunculus, respectively. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Ocular Toxoplasmosis: Mechanisms of Retinal Infection and Experimental Models
Parasitologia 2021, 1(2), 50-60; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/parasitologia1020007 - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 493
Abstract
Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii and affects many individuals throughout the world. Infection may occur through congenital or acquired routes. The parasites enter the blood circulation and reach both the retina and the retinal pigment epithelium, where they [...] Read more.
Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii and affects many individuals throughout the world. Infection may occur through congenital or acquired routes. The parasites enter the blood circulation and reach both the retina and the retinal pigment epithelium, where they may cause cell damage and cell death. Different routes of access are used by T. gondii to reach the retina through the retinal endothelium: by transmission inside leukocytes, as free parasites through a paracellular route, or after endothelial cell infection. A main feature of OT is the induction of an important inflammatory state, and the course of infection has been shown to be influenced by the host immunogenetics. On the other hand, there is evidence that the T. gondii phenotype also has an impact on the distribution of the pathology in different areas. Although considerable knowledge has been acquired on OT, a deeper knowledge of its mechanisms is necessary to provide new, more targeted treatment strategies. In particular, in addition to in vitro and in vivo experimental models, organotypic, ex vivo retinal explants may be useful in this direction. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
First Report of Ixodes scapularis Ticks Parasitizing a North American Porcupine in Canada
Parasitologia 2021, 1(2), 45-49; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/parasitologia1020006 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 617
Abstract
Adult females of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), were collected from a North American porcupine, Erethizon dorsatum, in eastern Ontario, Canada. This porcupine parasitism indicates that an established population of I. scapularis is present in the local vicinity. This tick [...] Read more.
Adult females of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), were collected from a North American porcupine, Erethizon dorsatum, in eastern Ontario, Canada. This porcupine parasitism indicates that an established population of I. scapularis is present in the local vicinity. This tick species is known to parasitize more than 150 different vertebrate hosts, including the North American porcupine. The presence of I. scapularis ticks parasitizing a North American porcupine constitutes a new tick-host record in Canada. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Sheep and Goats from Romania
Parasitologia 2021, 1(2), 36-44; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/parasitologia1020005 - 25 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 511
Abstract
Toxoplasma gondii infections in sheep and goats are important economically and for public health for many countries, including Romania. In this study, seroprevalence and associated risk factors for T. gondii infection were determined in 2500 sheep and 500 goats from three counties in [...] Read more.
Toxoplasma gondii infections in sheep and goats are important economically and for public health for many countries, including Romania. In this study, seroprevalence and associated risk factors for T. gondii infection were determined in 2500 sheep and 500 goats from three counties in the Banat region of Romania. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 1266 of 2500 (50.64%) sheep and in 375 (75%) of 500 goats, by using a commercial (IDEXX) ELISA. To evaluate the epidemiological status of the infection, some risk factors for ovine and caprine T. gondii infections were assessed. The main risk factors associated with T. gondii infections were breed, age, and the presence of cats in the farm. Seroprevalence was higher in animals older than three years and in purebred versus mixed breed animals. This is the first detailed study of risk factors associated with T. gondii seroprevalence in sheep and goats in Romania. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop