Special Issue "Oral Health Promotion in Paediatric Population"

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067). This special issue belongs to the section "Global and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 July 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Santosh K. Tadakamadla
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Dentistry and Oral Health, Griffith University, Gold Coast 4222, Australia
Interests: oral Epidemiology; health promotion; oral-systemic link; quality of life
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Loc Do
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Australian Research Centre for Population Oral Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, Australia
Interests: oral epidemiology; fluoride; social determinants of oral health; oral health promotion
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Gianluca M. Tartaglia
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
UOC Maxillo-Facial Surgery and Dentistry, Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, School of Dentistry, Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan, 20100 Milan, Italy
Interests: oral health; cranio- and dentofacial growth; TMJ pathology in children and adults; oral rehabilitation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Oral diseases are prevalent worldwide and constitute an important global health problem. The influence of oral diseases is beyond the oral cavity and could impact both physical and mental health, as well as overall quality of life. In children, the impact of oral disease could be long lasting as past disease is a significant predictor of future disease, for example, the presence of early childhood caries is a significant risk factor for caries in the permanent dentition. However, most oral diseases are easily preventable, which requires tackling not only individual-level determinants, but also broader community/societal level determinants. In addition to promoting behaviour change, and thus preventing oral diseases in individuals through health education, the concept of oral health promotion aims to influence policy decisions to create conducive environments and promote community action to promote oral and overall health. Due to the high treatment costs and pain associated with untreated oral disease, a multilevel approach is required to enable individuals to adopt healthy behaviours. 

In this Special Issue, we invite submissions on all topics related to oral health promotion in children and adolescents including, but not limited to, determinants of oral health, the prevalence of oral health behaviours and their determinants, interventions to promote positive oral health behaviours, health education, oral health literacy, novel concepts in oral health promotion, and oral health promotion policy.  

Dr. Santosh K. Tadakamadla
Prof. Loc Do
Dr. Gianluca M. Tartaglia
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dental caries
  • oral health behaviour
  • oral diseases
  • determinants
  • oral hygiene
  • oral health literacy
  • oral health education
  • public policy
  • interventions
  • prevention
  • gingival diseases
  • families
  • health promotion

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
Evaluation of the Erosive and Cariogenic Potential of Over-the-Counter Pediatric Liquid Analgesics and Antipyretics
Children 2021, 8(7), 611; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8070611 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 353
Abstract
To evaluate the cariogenic and erosive potentials of over-the-counter pediatric oral liquid antipyretics and analgesics, we tested nine over-the-counter pediatric oral liquid medications classified as antipyretic or analgesic medicines available in Korea. For each substance, we measured the pH with a pH meter [...] Read more.
To evaluate the cariogenic and erosive potentials of over-the-counter pediatric oral liquid antipyretics and analgesics, we tested nine over-the-counter pediatric oral liquid medications classified as antipyretic or analgesic medicines available in Korea. For each substance, we measured the pH with a pH meter and the sugar content with a sugar content meter. We determined the titratable acidity (TA) levels based on the volumes of NaOH solution that had to be added to reach a pH of 7.0. We also evaluated the dental erosion potentials with an International Organization for Standardization method based on observing changes in the pH of a CaPO4 solution upon introducing a small volume of the solution to be tested. The oral liquid medications had pH values of 3.40–5.68. In the TA assessments, several oral liquid medications required greater volumes of NaOH solution to reach a pH of 7.0. The dental erosion potentials varied but correlated strongly with the NaOH volumes needed to reach a neutral pH (r = 0.84; p < 0.0001). Many oral liquid antipyretics and analgesics have features that can promote dental erosion. A correct understanding of pediatric antipyretics and analgesics is required in dentistry for children’s oral health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health Promotion in Paediatric Population)
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Article
Impact of the Poor Oral Health Status of Children on Their Families: An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study
Children 2021, 8(7), 586; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8070586 - 09 Jul 2021
Viewed by 325
Abstract
The impact of poor oral health may not just be limited to the children themselves but can impact their families. The current study aims to perform psychometric analyses of the Arabic version of the Family Impact Scale and investigate the association of its [...] Read more.
The impact of poor oral health may not just be limited to the children themselves but can impact their families. The current study aims to perform psychometric analyses of the Arabic version of the Family Impact Scale and investigate the association of its domains with the oral health status of children. This cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 500 parent-child dyads from high schools of Jazan city of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Arabic version of the Family Impact Scale was subjected to reliability and validity tests. The explanatory variables in the current study are: the oral health status, parents combined income, parents’ education, age and sex of the child. The descriptive analysis was reported using proportions, this was followed by the bivariate and multivariable analyses. About 24.2% of children were reported to have fair, poor, and very poor oral health. A lower frequency of family impact corresponded with better oral health (OH) status of children (p < 0.001). The likelihood of parent’s taking time off from work and having financial difficulties was nearly two-times greater if their children had poor oral health. Similarly, interruption in sleep and other normal activities of parents is four times and five times greater, respectively, if the child has poor oral health status. Thus, the poor oral health of school children in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia is a matter of grave concern as it is observed to be associated with family impacts; particularly affecting the parent’s work, sleep, and other normal family activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health Promotion in Paediatric Population)
Article
Age- and Sex-Related Changes in Labial Dimensions of Sudanese Youngs of Arab Descent: A Three-Dimensional Cross-Sectional Study
Children 2021, 8(7), 574; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8070574 - 04 Jul 2021
Viewed by 543
Abstract
Proper evaluation of facial features during growth and development requires the knowledge of anthropometric reference values validated for ethnicity, sex and age. In order to provide information concerning the normal sex-related size of the lips during childhood and young adulthood in Sudanese people [...] Read more.
Proper evaluation of facial features during growth and development requires the knowledge of anthropometric reference values validated for ethnicity, sex and age. In order to provide information concerning the normal sex-related size of the lips during childhood and young adulthood in Sudanese people of Arab descent, the three-dimensional coordinates of nine labial soft tissue landmarks were obtained by a laser scanner in 332 male and 386 female healthy Northern Sudanese subjects aged 3–30 years. Six labial linear distances, the vermilion height to mouth width ratio, vermilion areas and lip volumes were calculated and averaged for age and sex. Comparisons were performed by factorial analysis of variance (p < 0.01). All labial dimensions significantly increased with age. Significant effects of sex were found for four measurements only, with very small effect size; nonetheless, lips and their parts grew faster in females than in males at almost all ages. Philtrum width was the first linear distance that attained adult values. The vermilion height to mouth width ratio was nearly constant across the age groups. Data collected in this study contribute to information about ethnic-specific lip morphology during growth and development. As orolabial features change over time with their own pattern, the relevant age-related trends should be properly considered for clinical treatment planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health Promotion in Paediatric Population)
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Article
Does Dental Fear in Children Predict Untreated Dental Caries? An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study
Children 2021, 8(5), 382; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8050382 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 405
Abstract
Despite free health care services in Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of caries in children is substantially greater in comparison to other high-income countries. Dental fear in children may be an important issue that needs attention. Therefore, the aim was to investigate the role [...] Read more.
Despite free health care services in Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of caries in children is substantially greater in comparison to other high-income countries. Dental fear in children may be an important issue that needs attention. Therefore, the aim was to investigate the role of dental fear in predicting untreated dental caries in schoolchildren. This analytical cross-sectional study included children aged 8–10 years residing in Saudi Arabia. Dental status via oral examinations was surveyed with the WHO standardized chart and the Children Fear Survey Schedule—Dental Subscale was used to score dental fear. Descriptive, binary, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to report the findings at 5% statistical significance. Overall, there were 798 schoolchildren with an average fear score of 36. Nearly 70.4% reported fear of someone examining their mouth. About 76.9% had at least one carious tooth in their oral cavity. Children with dental fear were 1.8 times (OR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.26, 2.56) more likely to have at least one untreated carious tooth in their oral cavity than those who did not express fear during oral examinations and dental procedures. Thus, the current study concludes that fear of dentists and dental treatment procedures successfully predicts untreated carious teeth in schoolchildren. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health Promotion in Paediatric Population)
Article
Association of Acculturation and Latino Parents’ Oral Health Beliefs and Knowledge
Children 2021, 8(3), 243; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8030243 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 440
Abstract
The purpose of our study was to explore the association of acculturation and Latino parent behavioral and psychosocial characteristics. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 197 parent-children triads. Participating parents completed survey questions encompassing oral health knowledge, behaviors and beliefs from a validated [...] Read more.
The purpose of our study was to explore the association of acculturation and Latino parent behavioral and psychosocial characteristics. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 197 parent-children triads. Participating parents completed survey questions encompassing oral health knowledge, behaviors and beliefs from a validated oral health instrument. The mean score for acculturation in this sample was 3.8, where acculturation was dichotomized to a categorical variable. The bivariate associations between the independent variables (caregiver psychosocial factors and socio-economic factors (SES) factors) and acculturation (more/less acculturated) were conducted using logistic regression analysis, and for the final model a multivariate logistic regression model was used. In the bivariate analyses, less acculturated parents reported lower oral health knowledge (p = 0.02), higher social support (p = 0.028) and chronic stress (p = 0.015) and lower perceived susceptibility to dental caries in their children (p = 0.039). The bivariate analysis demonstrated that less acculturated parents had less education and employment (p < 0.0001) than more acculturated parents. The multivariate logistic model demonstrated that social support (p = 0.028), chronic stress (p = 0.015) and health beliefs as barriers to access dental care (p = 0.039) were higher in less acculturated parents compared to more acculturated parents. Less acculturated parents demonstrated lower oral health knowledge, higher stress and more barriers to accessing oral health care for their children. Oral health interventions for Latino families should incorporate strategies that include consideration of parental oral health beliefs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health Promotion in Paediatric Population)
Article
Condylar Changes in Children with Posterior Crossbite after Maxillary Expansion: Tridimensional Evaluation
Children 2021, 8(1), 38; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8010038 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 737
Abstract
(1) Background: To investigate condylar position in subjects with functional posterior crossbite comparing findings before and after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) treatment through 3D analysis; (2) Methods: Thirty-two Caucasian patients (14 males, mean age 8 y 8 m ± 1 y 2 m; [...] Read more.
(1) Background: To investigate condylar position in subjects with functional posterior crossbite comparing findings before and after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) treatment through 3D analysis; (2) Methods: Thirty-two Caucasian patients (14 males, mean age 8 y 8 m ± 1 y 2 m; 18 females mean age 8 y 2 m ± 1 y 4 m) with functional posterior crossbite (FPXB) diagnosis underwent rapid palatal expansion with a Haas appliance banded on second deciduous upper molars. Patients’ underwent CBCT scans before rapid palatal expansion (T0) and after 12 months (T1). The images were processed through 3D slicer software; (3) Results: The condylar position changes between T1 and T0 among the crossbite and non-crossbite sides were not statistically significant, except for the transversal axis. At T1, the condyles moved forward (y axis) and laterally (x axis), they also moved downward (z axis) but not significantly; (4) Conclusions: Condilar position in growing patients with functional posterior crossbite did not change significantly after rapid maxillary expansion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health Promotion in Paediatric Population)
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Article
Views of Indian Migrants on Adaptation of Child Oral Health Leaflets: A Qualitative Study
Children 2021, 8(1), 28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8010028 - 07 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 916
Abstract
The aim of this study was to gain insight on the views of Hindi-speaking mothers on readily available English language oral health education materials and to evaluate the acceptability of Hindi language adapted versions of these materials. This qualitative study is nested within [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to gain insight on the views of Hindi-speaking mothers on readily available English language oral health education materials and to evaluate the acceptability of Hindi language adapted versions of these materials. This qualitative study is nested within an ongoing multi-centre birth cohort study in Greater Western Sydney, Australia. Following purposive selection of Hindi-speaking mothers (n = 19), a semi-structured interview was conducted. Two English leaflets were mailed to participants prior to the interview. The simplified English and translated Hindi versions of the leaflets were provided at the interview, and the participants were asked to compare and evaluate all three versions. Interviews were audio recorded, and thematic analysis was used to analyse data from interview transcripts. A majority of the participants reported a certain degree of difficulty in reading and comprehending oral health messages in Hindi. Although Hindi translations were accurate, mothers preferred the simplified English as opposed to the Hindi version. Visual illustrations and a simple layout facilitated the understanding of oral health messages. Developers of oral health education leaflets should thoroughly research their prospective user groups, particularly migrant populations, and identify the need for simplified or translated oral health education leaflets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health Promotion in Paediatric Population)
Article
A Validation and Cost-Analysis Study of a Targeted School-Based Dental Check-Up Intervention: Children’s Dental Program
Children 2020, 7(12), 257; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7120257 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 829
Abstract
Background: Limited evidence exists to inform best practice approaches to implement school-based dental screening to address child retention via referral for dental services. This research tested the null hypothesis that a targeted school-based dental check-up program (intervention) has a 75% child retention rate [...] Read more.
Background: Limited evidence exists to inform best practice approaches to implement school-based dental screening to address child retention via referral for dental services. This research tested the null hypothesis that a targeted school-based dental check-up program (intervention) has a 75% child retention rate for public dental care (H0 = 0.75). Methods: A prospective non-randomised controlled trial was conducted with a convenience sampling approach in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Children in the intervention group were recruited from two preschools and two primary schools from a low socioeconomic area. Children in the standard care group were recruited from the local public dental service. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata IC Version 12. Results: Children in the intervention (45%) were significantly less likely to have never had a dental check-up compared to standard care (20%) (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference for the child retention rate for the intervention group when compared against the null hypothesis (p = 0.954). The total society costs were AU$754.7 and AU$612.2 for the intervention and standard care groups, respectively (p = 0.049). Conclusions: This validation study provides evidence that a targeted school-based dental check-up program can achieve a 75% child retention rate and should be considered for program expansion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health Promotion in Paediatric Population)
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Review

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Review
Is Pediatric Dentistry a Topic of Interest for Pediatric Journals? A Scoping Review
Children 2021, 8(9), 720; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8090720 - 24 Aug 2021
Viewed by 226
Abstract
Background: Pediatric dentistry shares many skills with pediatrics. This review evaluates the amount of literature on pediatric dentistry in the first 30 pediatric journals classified by the Web of Science in 2019. The aim was to perform a quantitative analysis of the main [...] Read more.
Background: Pediatric dentistry shares many skills with pediatrics. This review evaluates the amount of literature on pediatric dentistry in the first 30 pediatric journals classified by the Web of Science in 2019. The aim was to perform a quantitative analysis of the main dental topics addressed. Methods: A scoping review with the PRISMA-ScR criteria was performed. The Clarivate Analytics Journal Citation Report was consulted for journals ranked in the category “Pediatrics” in 2019. Papers were searched in PubMed using an ad hoc prepared string. Results: A total of 504 papers were included. Papers on dental hard tissues were the most prevalent (45.6%), followed by dental public health (23.2%), orofacial development (15.3%), soft tissues related conditions (12.3%), and orofacial trauma (3.6%). Increasing trends have been observed for total papers published (R2 = 0.9822) and total dental papers (R2 = 0.8862), with no statistically significant differences (χ2(6) = 0.051 p > 0.05). The majority of papers (n = 292, 57.9%) were cited between 1 and 10 times, whilst less than 7% of papers received more than 40 citations. Discussion: It is desirable that papers on pediatric dentistry increase in the pediatric scenario, allowing the two related disciplines to intertwine more in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health Promotion in Paediatric Population)
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