Special Issue "Advances in the Measurement of Fuels and Fuel Properties"

A special issue of Fire (ISSN 2571-6255).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Alistair M. S. Smith
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dr. Wade T. Tinkham
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Forest and Rangeland Stewardship, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
Interests: biometry; sampling; monitoring; fuel characterization; forest stand dynamics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The accurate measurement of fuel is central to fire science. This Special Issue solicits articles on recent advances of the use of laboratory, field, and remote sensing approaches to characterize the properties, arrangement, and quantity of fuels. We are open to all types of articles but Review papers and Technical Notes describing common or new approaches to measure fuel and fuel properties, are particularly encouraged. Topics are invited across the entire spectrum of fire science, including fuels in structural and wildland fire science environments.

Laboratory methods to measure fuel properties including, but not limited to:

- Chemical composition;
- Moisture content;
- Surface area to volume ratio;
- Energy content;
- Organic matter content.

Field-based approaches to measure fuels including, but not limited to, measurement techniques for:

- Belowground components such as roots and peat;
- Litter and Duff;
- Forbs and grasses;
- Shrubs;
- Trees;
- Downed woody debris;
- Crown and canopy characteristics.

Remote sensing and modeling approaches to measure fuels and their properties including, but not limited to:

- UAVs and drones;
- Spectral indices;
- Structural metrics from LiDAR;
- SAR and other remote sensing approaches;
- Land cover classifications (e.g. LANDFIRE);
- Fuel classification systems (e.g. photo guides, FCCS, etc.).

Measurement and Analysis of Fuel Variability including, but not limited to:

- Impacts of Topography;
- Impacts of Meteorology;
- Projected changes under climate and land use change;
- Spatial interpolation of fuels.

Dr. Alistair M. S. Smith
Dr. Wade T. Tinkham
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fire is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fuels
  • remote sensing
  • field measurements
  • fuel properties
  • chemical composition
  • LiDAR
  • drones

Published Papers (4 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Article
Generation and Mapping of Fuel Types for Fire Risk Assessment
Fire 2021, 4(3), 59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fire4030059 - 06 Sep 2021
Viewed by 755
Abstract
Fuel mapping is key to fire propagation risk assessment and regeneration potential. Previous studies have mapped fuel types using remote sensing data, mainly at local-regional scales, while at smaller scales fuel mapping has been based on general-purpose global databases. This work aims to [...] Read more.
Fuel mapping is key to fire propagation risk assessment and regeneration potential. Previous studies have mapped fuel types using remote sensing data, mainly at local-regional scales, while at smaller scales fuel mapping has been based on general-purpose global databases. This work aims to develop a methodology for producing fuel maps across European regions to improve wildland fire risk assessment. A methodology to map fuel types on a regional-continental scale is proposed, based on Sentinel-3 images, horizontal vegetation continuity, biogeographic regions, and biomass data. A vegetation map for the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands was generated with 85% overall accuracy (category errors between 3% and 28%). Two fuel maps were generated: (1) with 45 customized fuel types, and (2) with 19 fuel types adapted to the Fire Behaviour Fuel Types (FBFT) system. The mean biomass values of the final parameterized fuels show similarities with other fuel products, but the biomass values do not present a strong correlation with them (maximum Spearman’s rank correlation: 0.45) because of the divergences in the existing products in terms of considering the forest overstory biomass or not. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Measurement of Fuels and Fuel Properties)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Forest Structure Drives Fuel Moisture Response across Alternative Forest States
Fire 2021, 4(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire4030048 - 15 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1746
Abstract
Climate warming is expected to increase fire frequency in many productive obligate seeder forests, where repeated high-intensity fire can initiate stand conversion to alternative states with contrasting structure. These vegetation–fire interactions may modify the direct effects of climate warming on the microclimatic conditions [...] Read more.
Climate warming is expected to increase fire frequency in many productive obligate seeder forests, where repeated high-intensity fire can initiate stand conversion to alternative states with contrasting structure. These vegetation–fire interactions may modify the direct effects of climate warming on the microclimatic conditions that control dead fuel moisture content (FMC), which regulates fire activity in these high-productivity systems. However, despite the well-established role of forest canopies in buffering microclimate, the interaction of FMC, alternative forest states and their role in vegetation–fire feedbacks remain poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that FMC dynamics across alternative states would vary to an extent meaningful for fire and that FMC differences would be attributable to forest structural variability, with important implications for fire-vegetation feedbacks. FMC was monitored at seven alternative state forested sites that were similar in all aspects except forest type and structure, and two proximate open-weather stations across the Central Highlands in Victoria, Australia. We developed two generalised additive mixed models (GAMMs) using daily independent and autoregressive (i.e., lagged) input data to test the importance of site properties, including lidar-derived forest structure, in predicting FMC from open weather. There were distinct differences in fuel availability (days when FMC < 16%, dry enough to sustain fire) leading to positive and negative fire–vegetation feedbacks across alternative forest states. Both the independent (r2 = 0.551) and autoregressive (r2 = 0.936) models ably predicted FMC from open weather. However, substantial improvement between models when lagged inputs were included demonstrates nonindependence of the automated fuel sticks at the daily level and that understanding the effects of temporal buffering in wet forests is critical to estimating FMC. We observed significant random effects (an analogue for forest structure effects) in both models (p < 0.001), which correlated with forest density metrics such as light penetration index (LPI). This study demonstrates the importance of forest structure in estimating FMC and that across alternative forest states, differences in fuel availability drive vegetation–fire feedbacks with important implications for forest flammability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Measurement of Fuels and Fuel Properties)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Non-Destructive Fuel Volume Measurements Can Estimate Fine-Scale Biomass across Surface Fuel Types in a Frequently Burned Ecosystem
Fire 2021, 4(3), 36; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fire4030036 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 780
Abstract
Measuring wildland fuels is at the core of fire science, but many established field methods are not useful for ecosystems characterized by complex surface vegetation. A recently developed sub-meter 3D method applied to southeastern U.S. longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) communities captures [...] Read more.
Measuring wildland fuels is at the core of fire science, but many established field methods are not useful for ecosystems characterized by complex surface vegetation. A recently developed sub-meter 3D method applied to southeastern U.S. longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) communities captures critical heterogeneity, but similar to any destructive sampling measurement, it relies on separate plots for calculating loading and consumption. In this study, we investigated how bulk density differed by 10-cm height increments among three dominant fuel types, tested predictions of consumption based on fuel type, height, and volume, and compared this with other field measurements. The bulk density changed with height for the herbaceous and woody litter fuels (p < 0.001), but live woody litter was consistent across heights (p > 0.05). Our models predicted mass well based on volume and height for herbaceous (RSE = 0.00911) and woody litter (RSE = 0.0123), while only volume was used for live woody (R2 = 0.44). These were used to estimate consumption based on our volume-mass predictions, linked pre- and post-fire plots by fuel type, and showed similar results for herbaceous and woody litter when compared to paired plots. This study illustrates an important non-destructive alternative to calculating mass and estimating fuel consumption across vertical volume distributions at fine scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Measurement of Fuels and Fuel Properties)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Ignition of Fuel Beds by Cigarettes: A Conceptual Model to Assess Fuel Bed Moisture Content and Wind Velocity Effect on the Ignition Time and Probability
Fire 2021, 4(3), 35; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fire4030035 - 06 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1193
Abstract
A conceptual model based on the balance of energy in a system composed of a burning cigarette, ambient flow and a porous fuel bed is proposed to study the burning of a single cigarette and the process of fuel bed dehydration, pyrolysis and [...] Read more.
A conceptual model based on the balance of energy in a system composed of a burning cigarette, ambient flow and a porous fuel bed is proposed to study the burning of a single cigarette and the process of fuel bed dehydration, pyrolysis and its eventual ignition or combustion extinction. Model predictions of time to ignition and of the probability of ignition as a function of fuel bed moisture content and ambient flow velocity are compared with results obtained in laboratory ignition tests of straw fuel beds for various ambient conditions. According to this study, the main parameters influencing the models developed are the fuel bed and tobacco moisture content, as well as the flow velocity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Measurement of Fuels and Fuel Properties)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop