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Topical Collection "Addressing Public Health and Health Inequities in Marginalized and Hidden Populations"

Editors

Dr. Tinashe Dune
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
School of Health Sciences & Translational Health Research Institute, Western Sydney University, Sydney 2751, Australia
Interests: marginalized and hidden populations; health inequities; sexual and reproductive health; health sociology; health psychology; participatory action research
Dr. Zelalem Mengesha
E-Mail Website
Co-Collection Editor
Translational Health Research Institute (THRI), School of Medicine, Western Sydney University, Sydney 2751, Australia
Interests: equity in health; refugee and migrant health; critical public health qualitative methodologies; mixed methods research
Prof. Dr. Pranee Liamputtong
E-Mail Website
Co-Collection Editor
School of Health Sciences & Translational Health Research Institute, Western Sydney University, Sydney 2751, Australia
Interests: cross-cultural research; infant feeding practices; mental health; motherhood; parenting; qualitative research methodologies; reproductive health; researching with vulnerable populations; sexual and reproductive health
Prof. Dr. Amit Arora
E-Mail Website
Co-Collection Editor
School of Health Sciences & Translational Health Research Institute Western Sydney University, Campbelltown Campus, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2571, Australia
Interests: breastfeeding; chronic disease; culturally and linguistically diverse populations; dental health; epidemiology; global health; health promotion; health services research; infant feeding; maternal and child health

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Marginalized populations include a broad range of groups who face disproportionate health inequities resulting in compromised health and wellbeing outcomes. To address these inequities across various social determinants and health conditions, public health researchers, clinicians and policy makers work with individuals and communities from diverse backgrounds. As a result of this work, public health stakeholders have become more aware of hidden populations. These are cohorts not typically addressed by mainstream public health programs or models and who are sometimes overlooked in public health work focused on marginalized populations. This may be due to language barriers or geographical location. Often this cohort within marginalized populations experiences multiple and intersecting social and environmental disadvantages such that the public health and wellbeing of whole communities is affected.   This Special Issue aims to explore the needs of marginalized and hidden populations as well as the collaborative and translational public health interventions used to address the health inequities faced by these communities. Broadly, this Special Issue is seeking original submissions that examine: (1) The under-represented perspectives of marginalized and hidden populations in relation to their health needs and community-driven solutions; (2) community-engaged or strengths-based strategies for overcoming challenges to health equity for marginalized and hidden populations; and (3) best practices for designing, implementing and/or evaluating public health interventions to address health inequities in these populations. Special interest will be given to submissions that discuss the use of innovative research methods and/or intervention designs that increase the visibility of hidden and marginalized populations and their strengths and skills. Other manuscript types of interest include relevant position papers, brief reports and commentaries. 

Dr. Tinashe Dune
Dr. Zelalem Mengesha
Prof. Pranee Liamputtong
Dr. Amit Arora
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • marginalized populations
  • hidden populations
  • LGBTIQ
  • disability
  • low socioeconomic
  • Indigenous
  • migrant and refugee
  • health inequities
  • health inequalities
  • community-engaged research
  • participatory action research

Published Papers (16 papers)

2021

Jump to: 2020

Article
Situation of Self-Reported Anxiety and Depression among Urban Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Thailand, 2019
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7269; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147269 - 07 Jul 2021
Viewed by 423
Abstract
Academic evidence on the health of urban refugees and asylum seekers (URAS) in Thailand is extremely sparse, especially for neglected problems such as mental health disorders. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depression and factors associated with these problems [...] Read more.
Academic evidence on the health of urban refugees and asylum seekers (URAS) in Thailand is extremely sparse, especially for neglected problems such as mental health disorders. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depression and factors associated with these problems among URAS in Bangkok. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2019. The URAS were randomly selected from the roster of the Bangkok Refugee Centre (BRC). A self-administered questionnaire was used and 180 samples were recruited. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression were used for the analysis. We found a prevalence of 70.0% for anxiety and 39.5% for depression. Compared to Southeast Asia and China, URAS from other regions were 3.4 times (95% CI 1.5–7.5, p < 0.05) and 4.0 times (95% CI 1.1–14.0, p < 0.05) more likely to experience anxiety and depression, respectively. URAS with chronic co-morbidities (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.2–9.4, p < 0.05) and being divorced or widowed (OR = 11.1, 95% CI 2.1–57.2, p < 0.05) faced greater odds of depression than those without co-morbidities and being single. Related health authorities should play a proactive role in providing mental healthcare services for URAS, with greater consideration for those of certain nationalities and with chronic diseases. Full article
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Article
Socioecological Factors Influencing Sexual Health Experiences and Health Outcomes of Migrant Asian Women Living in ‘Western’ High-Income Countries: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2469; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18052469 - 03 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 859
Abstract
Migrant health has been identified as one of the most pressing issues of the 21st century. Migration experiences are influenced by gender and gender norms and have important implications for the sexual health of migrant women. This systematic review explored socioecological factors influencing [...] Read more.
Migrant health has been identified as one of the most pressing issues of the 21st century. Migration experiences are influenced by gender and gender norms and have important implications for the sexual health of migrant women. This systematic review explored socioecological factors influencing sexual health experiences and health outcomes of migrant Asian women living in “Western” high-income countries. PRISMA guidelines were followed and this study was registered with PROSPERO. Five academic databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles published between 2000 and 2019. Of 2415 studies retrieved, 17 met the selection criteria: 12 qualitative, 4 quantitative, and 1 mixed-methods study. The four levels of Bronfenbrenner’s socioecological model were applied to examine the individual, interpersonal, institutional, and societal factors of influence. Most studies (n = 13) reported individual level factors, focusing on knowledge and use of contraceptives. At a societal level, host country sociocultural factors, including gender and cultural norms, influenced knowledge, ability to access and utilise contraceptives, and access to health services. Findings suggest that the public health policy, practice, and research to improve the sexual health of migrant women requires greater consideration of the intersecting factors of gender, culture, and the migration process. Full article
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Article
Physical and Mental Health Related Quality of Life and Their Influencing Factors on Sexual Minority Women in Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 2115; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18042115 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 738
Abstract
Korean sexual minority women (SMW) often experience discrimination, but their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) remains to be investigated. Therefore, we aimed to assess the levels of mental and physical HRQoL of Korean SMW and their influencing factors using data from the Korean [...] Read more.
Korean sexual minority women (SMW) often experience discrimination, but their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) remains to be investigated. Therefore, we aimed to assess the levels of mental and physical HRQoL of Korean SMW and their influencing factors using data from the Korean Sexual Minority Women’s Health Study (2017) in a cross-sectional study, which included lesbian and bisexual females (N = 736; age ≥19 years). The HRQoL was measured using SF-36v2®; moreover, separate multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to identify the factors influencing mental and physical HRQoL. The physical and mental HRQoL scores were average (52.38 ± 7.65) and low (38.33 ± 12.64), respectively. Significant factors influencing the physical HRQoL were bisexuality, minority stress, perceived social support, and physical activity. The same factors—apart from physical activity—were associated with mental HRQoL. Therefore, to improve the HRQoL of SMW, it is necessary to lower their minority stress and increase social support. Moreover, special attention is needed regarding bisexual women in Korea. Full article
Article
Social Capital and Psychological Well-Being of Chinese Immigrants in Japan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 547; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020547 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 918
Abstract
Social capital in immigrants has drawn considerable attention from social scientists. Previous studies have paid attention to how immigrants’ bonding social capital (defined as social networks with co-ethnic residents) and bridging social capital (defined as social networks with native residents) are associated with [...] Read more.
Social capital in immigrants has drawn considerable attention from social scientists. Previous studies have paid attention to how immigrants’ bonding social capital (defined as social networks with co-ethnic residents) and bridging social capital (defined as social networks with native residents) are associated with their economic achievement. However, little attention has been paid to immigrants’ different social capital’s effects on psychological well-being. Drawing data from Chinese immigrants in Japan, we examined how these Chinese immigrants assimilated into Japanese society and how their bonding and bridging social capital related to their psychological well-being. The results show that bonding social capital directly affected immigrants’ psychological well-being, whereas bridging social capital indirectly improved their psychological well-being by improving economic status. This study contributes to previous literature on how immigrants’ different social capital is related to their psychological well-being. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2021

Article
Postnatal Care Service Utilisation in Ethiopia: Reflecting on 20 Years of Demographic and Health Survey Data
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 193; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18010193 - 29 Dec 2020
Viewed by 711
Abstract
Background: Most maternal deaths in the world occur during the postpartum period, especially within the first two days following delivery. This makes postnatal care (PNC) critical to improving the chances of maternal and child survival. Over the past 20 years, the proportion of [...] Read more.
Background: Most maternal deaths in the world occur during the postpartum period, especially within the first two days following delivery. This makes postnatal care (PNC) critical to improving the chances of maternal and child survival. Over the past 20 years, the proportion of women receiving antenatal care (ANC) in Ethiopia has increased while the proportion of those receiving PNC has remained low. This study aimed to understand the trends, determinants and urban–rural variations of PNC service utilisation. Methods: This study draws on the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) data for the years 2000 (n = 4552), 2005 (n = 4467), 2011 (n = 4445) and 2016 (n = 4275) to estimate the trends and determinants of PNC service utilisation. Multivariate logistic regression models with adjustment for clustering and sampling weights were used to investigate the association between the independent factors, the study factors and PNC service utilisation. Results: Over the twenty-year period of the EDHS, the proportion of Ethiopian women who received PNC services increased from 5.6% (95% CI: 4.6–6.9%) in 2000 to 18.5% (95% CI: 16.4–20.7%) in 2016. Similarly, women who received PNC services in urban areas increased from 15.2% (95% CI: 23.6–30.7%) in 2000 to 47% (95% CI: 60.4–67.3%) in 2016. Women who were in the wealthy quintile, had ANC visits, delivered in a health facility, and delivered by caesarean section were most likely to have PNC. The present study also showed that whilst birth spacing was a significant factor among urban women, wealth index, ANC visits, and perception of health facility distance were significant factors among rural women. Conclusions: The study suggests low levels of utilisation of PNC among Ethiopian women from rural districts. Geographically targeted interventions with a focus on low-socioeconomic rural women, and those with no previous contacts with the health system during pregnancy, are needed to improve PNC in Ethiopia. Full article
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Article
Professional and Personal Physical Therapist Development through Service Learning in Collaboration with a Prisoner Reinsertion Program: A Qualitative Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9311; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17249311 - 12 Dec 2020
Viewed by 647
Abstract
There is a great concern whether Physical Therapy students upon completion of their educational program are ready and equipped with the requisite skills to construct and implement a successful patient intervention with culturally diverse groups. The purpose of this study is to describe [...] Read more.
There is a great concern whether Physical Therapy students upon completion of their educational program are ready and equipped with the requisite skills to construct and implement a successful patient intervention with culturally diverse groups. The purpose of this study is to describe the professional and personal physical therapist development of Physical Therapy students after participating in Solidarity Activities in Collaboration with a Prisoner reinsertion program as a service-learning course. A qualitative approach was used. A convenience sample of twenty physical therapy students doing service learning and one teaching professor were included. Student diaries were analyzed. Semi-structured interviews were done to explore five students’ and the professor’s judgements. Internal and external observations and filling out structure field-notes were also used as data triangulation in order to build the conceptual model. The main findings include that the application of knowledge and practice of skills in different environments are the most important skills attained with this service learning. Five key themes emerged from the data analysis, namely: application of knowledge, adaptation to different environments, improving communication with patients, assisting people and providing treatment with self-confidence. A recommendation is that Physical Therapy programs include workplace practice in different environments to enhance the development of professionalism among students. Full article
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Article
Impacts of Public Debates on Legalizing the Same-Sex Relationships on People’s Daily Lives and Their Related Factors in Taiwan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8606; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17228606 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 671
Abstract
This study examined the proportion of the individuals who experienced negative impacts on daily lives resulted from public debates on the legalization of same-sex relationships and related factors in Taiwan. Data provided by 1370 participants recruited through a Facebook advertisement were analyzed. Participants [...] Read more.
This study examined the proportion of the individuals who experienced negative impacts on daily lives resulted from public debates on the legalization of same-sex relationships and related factors in Taiwan. Data provided by 1370 participants recruited through a Facebook advertisement were analyzed. Participants completed an online questionnaire assessing negative impact of public debates on daily lives, gender, age, sexual orientation, the number of lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) friends, and perceived population’s acceptance of homosexuality. The results showed that 39.5% of participants reported the negative impacts on their occupational or academic performance; 34.2% reported the negative impact on friendship; 37.7% reported the negative impact on family relationship; and 57.4% reported the negative impact on mood or sleep quality. Non-heterosexual participants were more likely to report negative impacts of public debates on all domains of daily lives than heterosexual ones. The number of LGB friends was positively associated with negative impacts of public debates on all domains of daily lives. Participants who were 20–29 years old were more likely to report negative impacts of public debates on the domains of family relationship and mood/sleep quality than those who were 40 or older. Participants who were 30–39 years old were more likely to report negative impacts of public debates on the domain of mood/sleep quality than those who were 40 or older. Males were less likely to report the negative impact on their mood/sleep quality than females. Perceiving population’s acceptance for homosexuality were negatively associated with negative impacts of public debates on the domains of occupational/academic performance, family relationship and mood/sleep quality. Full article
Article
Exploring Daily Activity Patterns on the Typical Day of Older Adults for Supporting Aging-in-Place in China’s Rural Environment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8416; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17228416 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 624
Abstract
Severe aging in rural China is prompting communities to promote support for older people to age in place. The study of the daily life of older adults in rural areas is conducive to understanding their real life and demands, as well as the [...] Read more.
Severe aging in rural China is prompting communities to promote support for older people to age in place. The study of the daily life of older adults in rural areas is conducive to understanding their real life and demands, as well as the way they interact with their environment, to develop feasible strategies. In this study, 171 older adults over 60 years old in two different types of villages in Northern Zhejiang Province were investigated and analyzed in terms of the temporal and spatial features of daily activities, as well as their relationship with population attributes, personal competence, and subjective demands. The results show that: (1) significant association can be seen between working hours and the demand for health services, housework hours and gender and age, as well as leisure hours and ADL and the demand for recreational services. (2) The older adults appear to have inter-group homogeneity in some aspects: basic living activities, leisure hours, the gender difference in housework hours, and recreational preference, while they have higher average paid work hours and fewer leisure alternatives than their urban counterparts. Their definitions of paid work, housework, and leisure activities are vague. (3) The definition of home by the older adults in rural places sometimes seems to go beyond the scope of their own house, and the extensive definition of home may change their recognitions of some activities. They also inclined to assign meaning to a place through frequent use rather than through external definitions. (4) The weak consciousness on buying services and deteriorated financial situation hinders the older adults in rural communities from expressing their real demands. Unspoken demands include economic security, recreational choices, and assistance in housework. The results will help to provide references for the improvement of eldercare services and the community environment. Full article
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Article
Air Pollution-Related Health Impacts on Individuals Experiencing Homelessness: Environmental Justice and Health Vulnerability in Salt Lake County, Utah
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8413; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17228413 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1671
Abstract
Experiences of homelessness, although widely varied, are characterized by extensive time in public spaces, often outdoors. However, there has been little empirical research about the ways in which environmental factors affect individuals experiencing homelessness (IEHs). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to [...] Read more.
Experiences of homelessness, although widely varied, are characterized by extensive time in public spaces, often outdoors. However, there has been little empirical research about the ways in which environmental factors affect individuals experiencing homelessness (IEHs). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use an environmental justice approach to understand how cardiopulmonary health of IEHs is affected by episodic poor air quality in Salt Lake County. It was hypothesized that people who had experienced unsheltered homelessness and those who had been experiencing homelessness for longer periods of time would report greater health difficulties from poor air quality exposure. Through a combination of in-person semistructured interviews with IEHs (n = 138) and access to corresponding state-based service provider databases, researchers examined both overall descriptives of and relationships between types (sheltered and unsheltered) and duration (chronic and nonchronic) of homelessness. More than 61% of IEHs reported physical reactions to air pollution, 37% reported air pollution-related emotional stress, and more than 89% had sought medical attention for a condition related to air pollution. Findings indicate that while IEHs report a number of health effects related to poor air quality, there were no significant differences between individuals based on either sheltered status or duration of their experiences of homelessness. This study provides an initial empirical inquiry to understand how environmental disamenities negatively influence IEHs, as well as noting that sheltered status and duration of homelessness are less impactful than originally hypothesized. Full article
Article
Healthcare and Health Problems from the Perspective of Indigenous Population of the Peruvian Amazon: A Qualitative Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7728; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17217728 - 22 Oct 2020
Viewed by 1272
Abstract
Indigenous communities usually experience higher levels of mortality and poorer access to healthcare services compared to non-indigenous communities. This study aims to understand the most prevalent health problems and their treatment in the Asháninka indigenous communities of the Peruvian Amazon. We conducted an [...] Read more.
Indigenous communities usually experience higher levels of mortality and poorer access to healthcare services compared to non-indigenous communities. This study aims to understand the most prevalent health problems and their treatment in the Asháninka indigenous communities of the Peruvian Amazon. We conducted an ethnographic study in order to explore the perceived health problems, the use of traditional medicine and the resources offered by the official Peruvian healthcare system. Field notes and semi-structured interviews were used. A total of 16 indigenous and four non-indigenous people were interviewed, and interpretative analysis was used to identify themes. The Asháninka community is an overlooked population, which, due to distance restrictions, misconceptions and ethnical disparities, is far away from an appropriate healthcare system and is subjected to acute medical conditions such as infections and gastrointestinal problems. This group tends to seek traditional medicine, mostly herbal medications and traditional healers. The use of a health professional is seen as a last resort. Although the official Peruvian health system incorporates community participation strategies to improve the healthcare of indigenous people, the shortage of material, human resources and cultural sensitivity makes this difficult. Healthcare strategies should be devised and implemented in order to minimize health inequality in this population. Full article
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Article
Embodying Transgender: An Analysis of Trans Women in Online Forums
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6571; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17186571 - 09 Sep 2020
Viewed by 877
Abstract
This paper discusses the way that trans women embody their transgender identity, focusing on identity questioning, gender dysphoria, clinical gatekeeping and medicalized narratives. Situated within the hermeneutics methodological approach, we adopted the unobtrusive research as our research method, where data was derived from [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the way that trans women embody their transgender identity, focusing on identity questioning, gender dysphoria, clinical gatekeeping and medicalized narratives. Situated within the hermeneutics methodological approach, we adopted the unobtrusive research as our research method, where data was derived from online forums where trans women posted content about their perspectives and experiences of gender and gender transitioning. Thematic analysis method was used for data analysis. Our findings suggest that gender identity is embodied and socially negotiated. Many trans women were initially ambivalent about their transgender identity and some continued to question their desired identity throughout adulthood. When presenting to healthcare professionals many trans women reported being expected to adopt a ‘wrong body’ narrative in order to gain access to treatment and surgery for gender transitioning and affirmation. In doing so, trans women interact with significant others and health care providers, and face many challenges. These challenges must be understood so that trans women can perform self-determination practices as a way to achieve gender autonomy. Full article
Article
Inequality in Health Services for Internal Migrants in China: A National Cross-Sectional Study on the Role of Fund Location of Social Health Insurance
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6327; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17176327 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 688
Abstract
On-the-spot settlements of medical bills for internal migrants enrolled with a social health insurance program outside of their residential location have been encouraged by the Chinese government, with the intention to improve equality in healthcare services. This study compared the use of health [...] Read more.
On-the-spot settlements of medical bills for internal migrants enrolled with a social health insurance program outside of their residential location have been encouraged by the Chinese government, with the intention to improve equality in healthcare services. This study compared the use of health services between the internal migrants who had local health insurance coverage and those who did not. Data (n = 144,956) were obtained from the 2017 China Migrants Dynamic Survey. Use of health services was assessed by two indicators: visits to physicians when needed and registration (shown as health records) for essential public health services. Multi-level logistic regression models were established to estimate the effect size of fund location on the use of health services after controlling for variations in other variables. The respondents who enrolled with a social health insurance scheme locally were more likely to visit physicians when needed (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.06–1.30) and to have a health record (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.30–1.65) compared with those who enrolled outside of their residential location: a gap of 3.5 percentage points (95% CI: 1.3%–5.8%) and 6.1 percentage point (95% CI: 4.3%–7.8%), respectively. The gaps were larger in the rural-to-urban migrants than those in the urban-to-urban migrants (AOR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.93–1.48 for visiting physicians when needed; AOR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.54–0.93 for having a health record). The on-the-spot medical bill settlement system has yet to fully achieve its proposed potential as inequalities in both medical and public health services remain between the internal migrants with and without local health insurance coverage. Further studies are needed to investigate how on-the-spot settlements of medical bills are implemented through coordination across multiple insurance funds. Full article
Article
Unmet Healthcare Needs and Associated Factors in Rural and Suburban Vietnam: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6320; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17176320 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 767
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the current utilization of healthcare services, exploring unmet healthcare needs and the associated factors among people living in rural Vietnam. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 233 participants in a rural area. The methods included [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the current utilization of healthcare services, exploring unmet healthcare needs and the associated factors among people living in rural Vietnam. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 233 participants in a rural area. The methods included face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire, and anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. We considered participants to have unmet health needs if they had any kind of health problem during the past 12 months for which they were unable to see a healthcare provider. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with unmet healthcare needs. Of the participants, 18% (n = 43) had unmet healthcare needs, for reasons like transportation (30%), a lack of available doctors or medicine (47%), and communication issues with healthcare providers (16%). The multivariate logistic regression showed that living in a rural area, having stage 2 hypertension, and having insurance were associated with unmet healthcare needs. To better meet the healthcare needs in rural or suburban areas of Vietnam, allocation of adequate healthcare resources should be distributed in rural areas and insurance coverage for personalized healthcare needs might be required. Efforts should focus on availability of medicine, improvement of transportation systems, and communication skills of healthcare providers to improve access to healthcare services. Full article
Article
The Relationship between Masculinity and Internalized Homophobia amongst Australian Gay Men
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5475; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17155475 - 29 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1392
Abstract
Due to the heterosexist ideals associated with gender norms, gay men often experience negative attitudes towards their own sexuality—internalized homophobia. As a result, gay men often feel compelled to compensate for their perceived lack of masculinity. The study aimed to investigate the relationship [...] Read more.
Due to the heterosexist ideals associated with gender norms, gay men often experience negative attitudes towards their own sexuality—internalized homophobia. As a result, gay men often feel compelled to compensate for their perceived lack of masculinity. The study aimed to investigate the relationship and predictive power of masculinity on gay men’s experiences of internalized homophobia. A sample of 489 self-identified Australian gay men 18–72 years old participated in an online survey on masculinity and homosexuality. Descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, and sequential multiple regressions were used to test the study’s aims. Sequential multiple regressions revealed that conformity to masculine norms and threats to masculinity contingency were stronger predictors of internalized homophobia over and above demographic and other factors. Given the already known psychological risks associated with social isolation, internalized homophobia, and the poor mental health outcomes associated with sexual minority groups, it is suggested that gay men who are experiencing high degrees of internalized homophobia should not be distancing themselves from other gay men but, conversely, seek a strong relationship with the LGBTI community. Full article
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Article
Determinants of Full Breastfeeding at 6 Months and Any Breastfeeding at 12 and 24 Months among Women in Sydney: Findings from the HSHK Birth Cohort Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5384; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17155384 - 27 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1515
Abstract
The aim of this study was to report on breastfeeding duration up to 24 months and determine the predictors of breastfeeding duration among women in South Western Sydney, one of the most culturally diverse and socioeconomically disadvantaged regions of New South Wales (NSW), [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to report on breastfeeding duration up to 24 months and determine the predictors of breastfeeding duration among women in South Western Sydney, one of the most culturally diverse and socioeconomically disadvantaged regions of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Mother–infant dyads (n = 1035) were recruited to the Healthy Smiles Healthy Kids birth cohort study. Study data were collected through telephone interviews at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 months postpartum. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine factors associated with the risk of stopping full breastfeeding at six months and any breastfeeding at 12 and 24 months. The majority of mothers (92.3%) had initiated breastfeeding. At six months, 13.5% of infants were fully breastfed, while 49.9% received some breast milk. Only 25.5% and 2.9% of infants received some breast milk at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Lower maternal education level, lower socioeconomic status, full-time employment, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and caesarean delivery were associated with increased risk of stopping full breastfeeding at six months and any breastfeeding at 12 and 24 months. Older maternal age and partner’s preference for breastfeeding were associated with an increased likelihood of continuing any breastfeeding at 12 and 24 months. These findings present a number of opportunities for prolonging breastfeeding duration in disadvantaged communities in NSW. Full article
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Review
Are Services Inclusive? A Review of the Experiences of Older GSD Women in Accessing Health, Social and Aged Care Services
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3861; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17113861 - 29 May 2020
Viewed by 1140
Abstract
The review aimed to examine the views and experiences of ageing gender and sexually diverse (GSD) women—a triple minority in relation to their age, gender and sexual orientation—in accessing health, social and aged care services. Eighteen peer reviewed articles identified from seven electronic [...] Read more.
The review aimed to examine the views and experiences of ageing gender and sexually diverse (GSD) women—a triple minority in relation to their age, gender and sexual orientation—in accessing health, social and aged care services. Eighteen peer reviewed articles identified from seven electronic databases in health and social sciences were evaluated according to predefined criteria and a thematic review methodology drawing upon socio-ecological theory was used to analyse and interpret the findings. Four major themes were identified from the analysis: “The Dilemma of Disclosure”, “Belonging/Connection”, “Inclusiveness of Aged Care” and “Other Barriers to Access Care”. In the dilemma of disclosure, older GSD women consider factors such as previous experiences, relationship with the provider and anticipated duration of stay with the provider before disclosing their sexual identifies. The review also revealed that aged care services lack inclusiveness in their policies, advertising materials, aged care spaces and provider knowledge and attitude to provide sensitive and appropriate care to GSD women. Overall, older GSD women experience multiple and multilevel challenges when accessing health, aged and social services and interventions are needed at all levels of the socio-ecological arena to improve their access and quality of care. Full article
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