Special Issue "Advanced Surface Enhancement"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Corrosion and Protection".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Alexander M. Korsunsky
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
MBLEM, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ, UK
Interests: fatigue and fracture; dislocations and other defects in solids; residual stresses and eigenstrain theory; surfaces, coatings, (nano)indentation; (synchrotron) X-ray methods (diffraction, imaging, spectroscopy); advanced multimodal microscopy; biological materials and tissues; hierarchically structured materials (HSM)
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is my pleasure to invite you to participate in this Special Issue of MDPI Metals devoted to advanced methods and approaches to surface enhancement. There are five themes that encompass the latest developments in specific areas of surface enhancement, namely: Surface enhancement for improved fatigue resistance; product verification and material characterization; surface finishing; laser-based processes for surface enhancement; and Towards Industrie 4.0. All these topics include conventional as well as novel approaches and techniques, so submissions that address the wide range of technical and practical aspects in the area are welcome.

The call for this Special Issue is cotemporaneous with the preparation of the first International Conference on Advanced Surface Enhancement (INCASE) held in Singapore from September 10th to 12th, 2019. Contributors to this symposium are also invited to make submission(s) to this Special Issue.

Prof. Alexander M. Korsunsky
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Surface enhancement
  • surface characterization
  • surface finishing
  • fatigue resistance

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Advanced Surface Enhancement
Metals 2020, 10(6), 700; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/met10060700 - 26 May 2020
Viewed by 687
Abstract
Ever since humans engaged in directed manufacturing activities to make tools and utensils, design decorative pieces of jewellery, build dwellings, and fabricate furnishings, they became concerned about surface properties [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Surface Enhancement)

Research

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Article
FIB-SEM Investigation of Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures and Conical Surface Microstructures on D16T (AA2024-T4) Alloy
Metals 2020, 10(1), 144; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/met10010144 - 17 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1146
Abstract
The use of aluminum alloy AA2024-T4 (Russian designation D16T) in applications requiring a high strength-to-weight ratio and fatigue resistance such as aircraft fuselage often demands the control and modification of surface properties. A promising route to surface conditioning of Al alloys is laser [...] Read more.
The use of aluminum alloy AA2024-T4 (Russian designation D16T) in applications requiring a high strength-to-weight ratio and fatigue resistance such as aircraft fuselage often demands the control and modification of surface properties. A promising route to surface conditioning of Al alloys is laser treatment. In the present work, the formation of ripples and conical microstructures under scanning with femtosecond (fs) laser pulses was investigated. Laser treatment was performed using 250 fs pulses of a 1033 nm Yb:YAG laser. The fluence of the pulses varied from 5 to 33 J/cm2. The scanning was repeated from 1 to 5 times for different areas of the sample. Treated areas were evaluated using focused ion beam (FIB)- scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging and sectioning, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and confocal laser profilometry. The period of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) and the average spacing of conical microstructures were deduced from SEM images by FFT. Unevenness of the treated areas was observed that is likely to have been caused by ablation debris. The structural and elemental changes of the material inside the conical microstructures was revealed by FIB-SEM and EDX. The underlying formation mechanisms of observed structures are discussed in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Surface Enhancement)
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Article
Surface Topography Measurement of Mirror-Finished Surfaces Using Fringe-Patterned Illumination
Metals 2020, 10(1), 69; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/met10010069 - 01 Jan 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1612
Abstract
Mirror-finished surface products have a wide range of applications in different engineering industries, such as power generation, aerospace, semiconductors and optics. The surface topography of mirror-finished products is typically measured in a metrology laboratory, which is typically time consuming and cannot be integrated [...] Read more.
Mirror-finished surface products have a wide range of applications in different engineering industries, such as power generation, aerospace, semiconductors and optics. The surface topography of mirror-finished products is typically measured in a metrology laboratory, which is typically time consuming and cannot be integrated into the manufacturing process. To allow for in-situ product quality assurance and automatic tool change for manufacturing processes, a more accurate and responsive surface-measurement method is needed. For highly polished surfaces, a sub-micron surface fluctuation makes it possible to use light-scattering effects and image processing for surface texture analysis. A non-contact surface inspection system using a fringe-patterned illumination method is proposed in this paper. A predesigned pattern was projected onto the target surface, and its reflected image was captured by a camera. It was found that the surface parameters Sa and Sq, which are widely used to evaluate surface quality, are significantly correlated with luminous-intensity distribution. Another parameter, Str, which quantifies the uniformity of surface-texture directions due to polishing or grinding marks, was traditionally quantified after a complete-surface topographic measurement. In this research, a new approach is proposed to determine surface isotropy through a luminance-intensity distribution analysis. By rotating the test coupon, the variation of specular reflection showed correlation with the significance of surface-texture direction. The experimental results demonstrate that mirror-finished surfaces with a large deviation in luminance intensity across the pattern possess low Str values, which indicates low uniformity in surface texture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Surface Enhancement)
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Article
Nondestructive Evaluation of Thermal Aging in Al6061 Alloy by Measuring Acoustic Nonlinearity of Laser-Generated Surface Acoustic Waves
Metals 2020, 10(1), 38; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/met10010038 - 24 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1243
Abstract
The structures in high-temperature environments are prone to undergo hardening and embrittlement as a result of thermal aging; this can cause variations in their mechanical properties. Because these changes occur at the microstructural level, it is difficult to evaluate them through linear ultrasonic [...] Read more.
The structures in high-temperature environments are prone to undergo hardening and embrittlement as a result of thermal aging; this can cause variations in their mechanical properties. Because these changes occur at the microstructural level, it is difficult to evaluate them through linear ultrasonic techniques. In this work, a surface acoustic wave (SAW) was used to measure and compare the acoustic nonlinearity and mechanical properties of Al6061 alloys heat-treated at 220 °C for different durations (0 min, 20 min, 40 min, 1 h, 2 h, 10 h, 100 h, 1000 h). The SAW was generated by a pulsed laser and then received by an interferometer. Moreover, the yield strength, ultimate strength, and elongation to failure were measured by tensile tests. The results demonstrate that the critical variations in the mechanical properties can be detected by monitoring the variation features in the acoustic nonlinearity. Transmission electron microscopy images were captured to observe the microstructural changes, which shows that the acoustic nonlinearity varied according to the change in the precipitation phase. This supports the acoustic nonlinearity measurement using the laser-generated SAW being an effective technique for the fully noncontact nondestructive evaluation of material degradations as well as changes in mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Surface Enhancement)
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Article
Influence of Crystal Structure of Nitride Compound Layer on Torsion Fatigue Strength of Alloy Steel
Metals 2019, 9(12), 1352; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/met9121352 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1115
Abstract
The demand for high-strength components for commercial vehicles has recently increased. Conventional gas nitrocarburizing has been used to increase strength and productivity of the crankshaft. A potential-controlled nitriding process was recently developed to control the crystal structure of the nitride compound layer. It [...] Read more.
The demand for high-strength components for commercial vehicles has recently increased. Conventional gas nitrocarburizing has been used to increase strength and productivity of the crankshaft. A potential-controlled nitriding process was recently developed to control the crystal structure of the nitride compound layer. It has been found that this treatment improves the bending fatigue strength compared with conventional treatment, and has the potential to cope with the increase in crankshaft strength. However, the effect of torsional fatigue strength has not been studied. Therefore, in this study, the influence of the crystal structure of the nitride compound layer on torsional fatigue strength was investigated. Two kinds of test specimens with different crystal structures of the compound layer were prepared using gas nitriding treatment with controlled nitriding potential for an alloy steel bar (JIS-SCM435). Torsional fatigue tests were carried out using these test specimens. Although the compound layer of these test specimens had different crystal structures, the hardness distribution and residual stress distribution on the diffusion layer were almost the same. The relationship between stress amplitude and number of cycles to failure (S-N curve) showed that the torsional fatigue limits of the specimens were almost the same. This indicates that the crystal structure of the nitride compound layer did not affect the torsional fatigue limits, because the origin of the torsional fatigue failure is inside the specimen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Surface Enhancement)
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Article
Parametric Study of Fixtured Vibropeening
Metals 2019, 9(8), 910; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/met9080910 - 19 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1253
Abstract
Vibropeening is a surface treatment process, which combines the peening effect of introducing residual stress with the polishing effect of reducing surface roughness in one single process step. Vibropeening equipment induces vibrations into the media to impart residual compressive stresses in sub-surface layers, [...] Read more.
Vibropeening is a surface treatment process, which combines the peening effect of introducing residual stress with the polishing effect of reducing surface roughness in one single process step. Vibropeening equipment induces vibrations into the media to impart residual compressive stresses in sub-surface layers, as well as polishing on the surface of the work piece. In addition to process parameters, such as vibration frequency, amplitude, and media mass, which are well known in literature, this paper will focus on the study of two additional parameters: immersion depth and process time. It was found that the lower-middle section of the vibratory trough produced the highest Almen deflection. Different continuous treatment times were also studied to explore the maximum introducible residual compressive stress state, and it was concluded that an optimal time range is required to achieve the best residual stress profile. The study demonstrates that different process parameters can influence the effectiveness of the vibropeening process, and that these can be potentially optimized for higher treatment capability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Surface Enhancement)
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Article
Study of the Surface Integrity and High Cycle Fatigue Performance of AISI 4340 Steel after Composite Surface Modification
Metals 2019, 9(8), 856; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/met9080856 - 06 Aug 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1258
Abstract
In the field of materials science, the fabrication of a material with severe surface plastic deformation and a good surface state is an issue encountered in the development of counterbalanced gradient materials. For this paper, AISI 4340 steel was first processed with abrasive [...] Read more.
In the field of materials science, the fabrication of a material with severe surface plastic deformation and a good surface state is an issue encountered in the development of counterbalanced gradient materials. For this paper, AISI 4340 steel was first processed with abrasive water jet peening (AWJP) and then with ultrasonic surface rolling (USRE) to obtain a good surface state while maintaining large plastic deformation. The AISI 4340 steel composite surface was therefore modified, and the surface integrity and cycle fatigue performance were analyzed. The results show that the plastic deformation layer of the modified composite surface of the 4340 steel was 310 µm from the surface of the sample, the grain size 40 µm from the surface layer was refined to 70 nm, and the maximum surface roughness Ra is 0.06. The fatigue limit of the modified composite surfaces obtained by the tensile fatigue test was 595.7 MPa, which was 85.7 MPa higher than the 510 MPa fatigue limit of the unmodified matrix, indicating that the method of composite surface modification can produce a deep deformation layer while maintaining good surface conditions. The results show that work hardening caused by a composite surface treatment is the most important factor for improving the fatigue performance of materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Surface Enhancement)
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Article
Ultra-High-Speed Magnetic Abrasive Surface Micro-Machining of AISI 304 Cylindrical Bar
Metals 2019, 9(5), 489; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/met9050489 - 27 Apr 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1328
Abstract
The ultra-high-speed magnetic abrasive machining (UHSMAM) process is a surface improvement technique, which has been widely used to minimize the surface accuracy and change the precision morphology of difficult-to-machine materials. Surface integrity plays an important role in the machining process, because it is [...] Read more.
The ultra-high-speed magnetic abrasive machining (UHSMAM) process is a surface improvement technique, which has been widely used to minimize the surface accuracy and change the precision morphology of difficult-to-machine materials. Surface integrity plays an important role in the machining process, because it is used to evaluate the high stress and the loaded components on the machined surface. It is important to evaluate the plastically deformed layers in ultra-precision machining surface of material. However, the usual plastic strains in the ultra-precision machining surface are significantly difficult to consider. In this paper, an ultra-high-speed magnetic abrasive machining technique is used to improve the surface accuracy and dimensional accuracy of an AISI 304 bars. Additionally, the subsequent recrystallizations technique is used for measuring the plastic strain on machined surface of AISI 304 bars. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of an UHSMAM process on the plastic strains and the strain energy of the machined surface, and to evaluate the residual strain in the plastic deformation of AISI 304 bars materials by analyzing a plastically deformed layer. The results showed that the plastic strain of the material did not change after machined by an UHSMAM process. Based on the results, an UHSMAM process could significantly improve the surface roughness, micro-diameter, and removal weight of AISI 304 bars effectively. The surface roughness Ra of AISI 304 bars was improved from 0.32 µm to 0.03 µm for 40 s of machining time at 80,000 rpm of workpiece revolution speed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Surface Enhancement)
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