Special Issue "Microencapsulation Technology Applied to Pharmaceutics 2014"

A special issue of Pharmaceutics (ISSN 1999-4923).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 September 2014).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Denis Poncelet
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Guest Editor
Oniris, rue de la géraudière, BP 82225, 44322 Nantes, France
Interests: bioencapsulation; solid dispersion
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Thierry Vandamme
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Guest Editor
Laboratory for the Conception and Application of Bioactive Molecules, UMR 7199 CNRS, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Strasbourg, France
Interests: the design and the formulation of drugs by using microencapsulation technologies; in vitro / in vivo drug release and mathematical modeling; controlled release of drugs from different raw materials allowing sustained release or targeting; application for different administration routes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Microencapsulation is one of the techniques able to overcome the drug stability problem, and moreover, the possibility of formulating encapsulated drug delivery systems with controlled release rates. On these bases, microencapsulated dosage forms represent effective new therapeutic platforms. The active molecules are protected as long as they reach their specific action site. Most of the applied techniques of micro-encapsulation are based on modifications of the three basic methods: spray-drying, phase separation (coacervation), and solvent extraction/evaporation.

This special issue will cover the different interests of microencapsulation as a means to control or modify the release of drug substances from drug delivery systems. Since clinical efficacies have been reported to be improved by the encapsulation of pharmaceuticals, the bioavailability of drugs, control drug release kinetics, minimizing drug side effects, and taste masking of the bitter taste of drug substances will be discussed.

Prof. Dr. Denis Poncelet
Prof. Dr. Thierry Vandamme
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pharmaceutics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • microencapsulation
  • encapsulation
  • encapsulation efficiency
  • coacervation
  • entrapment
  • lipid formulation
  • water-in-oil emulsion
  • spray-congealing
  • emulsion solvent evaporation
  • membrane emulsification
  • size controlled emulsion
  • drug; targeting
  • microspheres
  • microparticles
  • microcapsules
  • coating
  • emulsion
  • polymeric drug delivery systems
  • spray-drying
  • taste masking
  • aerosol
  • electrospray
  • self microemulsifying

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Preparation of Spray-Dried Soy Isoflavone-Loaded Gelatin Microspheres for Enhancement of Dissolution: Formulation, Characterization and in Vitro Evaluation
Pharmaceutics 2014, 6(4), 599-615; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pharmaceutics6040599 - 08 Dec 2014
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4029
Abstract
The most bioactive soy isoflavones (SI), daidzein (DAI) and genistein (GEN) have poor water solubility, which reduces their bioavailability and health benefits and limits their use in industry. The goal of this study was to develop and characterize a new gelatin matrix to [...] Read more.
The most bioactive soy isoflavones (SI), daidzein (DAI) and genistein (GEN) have poor water solubility, which reduces their bioavailability and health benefits and limits their use in industry. The goal of this study was to develop and characterize a new gelatin matrix to microencapsulate DAI and GEN from soy extract (SE) by spray drying, in order to obtain solid dispersions to overcome solubility problems and to allow controlled release. The influences of 1:2 (MP2) and 1:3 (MP3) SE/polymer ratios on the solid state, yield, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, particle size distribution, release kinetics and cumulative release were evaluated. Analyses showed integral microparticles and high drug content. MP3 and MP2 yield were 43.6% and 55.9%, respectively, with similar mean size (p > 0.05), respectively. X-ray diffraction revealed the amorphous solid state of SE. In vitro release tests showed that dissolution was drastically increased. The results indicated that SE microencapsulation might offer a good system to control SI release, as an alternative to improve bioavailability and industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microencapsulation Technology Applied to Pharmaceutics 2014)
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Article
Development of Multilayer Microcapsules by a Phase Coacervation Method Based on Ionic Interactions for Textile Applications
Pharmaceutics 2014, 6(2), 281-297; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pharmaceutics6020281 - 13 Jun 2014
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3925
Abstract
The present study describes the development of multilayer microcapsules by 11 alternate additions of chitosan (Chi) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in a combined emulsification and phase coacervation method based on ionic interactions. After an alkali treatment, microcapsules are applied on polyester (PET) [...] Read more.
The present study describes the development of multilayer microcapsules by 11 alternate additions of chitosan (Chi) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in a combined emulsification and phase coacervation method based on ionic interactions. After an alkali treatment, microcapsules are applied on polyester (PET) fabric by a padding process to investigate their wash-durability on fabric. Air atmospheric plasma treatment is performed on PET fabric to modify the surface properties of the textiles. Zeta potential, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), wetting measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) with surface roughness measurements are realized to characterize and determine wash durability of microcapsule samples onto PET. After alkali treatment, the microcapsules are selected for textile application because they are submicron sized with the desired morphology. The results obtained from various characterization techniques indicate that microcapsules are wash-durable on PET fabric pre activated by air plasma atmospheric as Chi based microcapsules can interact directly with PET by ionic interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microencapsulation Technology Applied to Pharmaceutics 2014)
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Article
Encapsulation of Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Mannitol by Spray Drying
Pharmaceutics 2014, 6(1), 185-194; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pharmaceutics6010185 - 24 Mar 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4290
Abstract
The retention of the enzyme activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) has been studied in various drying processes such as spray drying. The aim of this study is to encapsulate ADH in mannitol, either with or without additive in order to limit the thermal [...] Read more.
The retention of the enzyme activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) has been studied in various drying processes such as spray drying. The aim of this study is to encapsulate ADH in mannitol, either with or without additive in order to limit the thermal denaturation of the enzyme during the drying process. The retention of ADH activity was investigated at different drying temperatures. When mannitol was used, the encapsulated ADH was found inactive in all the dried powders. This is presumably due to the quick crystallization of mannitol during spray drying that resulted in the impairment of enzyme protection ability in comparison to its amorphous form. Maltodextin (dextrose equivalent = 11) was used to reduce the crystallization of mannitol. The addition of maltodextrin increased ADH activity and drastically changed the powder X-ray diffractogram of the spray-dried powders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microencapsulation Technology Applied to Pharmaceutics 2014)
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Article
Preparation of Microcapsules Containing β-Carotene with Thermo Sensitive Curdlan by Utilizing Reverse Dispersion
Pharmaceutics 2013, 5(4), 609-620; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pharmaceutics5040609 - 21 Nov 2013
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3561
Abstract
We have tried to microencapsulate β-carotene with curdlan of a thermogelation type polysaccharide. Microcapsules were prepared by utilizing reverse dispersion, in which salada oil was the continuous phase (O’) and the curdlan water slurry (W) was the dispersed phase. β-carotene (O) as a [...] Read more.
We have tried to microencapsulate β-carotene with curdlan of a thermogelation type polysaccharide. Microcapsules were prepared by utilizing reverse dispersion, in which salada oil was the continuous phase (O’) and the curdlan water slurry (W) was the dispersed phase. β-carotene (O) as a core material was broken into fine oil droplets in the dispersed phase to form the (O/W) dispersion. The (O/W) dispersion was poured in the continuous phase (O’) and stirred to form the (O/W)/O’ dispersion at room temperature and then, temperature of the dispersion was raised to 80 °C to prepare curdlan-microcapusles containing β-carotene. In this microencapsulation process, the concentrations of curdlan and oil soluble surfactant and the impeller speed to form the (O/W)/O’ dispersion were mainly changed stepwise. We were able to prepare microcapsules by the microencapsulation method adopted here. The content of core material was increased with the curdlan concentration and decreased with the impeller speed and the oil soluble surfactant concentration. With the curdlan concentration, the drying rate of microcapsules was decreased and the retention ability for water was increased due to the stable preservation of β-carotene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microencapsulation Technology Applied to Pharmaceutics 2014)
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Review

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Review
Encapsulated Cells Expressing a Chemotherapeutic Activating Enzyme Allow the Targeting of Subtoxic Chemotherapy and Are Safe and Efficacious: Data from Two Clinical Trials in Pancreatic Cancer
Pharmaceutics 2014, 6(3), 447-466; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pharmaceutics6030447 - 11 Aug 2014
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5931
Abstract
Despite progress in the treatment of pancreatic cancer, there is still a need for improved therapies. In this manuscript, we report clinical experience with a new therapy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer involving the implantation of encapsulated cells over-expressing a cytochrome P450 [...] Read more.
Despite progress in the treatment of pancreatic cancer, there is still a need for improved therapies. In this manuscript, we report clinical experience with a new therapy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer involving the implantation of encapsulated cells over-expressing a cytochrome P450 enzyme followed by subsequent low-dose ifosfamide administrations as a means to target activated ifosfamide to the tumor. The safety and efficacy of the angiographic instillation of encapsulated allogeneic cells overexpressing cytochrome P450 in combination with low-dose systemic ifosfamide administration has now been evaluated in 27 patients in total. These patients were successfully treated in four centers by three different interventional radiologists, arguing strongly that the treatment can be successfully used in different centers. The safety of the intra-arterial delivery of the capsules and the lack of evidence that the patients developed an inflammatory or immune response to the encapsulated cells or encapsulation material was shown in all 27 patients. The ifosfamide dose of 1 g/m2/day used in the first trial was well tolerated by all patients. In contrast, the ifosfamide dose of 2 g/m2/day used in the second trial was poorly tolerated in most patients. Since the median survival in the first trial was 40 weeks and only 33 weeks in the second trial, this strongly suggests that there is no survival benefit to increasing the dose of ifosfamide, and indeed, a lower dose is beneficial for quality of life and the lack of side effects. This is supported by the one-year survival rate in the first trial being 38%, whilst that in the second trial was only 23%. However, taking the data from both trials together, a total of nine of the 27 patients were alive after one year, and two of these nine patients were alive for two years or more. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microencapsulation Technology Applied to Pharmaceutics 2014)
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Review
Hollow Pollen Shells to Enhance Drug Delivery
Pharmaceutics 2014, 6(1), 80-96; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pharmaceutics6010080 - 14 Mar 2014
Cited by 67 | Viewed by 7038
Abstract
Pollen grain and spore shells are natural microcapsules designed to protect the genetic material of the plant from external damage. The shell is made up of two layers, the inner layer (intine), made largely of cellulose, and the outer layer (exine), composed mainly [...] Read more.
Pollen grain and spore shells are natural microcapsules designed to protect the genetic material of the plant from external damage. The shell is made up of two layers, the inner layer (intine), made largely of cellulose, and the outer layer (exine), composed mainly of sporopollenin. The relative proportion of each varies according to the plant species. The structure of sporopollenin has not been fully characterised but different studies suggest the presence of conjugated phenols, which provide antioxidant properties to the microcapsule and UV (ultraviolet) protection to the material inside it. These microcapsule shells have many advantageous properties, such as homogeneity in size, resilience to both alkalis and acids, and the ability to withstand temperatures up to 250 °C. These hollow microcapsules have the ability to encapsulate and release actives in a controlled manner. Their mucoadhesion to intestinal tissues may contribute to the extended contact of the sporopollenin with the intestinal mucosa leading to an increased efficiency of delivery of nutraceuticals and drugs. The hollow microcapsules can be filled with a solution of the active or active in a liquid form by simply mixing both together, and in some cases operating a vacuum. The active payload can be released in the human body depending on pressure on the microcapsule, solubility and/or pH factors. Active release can be controlled by adding a coating on the shell, or co-encapsulation with the active inside the shell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microencapsulation Technology Applied to Pharmaceutics 2014)
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