Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology

Dear Colleagues,

Anatomists are scientists that study how the human body is made for correlating structure with function and dysfunction at all levels, from macroscopic to microscopic, from ultrastructural to molecular ones.

Human anatomy provides researchers of many disciplines and areas with all the basic information to effectively plan their experiments and interpret their results.

Hence, this article collection intends to gather review and original papers about human anatomy, histology and embryology, as well as about other closely related medical fields—e.g., physiology, pharmacology, radiology, surgery, clinical medicine, etc.—that have an anatomical focus.

Furthermore, we would like to collect papers about phylogenesis, bioethics, and history of science, especially those that have an anatomical perspective. Sport, physical exercise, nutrition, and active aging can be academic fields of interest for an anatomist as well. Finally, bioengineering and regenerative medicine need knowledge in human anatomy for their advancements.

In conclusion, we welcome submissions from Applied Sciences, Biology, Medicina, Bioengineering and Pathophysiology that cover, but are not limited to, the following topics:

  • Advances in human anatomy, histology, and embryology teaching and research.
  • Advances in the pathophysiology of human organs or anatomical districts.
  • Bioengineering the human body.
  • Bioethical aspects in biomedical research about human anatomy and pathobiology.
  • Clinical, surgical, and radiological anatomy: new insights.
  • From human anatomy to pathophysiology: experimental models.
  • Effects of physical exercise on the maintenance and/or improvement of healthy status.
  • Extracellular vesicles: looking for new markers of health and disease.
  • History of anatomy and medicine: learning from our past.
  • How a healthy lifestyle can slow down senescence and contribute to active aging.
  • How cell stress can influence cell differentiation, tissue homeostasis, and organ remodeling during the whole lifespan of an individual.
  • Human body structures from a phylogenetic point of view.
  • Liquid biopsy as a new frontier of medicine, including the personalized one.
  • Microbiota/microbiome and its relationship with human body structures.
  • Molecular anatomy: the relationship between shape and function at the molecular level.
  • Neuroanatomy, neurobiology, neuropathology: new discoveries.
  • Nutrition, sport, and health: looking for a virtuous combination.
  • Stem cells, 3D cultures, and outgrowth in regenerative medicine.
  • Using the corpse: the usefulness of the cadaver in medical training.

Deadline for abstract submissions: 31 December 2021.
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2022.

Topic Board

Prof. Dr. Francesco Cappello
E-Mail Website
Topic Editor-in-Chief
Department of Biomedicine, Neuroscience and Advanced Diagnostics, University of Palermo, via del Vespro 129, 90127 Palermo, Italy
Interests: human anatomy, histology and embryology, pathological anatomy, biomedicine; neuroscience; advanced diagnostics; carcinogenesis, immunomorphology; extracellular vesicles; exosomes; heat shock proteins; molecular chaperons; chaperonins; chaperonopathies; chaperonotherapy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Mugurel Constantin Rusu
E-Mail Website
Topic Associate Editor-in-Chief
Division of Anatomy, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitatea de Medicina si Farmacie Carol Davila din Bucuresti, Bucharest, Romania
Interests: macroscopic anatomy; microscopic and molecular anatomy; imaging anatomy; stem cells; cells transdifferentiation

Relevant Journals List

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.679 3.0 2011 13.8 Days 2000 CHF Submit
Biology
biology
5.079 3.3 2012 15.03 Days 1800 CHF Submit
Bioengineering
bioengineering
- 6.1 2014 18.84 Days 1600 CHF Submit
Medicina
medicina
2.430 1.7 1920 21.07 Days 1500 CHF Submit
Pathophysiology
pathophysiology
- 6.0 1994 25 Days 1000 CHF Submit

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Article
Testosterone Levels in Adolescents and Young Men with Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Diabetic Nephropathy
Biology 2021, 10(7), 615; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10070615 - 02 Jul 2021
Abstract
The association between serum testosterone levels and type 1 diabetes (T1D), especially in adolescents and young adults, has not been fully investigated. We aimed to compare testosterone levels between adolescents/young men with T1D and controls and to determine the factors affecting testosterone levels. [...] Read more.
The association between serum testosterone levels and type 1 diabetes (T1D), especially in adolescents and young adults, has not been fully investigated. We aimed to compare testosterone levels between adolescents/young men with T1D and controls and to determine the factors affecting testosterone levels. We enrolled 47 men with T1D and 32 controls aged 15–29 years. We evaluated anthropometric measurements, lipid profiles, diabetic complications, and levels of serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, hemoglobin A1c, 24-h urine albumin, insulin autoantibody, and total serum testosterone. We assessed the correlation between serum testosterone levels and clinical characteristics. Total testosterone levels were higher in T1D patients than in controls (694.6 ± 182.2 vs. 554.1 ± 147.3 ng/dL, p = 0.001), and 24-h urine albumin level positively correlated with total testosterone levels (correlation coefficient 0.415, p = 0.004). T1D patients with nephropathy showed higher total testosterone levels than those without nephropathy (778.4 ± 198.9 vs. 655.4 ± 162.5 ng/dL, p = 0.029). However, diabetic nephropathy and testosterone levels were not significantly associated after adjusting for confounders (β ± SE 77.5 ± 55.2, p = 0.169). Further longitudinal studies are imperative to confirm a causal relationship between testosterone levels and T1D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
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Case Report
Complications Following Masseteric Nerve Neurectomy with Radiofrequency for the Treatment of Temporomandibular Disorders—A Case Series and Literature Review
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(13), 5824; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11135824 - 23 Jun 2021
Abstract
This article describes two cases of masseteric nerve neurectomy with radiofrequency done with the intention to treat temporomandibular disorders and related symptoms; the patients then visited our clinic complaining of side-effects after the procedure. A literature review was conducted to find scientific evidence [...] Read more.
This article describes two cases of masseteric nerve neurectomy with radiofrequency done with the intention to treat temporomandibular disorders and related symptoms; the patients then visited our clinic complaining of side-effects after the procedure. A literature review was conducted to find scientific evidence relevant to masseteric nerve neurectomy with radiofrequency. A 21-year-old male patient visited with the chief complaint of swelling of both cheeks, dizziness, and generalized lethargy occurring after masseteric nerve neurectomy using radiofrequency. His mouth opening range was restricted. Magnetic resonance imaging indicated post-procedural inflammation with hemorrhage within both masseter muscles. A 28-year-old male patient visited with the chief complaint of occlusal discomfort and disocclusion after masseteric nerve neurectomy using radiofrequency. His occlusion was abnormal with only both second molars occluding. Overbite was −1 mm. Cone-beam computed tomography indicated degenerative joint disease of both condyles. In case 1, pharmacotherapy and physical therapy relieved overall symptoms. In case 2, although exacerbation of symptoms repeatedly occurred, long-term stabilization splint and physical therapy alleviated the temporomandibular disorders symptoms. However, the occlusion remained unstable. Scientific evidence of masseteric nerve neurectomy using radiofrequency for the treatment of temporomandibular disorders is still lacking. Therefore, conservative treatment should remain as the first line approach for temporomandibular disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
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Review
Recent Advances in Experimental Burn Models
Biology 2021, 10(6), 526; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10060526 - 12 Jun 2021
Abstract
Experimental burn models are essential tools for simulating human burn injuries and exploring the consequences of burns or new treatment strategies. Unlike clinical studies, experimental models allow a direct comparison of different aspects of burns under controlled conditions and thereby provide relevant information [...] Read more.
Experimental burn models are essential tools for simulating human burn injuries and exploring the consequences of burns or new treatment strategies. Unlike clinical studies, experimental models allow a direct comparison of different aspects of burns under controlled conditions and thereby provide relevant information on the molecular mechanisms of tissue damage and wound healing, as well as potential therapeutic targets. While most comparative burn studies are performed in animal models, a few human or humanized models have been successfully employed to study local events at the injury site. However, the consensus between animal and human studies regarding the cellular and molecular nature of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), scarring, and neovascularization is limited. The many interspecies differences prohibit the outcomes of animal model studies from being fully translated into the human system. Thus, the development of more targeted, individualized treatments for burn injuries remains a major challenge in this field. This review focuses on the latest progress in experimental burn models achieved since 2016, and summarizes the outcomes regarding potential methodological improvements, assessments of molecular responses to injury, and therapeutic advances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
Article
Characterization of Cytokines and Proliferation Marker Ki67 in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps: A Pilot Study
Medicina 2021, 57(6), 607; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57060607 - 11 Jun 2021
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a condition that affects as much as 10.9% of the population and, along with presence of nasal polyps, is associated with significant morbidity and decreased quality of life. Studies on molecular pathways that have been activated [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a condition that affects as much as 10.9% of the population and, along with presence of nasal polyps, is associated with significant morbidity and decreased quality of life. Studies on molecular pathways that have been activated in nasal polyp tissue are mainly based on cytokine concentration detection. Therefore, our aim is to investigate the complex appearance, relative distribution and interlinks of IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and Ki 67 in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) affected human nasal mucosa. Materials and Methods: Samples of nasal polyps were obtained from 12 patients with previously diagnosed CRSwNP and no prior surgery. Control group consisted of samples from 17 otherwise healthy individuals with isolated nasal septum deviation. Tissues were stained for IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and Ki67 immunohistochemically. Non-parametric statistic, Mann–Whitney U test and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient were used. Results: All factors, except connective tissue cytokine IL-10 and proliferation marker Ki-67, had increased presence in connective tissue and decreased presence in epithelium of nasal polyps when compared to controls. Very strong and strong positive correlations between factors were observed. Conclusions: Decreased appearance of IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 positive structures in the nasal epithelium with selective increase of IL-1α and IL-12 in nasal subepithelial connective tissue characterize the cytokine endotype with dysfunctional epithelial barrier and local stimulation of immune response in the connective tissue in case of chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps. Decrease of IL-6 in both—epithelium and connective tissue with strong correlation between it and IL-7 and IL-10 in connective tissue suggests significant stimulation of this regulatory cytokine and, possibly, the important role in pathogenesis of the development in nasal polyps. Correlations between Ki67 and cytokines indicate possible involvement of IL-4, IL-7 and IL-12 in regulation of cellular proliferation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
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Review
Management of Patients under Treatment with Monoclonal Antibodies and New Biological Therapies
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 4865; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11114865 - 25 May 2021
Abstract
Objective: The aim of this study is to know the biological therapy drugs that are related to adverse events, what dental treatments are associated with the appearance of these events, their severity, and how they are resolved. Study design: Analysis of cases described [...] Read more.
Objective: The aim of this study is to know the biological therapy drugs that are related to adverse events, what dental treatments are associated with the appearance of these events, their severity, and how they are resolved. Study design: Analysis of cases described in the literature on patients undergoing treatment with biological therapies who have developed adverse effects associated with these drugs. Results: Of the 62 articles reviewed, 49 describe 68 cases of MRONJ, most of which appeared in the jaw and received surgical and/or conservative treatment. Conclusions: Biological therapies can potentially develop adverse effects in the oral cavity, so strict monitoring by the dentist is necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
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