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Osseointegration of Sandblasted and Acid-Etched Implant Surfaces. A Histological and Histomorphometric Study in the Rabbit

Influence of Nano, Micro, and Macro Topography of Dental Implant Surfaces on Human Gingival Fibroblasts

Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University G. d’Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Via dei Vestini 31, 66013 Chieti, Italy
Center for Advanced Studies and Technology-CAST (ex CeSI-MeT), University G. d’Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, 66013 Chieti, Italy
Research Center Fondazione Villa Serena per la Ricerca, 65013 Città Sant’Angelo, Italy
Clinical Center, Casa di Cura Villa Serena del dott. L. Petruzzi, 65013 Città Sant’Angelo, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The first two authors, in alphabetic order, equally contributed to the manuscript.
Academic Editor: Mike Barbeck
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(18), 9871;
Received: 13 August 2021 / Revised: 8 September 2021 / Accepted: 9 September 2021 / Published: 13 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Molecules and Stem Cells in Bone Regeneration)
Current research on dental implants has mainly focused on the influence of surface roughness on the rate of osseointegration, while studies on the development of surfaces to also improve the interaction of peri-implant soft tissues are lacking. To this end, the first purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of human gingival fibroblasts (hGDFs) to titanium implant discs (Implacil De Bortoli, Brazil) having different micro and nano-topography: machined (Ti-M) versus sandblasted/double-etched (Ti-S). The secondary aim was to investigate the effect of the macrogeometry of the discs on cells: linear-like (Ti-L) versus wave-like (Ti-W) surfaces. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the Ti-S surfaces were characterized by a significantly higher micro and nano roughness and showed the 3D macrotopography of Ti-L and Ti-W surfaces. For in vitro analyses, the hGDFs were seeded into titanium discs and analyzed at 1, 3, and 5 days for adhesion and morphology (SEM) viability and proliferation (Cck-8 and MTT assays). The results showed that all tested surfaces were not cytotoxic for the hGDFs, rather the nano-micro and macro topography favored their proliferation in a time-dependent manner. Especially, at 3 and 5 days, the number of cells on Ti-L was higher than on other surfaces, including Ti-W surfaces. In conclusion, although further studies are needed, our in vitro data proved that the use of implant discs with Ti-S surfaces promotes the adhesion and proliferation of gingival fibroblasts, suggesting their use for in vivo applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: titanium; surface; roughness; macrogeometry; fibroblasts; dental implants titanium; surface; roughness; macrogeometry; fibroblasts; dental implants
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MDPI and ACS Style

Petrini, M.; Pierfelice, T.V.; D’Amico, E.; Di Pietro, N.; Pandolfi, A.; D’Arcangelo, C.; De Angelis, F.; Mandatori, D.; Schiavone, V.; Piattelli, A.; Iezzi, G. Influence of Nano, Micro, and Macro Topography of Dental Implant Surfaces on Human Gingival Fibroblasts. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 9871.

AMA Style

Petrini M, Pierfelice TV, D’Amico E, Di Pietro N, Pandolfi A, D’Arcangelo C, De Angelis F, Mandatori D, Schiavone V, Piattelli A, Iezzi G. Influence of Nano, Micro, and Macro Topography of Dental Implant Surfaces on Human Gingival Fibroblasts. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(18):9871.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Petrini, Morena, Tania V. Pierfelice, Emira D’Amico, Natalia Di Pietro, Assunta Pandolfi, Camillo D’Arcangelo, Francesco De Angelis, Domitilla Mandatori, Valeria Schiavone, Adriano Piattelli, and Giovanna Iezzi. 2021. "Influence of Nano, Micro, and Macro Topography of Dental Implant Surfaces on Human Gingival Fibroblasts" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 18: 9871.

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