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Special Issue "The Molecules and Stem Cells in Bone Regeneration"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 September 2022 | Viewed by 4128

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Adriano Piatelli
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Giovanna Iezzi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy
Interests: biomaterials; bone regeneration; bioengineering; biomedical engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Natalia Di Pietro
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dr. Margherita Tumedei
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University G. d'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy
Interests: oral implantology; bone substitutes; biomechanical simulation; tissue engineering; bone substitute

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The field of restoring hard and soft tissue lost by different damages includes several aspects of basic sciences such as physiology, stem cell biology, chemistry, molecules, and physical sciences.

There has been increased interest in surgical protocols, nanobiotechnologies, and tissue-engineering-proposed three-dimensional scaffolds and cell therapies as promising approaches in oral surgery.

The stem cells and new different molecules aim to improve the healthy regeneration of damaged orofacial tissue and reduce pathological wound healing responses, prevent resorption of bone, preserve the alveolar ridge, and provide sufficient bone for oral rehabilitation.

The aim of this Special Issue is to evaluate original research papers, reviews, and technical reports, encouraging manuscripts concerning the state of art in the fields of stem cell biology and molecules for the treatment of the bone defects.

Potential topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • Dental pulp stem cells for bone regeneration;
  • Applications of molecules for bone regeneration;
  • Stem cells seeded on scaffolds for tissue engineering;
  • Stem cells and blood-derived growth factors for hard and soft tissue healing;
  • Antioxidant protection against oxidative stress of new generation compounds on different mesenchymal cell lines;
  • Tissue engineering;
  • Bone regeneration;
  • Dental implants, biomaterials, and surface properties;
  • Stem cells as tools to test novel biomaterials for regenerative medicine.

Prof. Adriano Piatelli
Prof. Dr. Giovanna Iezzi
Dr. Natalia Di Pietro
Dr. Margherita Tumedei
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Stem cells
  • Mesenchymal stem cells
  • Biomaterials
  • Tissue regeneration
  • Tissue engineering
  • Regenerative medicine
  • Implant surfaces
  • Bone regeneration
  • Osseointegration
  • Wound healing
  • Molecules

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
The Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells through G0/G1 Arrest and the p-ERK/Runx-2 Pathway by Sonic Vibration
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(18), 10167; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms221810167 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 709
Abstract
Mechanical/physical stimulations modulate tissue metabolism, and this process involves multiple cellular mechanisms, including the secretion of growth factors and the activation of mechano-physically sensitive kinases. Cells and tissue can be modulated through specific vibration-induced changes in cell activity, which depend on the vibration [...] Read more.
Mechanical/physical stimulations modulate tissue metabolism, and this process involves multiple cellular mechanisms, including the secretion of growth factors and the activation of mechano-physically sensitive kinases. Cells and tissue can be modulated through specific vibration-induced changes in cell activity, which depend on the vibration frequency and occur via differential gene expression. However, there are few reports about the effects of medium-magnitude (1.12 g) sonic vibration on the osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs). In this study, we investigated whether medium-magnitude (1.12 g) sonic vibration with a frequency of 30, 45, or 100 Hz could affect the osteogenic differentiation of HDPSCs. Their cell morphology changed to a cuboidal shape at 45 Hz and 100 Hz, but the cells in the other groups were elongated. FACS analysis showed decreased CD 73, CD 90, and CD 105 expression at 45 Hz and 100 Hz. Additionally, the proportions of cells in the G0/G1 phase in the control, 30 Hz, 45 Hz, and 100 Hz groups after vibration were 60.7%, 65.9%, 68.3%, and 66.7%, respectively. The mRNA levels of osteogenic-specific markers, including osteonectin, osteocalcin, BMP-2, ALP, and Runx-2, increased at 45 and 100 Hz, and the ALP and calcium content was elevated in the vibration groups compared with those in the control. Additionally, the western blotting results showed that p-ERK, BSP, osteoprotegerin, and osteonectin proteins were upregulated at 45 Hz compared with the other groups. The vibration groups showed higher ALP and calcium content than the control. Vibration, especially at 100 Hz, increased the number of calcified nodes relative to the control group, as evidenced by von Kossa staining. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that type I and III collagen, osteonectin, and osteopontin were upregulated at 45 Hz and 100 Hz. These results suggest that medium magnitude vibration at 45 Hz induces the G0/G1 arrest of HDPSCs through the p-ERK/Runx-2 pathway and can serve as a potent stimulator of differentiation and extracellular matrix production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Molecules and Stem Cells in Bone Regeneration)
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Article
Influence of Nano, Micro, and Macro Topography of Dental Implant Surfaces on Human Gingival Fibroblasts
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(18), 9871; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22189871 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 740
Abstract
Current research on dental implants has mainly focused on the influence of surface roughness on the rate of osseointegration, while studies on the development of surfaces to also improve the interaction of peri-implant soft tissues are lacking. To this end, the first purpose [...] Read more.
Current research on dental implants has mainly focused on the influence of surface roughness on the rate of osseointegration, while studies on the development of surfaces to also improve the interaction of peri-implant soft tissues are lacking. To this end, the first purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of human gingival fibroblasts (hGDFs) to titanium implant discs (Implacil De Bortoli, Brazil) having different micro and nano-topography: machined (Ti-M) versus sandblasted/double-etched (Ti-S). The secondary aim was to investigate the effect of the macrogeometry of the discs on cells: linear-like (Ti-L) versus wave-like (Ti-W) surfaces. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the Ti-S surfaces were characterized by a significantly higher micro and nano roughness and showed the 3D macrotopography of Ti-L and Ti-W surfaces. For in vitro analyses, the hGDFs were seeded into titanium discs and analyzed at 1, 3, and 5 days for adhesion and morphology (SEM) viability and proliferation (Cck-8 and MTT assays). The results showed that all tested surfaces were not cytotoxic for the hGDFs, rather the nano-micro and macro topography favored their proliferation in a time-dependent manner. Especially, at 3 and 5 days, the number of cells on Ti-L was higher than on other surfaces, including Ti-W surfaces. In conclusion, although further studies are needed, our in vitro data proved that the use of implant discs with Ti-S surfaces promotes the adhesion and proliferation of gingival fibroblasts, suggesting their use for in vivo applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Molecules and Stem Cells in Bone Regeneration)
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Article
Osseointegration of Sandblasted and Acid-Etched Implant Surfaces. A Histological and Histomorphometric Study in the Rabbit
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(16), 8507; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168507 - 07 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 605
Abstract
Titanium surface is an important factor in achieving osseointegration during the early wound healing of dental implants in alveolar bone. The purpose of this study was to evaluate sandblasted-etched surface implants to investigate the osseointegration. In the present study, we used two different [...] Read more.
Titanium surface is an important factor in achieving osseointegration during the early wound healing of dental implants in alveolar bone. The purpose of this study was to evaluate sandblasted-etched surface implants to investigate the osseointegration. In the present study, we used two different types of sandblasted-etched surface implants, an SLA™ surface and a Nanoblast Plus™ surface. Roughness and chemical composition were evaluated by a white light interferometer microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The SLA™ surface exhibited the higher values (Ra 3.05 μm) of rugosity compared to the Nanoblast Plus™ surface (Ra 1.78 μm). Both types of implants were inserted in the femoral condyles of ten New Zealand white rabbits. After 12 weeks, histological and histomorphometric analysis was performed. All the implants were osseointegrated and no signs of infection were observed. Histomorphometric analysis revealed that the bone–implant contact % (BIC) ratio was similar around the SLA™ implants (63.74 ± 13.61) than around the Nanoblast Plus™ implants (62.83 ± 9.91). Both implant surfaces demonstrated a favorable bone response, confirming the relevance of the sandblasted-etched surface on implant osseointegration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Molecules and Stem Cells in Bone Regeneration)
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Article
Platelet-Rich Fibrin Increases BMP2 Expression in Oral Fibroblasts via Activation of TGF-β Signaling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(15), 7935; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22157935 - 25 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1058
Abstract
Solid platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), consisting of coagulated plasma from fractionated blood, has been proposed to be a suitable carrier for recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) to target mesenchymal cells during bone regeneration. However, whether solid PRF can increase the expression of BMPs [...] Read more.
Solid platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), consisting of coagulated plasma from fractionated blood, has been proposed to be a suitable carrier for recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) to target mesenchymal cells during bone regeneration. However, whether solid PRF can increase the expression of BMPs in mesenchymal cells remains unknown. Proteomics analysis confirmed the presence of TGF-β1 but not BMP2 in PRF lysates. According to the existing knowledge of recombinant TGF-β1, we hypothesized that PRF can increase BMP2 expression in mesenchymal cells. To test this hypothesis, we blocked TGF-β receptor 1 kinase with SB431542 in gingival fibroblasts exposed to PRF lysates. RT-PCR and immunoassays confirmed that solid PRF lysates caused a robust SB431542-dependent increase in BMP2 expression in gingival fibroblasts. Additionally, fractions of liquid PRF, namely platelet-poor plasma (PPP) and the buffy coat (BC) layer, but not heat-denatured PPP (Alb-gel), greatly induced the expression of BMP2 in gingival fibroblasts. Even though PRF has no detectable BMPs, PRF lysates similar to recombinant TGF-β1 had the capacity to provoke canonical BMP signaling, as indicated by the nuclear translocation of Smad1/5 and the increase in its phosphorylation. Taken together, our data suggest that PRF can activate TGF-β receptor 1 kinase and consequently induce the production of BMP2 in cells of the mesenchymal lineage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Molecules and Stem Cells in Bone Regeneration)
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