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Article

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Primes Tolerance to Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Tomato

1
Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection, National Research Council of Italy (IPSP-CNR), Torino, Strada delle Cacce 73, 10135 Torino, Italy
2
Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection, National Research Council of Italy (IPSP-CNR), Unit of Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy
3
Department of Agricultural, Forestry and Food Sciences, University of Torino, Largo Paolo Braccini 2, 10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italy
4
Council for Agricultural Research and Economics—Research Centre for Viticulture and Enology CREA-VE, Via XXVIII Aprile 26, 31015 Conegliano (TV), Italy
5
Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Torino, Viale Mattioli 25, 10125 Torino, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 18 March 2020 / Revised: 19 June 2020 / Accepted: 20 June 2020 / Published: 22 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa)
Tomato plants can establish symbiotic interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) able to promote plant nutrition and prime systemic plant defenses against pathogens attack; the mechanism involved is known as mycorrhiza-induced resistance (MIR). However, studies on the effect of AMF on viral infection, still limited and not conclusive, indicate that AMF colonization may have a detrimental effect on plant defenses against viruses, so that the term “mycorrhiza-induced susceptibility” (MIS) has been proposed for these cases. To expand the case studies to a not yet tested viral family, that is, Bromoviridae, we investigated the effect of the colonization by the AMF Funneliformis mosseae on cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) infection in tomato by phenotypic, physiological, biochemical, and transcriptional analyses. Our results showed that the establishment of a functional AM symbiosis is able to limit symptoms development. Physiological and transcriptomic data highlighted that AMF mitigates the drastic downregulation of photosynthesis-related genes and the reduction of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate caused by CMV infection. In parallel, an increase of salicylic acid level and a modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes, toward a limitation of ROS accumulation, was specifically observed in CMV-infected mycorrhizal plants. Overall, our data indicate that the AM symbiosis influences the development of CMV infection in tomato plants and exerts a priming effect able to enhance tolerance to viral infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis; cucumber mosaic virus; Funneliformis mosseae; gene expression; priming tolerance; plant–virus interaction; RNA sequencing; Solanum lycopersicum L. arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis; cucumber mosaic virus; Funneliformis mosseae; gene expression; priming tolerance; plant–virus interaction; RNA sequencing; Solanum lycopersicum L.
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MDPI and ACS Style

Miozzi, L.; Vaira, A.M.; Brilli, F.; Casarin, V.; Berti, M.; Ferrandino, A.; Nerva, L.; Accotto, G.P.; Lanfranco, L. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Primes Tolerance to Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Tomato. Viruses 2020, 12, 675. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12060675

AMA Style

Miozzi L, Vaira AM, Brilli F, Casarin V, Berti M, Ferrandino A, Nerva L, Accotto GP, Lanfranco L. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Primes Tolerance to Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Tomato. Viruses. 2020; 12(6):675. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12060675

Chicago/Turabian Style

Miozzi, Laura, Anna M. Vaira, Federico Brilli, Valerio Casarin, Mara Berti, Alessandra Ferrandino, Luca Nerva, Gian P. Accotto, and Luisa Lanfranco. 2020. "Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Primes Tolerance to Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Tomato" Viruses 12, no. 6: 675. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12060675

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