Next Issue
Volume 7, September
Previous Issue
Volume 7, July

Children, Volume 7, Issue 8 (August 2020) – 23 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The present study aimed to qualitatively understand the experiences of adolescent girls with functional nausea and their parents. Five mother–daughter dyads were recruited from a specialized pediatric gastroenterology clinic focused on nausea and completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews were transcribed and coded using interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA). Four main themes emerged: nausea interference, body frustration, misunderstanding of symptoms, and maternal helplessness and guilt. These themes were similar to prior studies on the experiences of youth with chronic pain but also indicated unique challenges due to nausea, such as significant food restriction and subsequent weight loss. View this paper.
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Case Report
Unique Case of Congenital Duodenal Atresia and a Choledochal Cyst and the Hypothesis of Their Embryological Evolution
Children 2020, 7(8), 99; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7080099 - 18 Aug 2020
Viewed by 854
Abstract
The concomitant occurrence of duodenal atresia (DA) and a choledochal cyst (CC) has rarely been reported. Knowledge of both the presentation and management of this rare co-occurrence is imperative in avoiding potential complications and sequelae, such as biliary metaplasia. Herein we describe a [...] Read more.
The concomitant occurrence of duodenal atresia (DA) and a choledochal cyst (CC) has rarely been reported. Knowledge of both the presentation and management of this rare co-occurrence is imperative in avoiding potential complications and sequelae, such as biliary metaplasia. Herein we describe a female infant born at 32 weeks gestational age who was diagnosed with duodenal atresia and annular pancreas postnatally, who had subsequent findings of malrotation and a choledochal cyst, as seen from contrast imaging. Uncomplicated repair of the DA and obstruction was performed at 4 days of life. She re-presented 2 years later with non-bloody, nonbilious emesis and was found to have elevated amylase, lipase and liver enzymes. Imaging revealed dilated intra-hepatic ducts, a distended gallbladder and a large choledochal cyst. She underwent a cholecystostomy tube placement followed by a definitive choledochal cyst excision with immediate improvement following surgery and full resolution of symptoms before discharge. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Serious Illness Conversations in Pediatrics: A Case Review
Children 2020, 7(8), 102; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7080102 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
The Serious Illness Conversation Guide program developed by Ariadne Labs, a Joint Center for Health Systems Innovation, includes a list of patient-centered questions designed to assist clinicians to gain a more thorough understanding of their patient’s life in order to inform future care [...] Read more.
The Serious Illness Conversation Guide program developed by Ariadne Labs, a Joint Center for Health Systems Innovation, includes a list of patient-centered questions designed to assist clinicians to gain a more thorough understanding of their patient’s life in order to inform future care decisions. In July 2017, specialist pediatric palliative care clinicians at Canuck Place Children’s Hospice (CPCH) (Vancouver, BC, Canada), adapted the original guide to use with parents of children with serious illness. This tool is referred to as the Serious Illness Conversation Guide-Peds (SICG-Peds). Using the SICG-Peds, along with enhanced communication skills, can help illuminate the parents’ (child’s) understanding of illness and the values they hold. Expanding the application of the guide will promote goal-based, efficient, comprehensive and consistent communication between families and clinicians and help ensure that seriously ill children receive care that is tailored to their needs through the disease trajectory. This paper explores the guide through the lens of a case study. The steps—seeking permission, assessing understanding, sharing prognosis and exploring key topics (hopes, fears, strengths, critical abilities and trade-offs)—as well as formulating clinician recommendations, are described. Full article
Show Figures

Figure A1

Article
Assessment of Parents’ Oral Health Literacy and Its Association with Caries Experience of Their Preschool Children
Children 2020, 7(8), 101; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7080101 - 18 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1177
Abstract
(1) Purpose: To assess the oral health literacy (OHL) of parents and its association with the caries experience of their preschool children attending the Hospital University Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. (2) Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study [...] Read more.
(1) Purpose: To assess the oral health literacy (OHL) of parents and its association with the caries experience of their preschool children attending the Hospital University Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. (2) Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study involving a systematic random sampling method, using a sample of 230 parent/preschool child dyads. Among 230 parents, 24 were males and 206 were females (mean age 31.43 ± 5.82); among 230 children, 92 were boys and 138 were girls (mean age 4.82 ± 1.04) attending the pedodontics clinic, HUSM, who participated and met the inclusion criteria. A structured, self-administered oral health literacy questionnaire including sociodemographic factors was used in this study. A child’s oral examination was performed to check the dmft (decayed, missing, filled teeth) status. Statistical analysis was done using descriptive and Spearman’s correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis. (3) Results: The mean dmft score of children in relation to the OHL level of parents showed a significant difference (p < 0.00). The mean dmft score of children in relation to the OHL level of parents showed the following relationships: Inadequate (7.49 ± 4.10) followed by marginal (3.28 ± 2.67) and then adequate (0.55 ± 1.55). The incidence of caries amongst children in relation to parental employment was more associated with unemployed parents (6.11 ± 4.43) than with employed parents (2.79 ± 3.65). The caries experience amongst children in relation to education of their parents revealed a significant difference (p < 0.001), and the mean dmft score was high amongst preschool children with primary school qualified parents (10.7 ± 4.10) followed by high school (7.04 ± 3.68), vocational (5.81 ± 3.57), diploma (2.61 ± 2.81), and university (1.29 ± 2.27), respectively. The results revealed a valid significant difference (negative correlation, rs = −0.753 **) between the OHL of parents with the dmft score of their preschool children. The age and gender of parents was not significantly associated with OHL, whereas ethnicity (positive correlation, rs = 0.283 **), education (positive correlation, rs = 0.865 **), and employment (negative correlation, rs = −0.490 **) were found to be significant. Conclusion: We conclude that there is a significant association between the OHL of parents with the dmft score of their preschool children. The logistic regression showed that after adjustment for sociodemographic factors, parents’ gender (OR = 0.067, 95% CI: 0.012–0.360), parents’ employment status (OR = 3.247, 95% CI: 0.897–11.754), parents’ OHL score (OR = 0.042, 95% CI: 0.016–0.114), and child age (OR = 2.195, 95% CI: 1.249–3.857) were significantly associated with dental caries in children. Our study concluded that parents’ employment status, age, gender, OHL, and child’s age were significantly associated with the caries experience of their preschool children. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Signaling Pathways Involved in the Development of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Pulmonary Hypertension
Children 2020, 7(8), 100; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7080100 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1253
Abstract
The alveolar and vascular developmental arrest in the premature infants poses a major problem in the management of these infants. Although, with the current management, the survival rate has improved in these infants, but bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious complication associated with [...] Read more.
The alveolar and vascular developmental arrest in the premature infants poses a major problem in the management of these infants. Although, with the current management, the survival rate has improved in these infants, but bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious complication associated with a high mortality rate. During the neonatal developmental period, these infants are vulnerable to stress. Hypoxia, hyperoxia, and ventilation injury lead to oxidative and inflammatory stress, which induce further damage in the lung alveoli and vasculature. Development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in infants with BPD worsens the prognosis. Despite considerable progress in the management of premature infants, therapy to prevent BPD is not yet available. Animal experiments have shown deregulation of multiple signaling factors such as transforming growth factorβ (TGFβ), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), caveolin-1, wingless & Int-1 (WNT)/β-catenin, and elastin in the pathogenesis of BPD. This article reviews the signaling pathways entailed in the pathogenesis of BPD associated with PH and the possible management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pulmonary Hypertension in Neonates and Infants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Motor Performance in Children Diagnosed with Cancer: A Longitudinal Observational Study
Children 2020, 7(8), 98; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7080098 - 15 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1110
Abstract
Children with cancer are dealing with different side and long-term effects caused by cancer and its treatments, like vinca-alkaloids, which may have negative effects on motor performance. However, the affected areas of motor performance (aiming and catching, balance, manual dexterity) and the differences [...] Read more.
Children with cancer are dealing with different side and long-term effects caused by cancer and its treatments, like vinca-alkaloids, which may have negative effects on motor performance. However, the affected areas of motor performance (aiming and catching, balance, manual dexterity) and the differences in these areas between boys and girls and diagnoses are not frequently reported in a longitudinal design. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate how motor performance changes over the course of cancer treatment. The study was conducted with 3-to 16-year-old children with cancer (N = 36) in 2013–2017. The five assessment points were 0, 2, 6, 12 and 30 months from diagnosis. Movement-ABC2 was used to assess motor performance. We found that aiming and catching skills decreased significantly during the follow-up (p < 0.05). Balance was affected at the 2-month measurement point (p < 0.05) and more in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia than in children with other cancer diagnoses (p < 0.05). Girls performed better than boys in manual dexterity at 6, 12 and 30 months (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.05, respectively). Individual monitoring of motor performance with standardized tests and physical activity/exercise programs during and after treatment are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology and Hematology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Targeted Therapy for Pulmonary Hypertension in Premature Infants
Children 2020, 7(8), 97; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7080097 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1446
Abstract
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is common in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and is associated with significant mortality. Despite expert consensus suggesting the use of targeted therapies such as phosphodiesterase inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists, and prostanoids, there is little data on safety and [...] Read more.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is common in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and is associated with significant mortality. Despite expert consensus suggesting the use of targeted therapies such as phosphodiesterase inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists, and prostanoids, there is little data on safety and outcomes in infants with BPD-associated PH (BPD-PH) treated with these medications. We sought to describe the pharmacologic management of BPD-PH and to report outcomes at our institution. Premature infants with BPD-PH born between 2005 and 2016 were included. Follow-up data were obtained through January 2020. A total of 101 patients (61 male, 40 female) were included. Of these, 99 (98.0%) patients were treated with sildenafil, 13 (12.9%) with bosentan, 35 (34.7%) with inhaled iloprost, 12 (11.9%) with intravenous epoprostenol, and nine (8.9%) with subcutaneous treprostinil. A total of 33 (32.7%) patients died during the study period and 10 (9.9%) were secondary to severe to pulmonary hypertension. Of the surviving patients, 57 (83.8%) had follow-up data at a median of 5.1 (range 0.38–12.65) years and 44 (77.2%) were weaned off PH medications at a median 2.0 (range 0–8) years. Mortality for BPD-PH remains high mostly due to co-morbid conditions. However, for those patients that survive to discharge, PH therapies can frequently be discontinued in the first few years of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pulmonary Hypertension in Neonates and Infants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Addition of Intravenous Propofol and Ketorolac to a Sevoflurane Anesthetic Lessens Emergence Agitation in Children Having Bilateral Myringotomy with Tympanostomy Tube Insertion: A Prospective Observational Study
Children 2020, 7(8), 96; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7080096 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 945
Abstract
The aim of this prospective observational study was to determine if children undergoing bilateral myringotomy and tympanostomy tube insertion with a sevoflurane anesthetic plus intravenous propofol and ketorolac experienced a lower incidence of emergence agitation than those receiving a sevoflurane anesthetic alone. Duration [...] Read more.
The aim of this prospective observational study was to determine if children undergoing bilateral myringotomy and tympanostomy tube insertion with a sevoflurane anesthetic plus intravenous propofol and ketorolac experienced a lower incidence of emergence agitation than those receiving a sevoflurane anesthetic alone. Duration of procedure, length of stay in post-anaesthesia care and level of nursing effort required to care for patients were also assessed. In this study, 49 children younger than 13 years of age received a sevoflurane anesthetic. Fifty-one percent of these patients also received a single injection of propofol 1 mg/kg and ketorolac 0.5 mg/kg at the end of the procedure. Patients were assessed for emergence agitation using the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale in the post-anaesthesia care unit. Four children receiving a sevoflurane anesthetic alone experienced emergence agitation, while no children receiving propofol and ketorolac experienced emergence agitation (p = 0.05). The length of stay until discharge from the hospital was 6.98 min longer for patients receiving propofol and ketorolac but did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.23). Nurses reported greater ease in caring for patients receiving the propofol and ketorolac injection (recovery questionnaire score 4.50 vs. 3.75, p = 0.002). In this study, adding a single injection of intravenous propofol and ketorolac to the end of a brief sevoflurane anesthetic for bilateral myringotomy with tube insertion was associated with a lower incidence of emergence agitation without significantly increasing the time to discharge from the hospital. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Anesthesia)
Article
Physical Fitness Promotion among Adolescents: Effects of a Jump Rope-Based Physical Activity Afterschool Program
Children 2020, 7(8), 95; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7080095 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1545
Abstract
The major purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a jump rope-based physical activity afterschool program on middle school students’ physical fitness. Sixty students (Mage = 13.37, SD = 0.58; 53.3% female) participated in a 12-week jump rope-based [...] Read more.
The major purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a jump rope-based physical activity afterschool program on middle school students’ physical fitness. Sixty students (Mage = 13.37, SD = 0.58; 53.3% female) participated in a 12-week jump rope-based afterschool program (45 min/time, three times/week). Participants were randomly assigned to three groups: (a) freestyle rope skipping (N = 20), traditional jump rope (N = 20), and a control group (N = 20). Physical fitness tests, including muscular strength (standing long jump, right-hand grip, and left-hand grip), flexibility, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured in pre- and post-tests. A 2 (time) × 3 (groups) repeated measure multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was performed. The results found significant improvements in muscular strength (standing long jump, right-hand grip, and left-hand grip) in both intervention groups (p < 0.001; ds = 0.2–0.44). Only the freestyle rope skipping group had increased BMD (p < 0.05, d = 0.33). Compared to the traditional jump rope, the freestyle rope skipping group showed significantly higher improvement in flexibility (p < 0.05, d = 0.83). These findings suggest that the jump rope-based afterschool program with freestyle rope skipping would be more effective than traditional jump rope to promote physical fitness performance among adolescents. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Robotic Stereotactic Assistance (ROSA) for Pediatric Epilepsy: A Single-Center Experience of 23 Consecutive Cases
Children 2020, 7(8), 94; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7080094 - 07 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1241
Abstract
Robotic assisted neurosurgery has become increasingly utilized for its high degree of precision and minimally invasive approach. Robotic stereotactic assistance (ROSA®) for neurosurgery has been infrequently reported in the pediatric population. The goal of this case series was to describe the [...] Read more.
Robotic assisted neurosurgery has become increasingly utilized for its high degree of precision and minimally invasive approach. Robotic stereotactic assistance (ROSA®) for neurosurgery has been infrequently reported in the pediatric population. The goal of this case series was to describe the clinical experience, anesthetic and operative management, and treatment outcomes for pediatric patients with intractable epilepsy undergoing ROSA® neurosurgery at a single-center institution. Patients who underwent implantation of stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) leads for intractable epilepsy with ROSA® were retrospectively evaluated between August 2016 and June 2018. Demographics, perioperative management details, complications, and preliminary seizure outcomes after resective or ablative surgery were reviewed. Nineteen children who underwent 23 ROSA® procedures for SEEG implantation were included in the study. Mean operative time was 148 min. Eleven patients had subsequent resective or ablative surgery, and ROSA® was used to assist with laser probe insertion in five patients for seizure foci ablation. In total, 148 SEEG electrodes were placed without any perioperative complications. ROSA® is minimally invasive, provides superior accuracy for electrode placement, and requires less time than traditional surgical approaches for brain mapping. This emerging technology may improve the perioperative outcomes for pediatric patients with intractable epilepsy since large craniotomies are avoided; however, long-term follow-up studies are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Anesthesia)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Understanding the Psychosocial and Parenting Needs of Mothers with Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Young Children
Children 2020, 7(8), 93; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7080093 - 07 Aug 2020
Viewed by 979
Abstract
Women of childbearing age experience the highest prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), yet little is known about their psychosocial and parenting needs, which may influence their children’s experience of future gastrointestinal or pain-related conditions. The aims of this study were to conduct [...] Read more.
Women of childbearing age experience the highest prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), yet little is known about their psychosocial and parenting needs, which may influence their children’s experience of future gastrointestinal or pain-related conditions. The aims of this study were to conduct qualitative interviews to understand the psychosocial and parenting needs of mothers with IBS who have young school-age children, and to assess mothers’ potential interest in and acceptability of a preventive parenting intervention program. Ten mothers with IBS who have young (age 5–10), healthy children were interviewed. Interviews were coded with thematic analysis and three themes were identified: (1) Guilt about how IBS impacts children, (2) Worry that children will develop IBS, and (3) Already on high alert for children’s health. All mothers expressed interest in an Internet-based preventive intervention and identified tools and strategies they would want included. Results demonstrate that mothers experience guilt about how IBS has impacted their children in their daily lives, concern that they need to pay attention to children’s early signs and symptoms that could indicate gastrointestinal problems, and worry about children developing IBS in the future—suggesting that a preventive intervention may address important concerns for this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychogastroenterology: The Connection between the Brain and the Gut)
Article
Permanent Maxillary and Mandibular Central Incisor Width as Predictor of Permanent Maxillary Canine Width in a Kurdish Population: A Pilot Study
Children 2020, 7(8), 92; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7080092 - 06 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1019
Abstract
Background: Estimation of the mesio-distal width of permanent maxillary canines (PMCs) is a critical part of mixed dentition space analysis. The aim of this pilot study is to find a specific prediction equation for the estimation of the mesio-distal width of PMCs depending [...] Read more.
Background: Estimation of the mesio-distal width of permanent maxillary canines (PMCs) is a critical part of mixed dentition space analysis. The aim of this pilot study is to find a specific prediction equation for the estimation of the mesio-distal width of PMCs depending on the width of permanent maxillary and mandibular central incisors (PMMCIs) in a Kurdish population. Methods: A hundred study casts were collected. The mesio-distal widths of the PMMCIs and PMCs were measured by digital caliper. Linear regression tests were applied to find the prediction equation using the sum width of PMMCIs as predictors. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 17.2 ± 2.39 years old. Statistically significant differences in the mesio-distal widths of PMMCIs and PMCs were found between males and females (p = 0.0001). Furthermore, statistically significant correlations were identified between the widths of PMMCIs and PMCs in both males (r = 0.633, p = 0.0001) and females (r = 0.717, p = 0.0001). Likewise, the mesio-distal width of PMMCIs was found to be a significant predictor of the width of PMCs in both males (R2 = 0.403, p = 0.0001) and females (R2 = 5.14, p = 0.0001). Conclusion: For the first time, regression equations were developed for a Kurdish population and can be useful as a part of a mixed dentition space analysis in Kurdish children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Pediatric Dentistry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation—To Extract or to Restore beyond the Optimal Age?
Children 2020, 7(8), 91; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7080091 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2750
Abstract
The management of compromised first permanent molars (FPMs) in children presents a clinical challenge to the dental team. Hypomineralised FPMs in molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) conditions could undergo post-eruptive breakdown, making them susceptible to caries, leading to their subsequent loss. The planned extraction [...] Read more.
The management of compromised first permanent molars (FPMs) in children presents a clinical challenge to the dental team. Hypomineralised FPMs in molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) conditions could undergo post-eruptive breakdown, making them susceptible to caries, leading to their subsequent loss. The planned extraction of compromised FPMs is a valid alternative to complex restorative treatment. However, establishing the presence or absence of third permanent molars, amongst other considerations, is crucial to reaching a successful outcome. Clinicians should understand the importance of an orthodontic examination around the age of 8 years old with regard to establishing a differential therapeutic decision about the ideal timing of MIH-affected FPMs’ extraction in children. The aim of this article is to highlight that, with an interdisciplinary approach, a good outcome can be achieved following the extraction of poorly prognosed FPMs. The most cost-effective way of addressing MIH-affected FPMs is extraction, followed by orthodontic space closure when indicated. This obviates the need for the repeated restorative replacement and saves perfectly healthy premolars from being extracted for space creation in orthodontic treatment in several clinical scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Pediatric Dentistry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evaluating and Enhancing the Preparation of Patients and Families before Pediatric Surgery
Children 2020, 7(8), 90; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7080090 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1001
Abstract
Surgery can be a difficult and unfamiliar experience for children and their families. We examined the ability of existing information to help families feel better prepared for surgery at the Alberta Children’s Hospital (ACH) and evaluated the best way to enhance its content [...] Read more.
Surgery can be a difficult and unfamiliar experience for children and their families. We examined the ability of existing information to help families feel better prepared for surgery at the Alberta Children’s Hospital (ACH) and evaluated the best way to enhance its content and accessibility. We developed an online survey for families who have had surgery at ACH. Participants were recruited through pre-existing patient networks and from the ACH Short Stay Unit (SSU) between October 2018 and October 2019. The survey asked participants to evaluate the information available to prepare them for surgery and requested suggestions for improvement. Our survey results show that those who completed the in-person Surgery 101 program felt significantly more prepared for surgery. Of those who did not attend; 40% would have been interested in participating but were unaware that the program existed; and 17% planned to attend but were unable to; due to work or travel distance. Participants felt additional resources via online content or paper handouts would be most valuable. We used this information to prepare an online accessible summary of the Surgery 101 program and tour in the form of a video to reach more Albertan families preparing for surgery for their children Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Anesthesia)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Distribution of Pediatric Vital Signs in the Emergency Department: A Nationwide Study
Children 2020, 7(8), 89; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7080089 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1152
Abstract
To effectively use vital signs as indicators in children, the magnitude of deviation from expected vital sign distribution should be determined. The purpose of this study is to derive age-specific centile charts for the heart rate and respiratory rate of the children who [...] Read more.
To effectively use vital signs as indicators in children, the magnitude of deviation from expected vital sign distribution should be determined. The purpose of this study is to derive age-specific centile charts for the heart rate and respiratory rate of the children who visited the emergency department. This study used the Korea’s National Emergency Department Information System dataset. Patients aged <16 years visiting the emergency department between 1 January 2016 and 31 December 2017 were included. Heart rate and respiratory rate centile charts were derived from the population with normal body temperature (36 to <38 °C). Of 1,901,816 data points retrieved from the database, 1,454,372 sets of heart rates and 1,458,791 sets of respiratory rates were used to derive centile charts. Age-specific centile charts and curves of heart rates and respiratory rates showed a decline in heart rate and respiratory rate from birth to early adolescence. There were substantial discrepancies in the reference ranges of Advanced Paediatric Life Support and Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines. Age-based heart rate and respiratory rate centile charts at normal body temperature, derived from children visiting emergency departments, serve as new evidence-based data and can be used in follow-up studies to improve clinical care for children. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Large Splenic Abscess Caused by Non-Typhoidal Salmonella in a Healthy Child Treated with Percutaneous Drainage
Children 2020, 7(8), 88; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7080088 - 03 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Splenic abscess occurs very rarely in healthy children. Although typhoid fever was the leading cause of splenic abscess in the pre-antibiotic era, Salmonella spp. remain to be the major pathogens causing splenic abscess, with an increasing worldwide frequency of splenic abscess due to [...] Read more.
Splenic abscess occurs very rarely in healthy children. Although typhoid fever was the leading cause of splenic abscess in the pre-antibiotic era, Salmonella spp. remain to be the major pathogens causing splenic abscess, with an increasing worldwide frequency of splenic abscess due to non-typhoidal Salmonella infection. Here, we report the case of a 12-year-old boy, who was presumably diagnosed with acute gastroenteritis on admission and eventually diagnosed with a large splenic abscess (maximum diameter, 14.5 cm) caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella. Although splenectomy has been considered in cases of large splenic abscesses, the patient was treated with antibiotics and ultrasonography-guided percutaneous drainage. A detailed physical examination and appropriate imaging studies are necessary for the early diagnosis of extra-intestinal complications of non-typhoidal Salmonella enteritis. For treatment, percutaneous drainage, rather than splenectomy, can be used in large splenic abscesses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Pediatric Digestive Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Neonatal COVID-19 Pneumonia: Report of the First Case in a Preterm Neonate in Mayotte, an Overseas Department of France
Children 2020, 7(8), 87; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7080087 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1984
Abstract
We report the first case of COVID-19 pneumonia in a preterm neonate in Mayotte, an overseas department of France. The newborn developed an acute respiratory distress by 14 days of life with bilateral ground glass opacities on a chest CT scan and a [...] Read more.
We report the first case of COVID-19 pneumonia in a preterm neonate in Mayotte, an overseas department of France. The newborn developed an acute respiratory distress by 14 days of life with bilateral ground glass opacities on a chest CT scan and a 6-week-long stay in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This case report emphasizes the need for a cautious and close follow-up period for asymptomatic neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 infection. Vertical transmission cannot be excluded in this case. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Defining a “Good Death” in Pediatric Oncology: A Mixed Methods Study of Healthcare Providers
Children 2020, 7(8), 86; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7080086 - 31 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1220
Abstract
Delivering optimal end-of-life (EOL) care to children and adolescents is a healthcare priority, yet relatively little is known about what patients, families, and healthcare providers (HCPs) consider “best” practices. The objective of this study was to identify factors that pediatric oncology HCPs consider [...] Read more.
Delivering optimal end-of-life (EOL) care to children and adolescents is a healthcare priority, yet relatively little is known about what patients, families, and healthcare providers (HCPs) consider “best” practices. The objective of this study was to identify factors that pediatric oncology HCPs consider important for EOL care. This was a cross-sectional mixed methods study. Participants were multidisciplinary pediatric oncology staff who completed surveys and participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews. Interviews were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Provider statements were compared based on years of experience (≤10 or >10 years) and discipline (non-physician or physician). A total of n = 19 staff (74% female) enrolled, including physicians (n = 8), advanced practice providers (n = 4), nurses (n = 2), music/art therapists (n = 2), physical therapists (n = 1), educators (n = 1), and chaplains (n = 1). Most HCPs identified communication, symptom control, and acceptance as features of a “good” death. Compared to physicians, non-physicians focused on relationships (67% vs. 33%, p = 0.007); HCPs with ≤10 years of experience (n = 11) more frequently identified the benefits of a multidisciplinary team (74% vs. 26%, p = 0.004). This study identified many common HCP-defined components of “good” pediatric EOL care in addition to some differing perspectives depending on discipline and experience. Incorporating diverse HCP perspectives with those of the patient and family can guide contemporary high-quality pediatric EOL clinical care and education. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effect of Functional Progressive Resistance Exercise on Lower Extremity Structure, Muscle Tone, Dynamic Balance and Functional Ability in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy
Children 2020, 7(8), 85; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7080085 - 31 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1398
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of functional progressive resistance exercise (FPRE) on muscle tone, dynamic balance and functional ability in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Twenty-five subjects were randomized into two groups: the FPRE group (n = [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of functional progressive resistance exercise (FPRE) on muscle tone, dynamic balance and functional ability in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Twenty-five subjects were randomized into two groups: the FPRE group (n = 13) and the control group (n = 12). The experimental group participated in an FPRE program for 30 min per day, three times per week for six weeks. Knee extensor strength, rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI), muscle tone, dynamic balance, and functional ability was evaluated. The results showed statistically significant time × group interaction effects on the dominant side for knee extensor strength and cross-sectional area (CSA) in RUSI (p < 0.05). On both sides for thickness of the quadriceps (TQ) in RUSI, muscle tone and dynamic balance were statistically significant time × group interaction effects (p < 0.05). Additionally, knee extensor strength, CSA, TQ in RUS, muscle tone, dynamic balance and gross motor function measure (GMFM) in functional ability were significantly increased between pre- and post-intervention within the FPRE group (p < 0.05). The results suggest that FPRE is both feasible and beneficial for improving muscle tone, dynamic balance and functional ability in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Full article
Article
Upper Extremity Fractures in Children—Comparison between Worldwide, Romanian and Western Romanian Region Incidence
Children 2020, 7(8), 84; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7080084 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 960
Abstract
(1) Background: Fractures represent a significant part of all pediatric injuries, with distal forearm fracture being the most common fracture type in children. (2) Methods: In this comparative, epidemiological study we collected fracture incidence data from the scientific literature and compared it to [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Fractures represent a significant part of all pediatric injuries, with distal forearm fracture being the most common fracture type in children. (2) Methods: In this comparative, epidemiological study we collected fracture incidence data from the scientific literature and compared it to real-world data extracted from the Romanian national and regional hospital database. In order to collect information on the epidemiology of upper extremity fractures in children, we conducted a systematic literature review on Medline, via PubMed. Extracted incidence data were stratified by fracture location, age or age interval and gender. Nationwide and Western Region incidence values were calculated for different fracture locations of the upper extremity using data extracted from a centralized hospital database. Incidence values were calculated using the mid-2018 census data. The search was restricted to the pediatric population. (3) Results: Incidence values for upper arm fractures nationwide and for Western Region were 54.83/100,000 person-years and 64.79/100,000 person-years, respectively. Forearm fractures had an incidence of 139.77/100,000 person-years and 139.56/100,000 person-years, respectively. The overall incidence of upper extremity fractures nationwide and for the Romanian Western Region were 206.02/100,000 person-years and 220.14/100,000 person-years, respectively. (4) Conclusions: Incidence of upper extremity fractures in the pediatric population varies according to the analyzed data. The calculated incidence depends on the site of fractures, assessed population (worldwide, Romanian population or regional-Western part of Romania) or patients’ age. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
“My Body Hates Me”: A Qualitative Analysis of the Experience of Functional Nausea in Adolescent Girls and Their Mothers
Children 2020, 7(8), 83; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7080083 - 26 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1158
Abstract
Nausea is a somatic sensation typically associated with the need to vomit in order to remove a toxin from the body. When nausea occurs in the absence of a specific structural cause or toxin, it is classified as a functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID). [...] Read more.
Nausea is a somatic sensation typically associated with the need to vomit in order to remove a toxin from the body. When nausea occurs in the absence of a specific structural cause or toxin, it is classified as a functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID). Functional nausea was newly recognized in 2016 as a FGID in children and little is known about its prevalence, course or patient experiences. Nausea co-occurring with functional abdominal pain in childhood has been associated with long-term risk for anxiety and ongoing somatic symptoms into young adulthood. However, few studies have focused uniquely on the experience and impact of nausea on youth. The present study aimed to qualitatively understand the experiences of adolescent girls with functional nausea and their parents. Five mother–daughter dyads were recruited from a specialized pediatric gastroenterology clinic focused on nausea and completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews were transcribed and coded using interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA). Four main themes emerged: nausea interference, body frustration, misunderstanding of symptoms, and maternal helplessness and guilt. These themes were similar to prior studies on the experiences of youth with chronic pain but also indicated unique challenges due to nausea, such as significant food restriction and subsequent weight loss. Full article
Article
Sensomotoric Orthoses, Ankle–Foot Orthoses, and Children with Cerebral Palsy: The Bigger Picture
Children 2020, 7(8), 82; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7080082 - 24 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1568
Abstract
Ankle–foot orthoses (AFOs) and sensomotoric orthoses (SMotOs) are two—clinically relevant, yet under researched—types of lower limb orthoses used in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Quality of life is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of [...] Read more.
Ankle–foot orthoses (AFOs) and sensomotoric orthoses (SMotOs) are two—clinically relevant, yet under researched—types of lower limb orthoses used in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Quality of life is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Evaluating the effect of these two types of orthoses on quality of life in children with CP has not been reported on. The aim of this case study series was to synthesise and enrich the volume of evidence reported to inform real world applications of SMotO use in children with CP. Participants recruited were children with CP who performed the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up-and-Go, the Gross Motor Function Measure and/or the Edinburgh Visual Gait Score in AFOs, SMotOs and barefoot where able. Qualitative data included videos of gait, a questionnaire and pedographs. Eight participants completed 39 quantitative and six qualitative measures, with the Edinburgh Visual Gait Score (EVGS) reporting the highest response. A general improvement was seen in gross motor skills and gait when wearing the SMotOs compared to AFOs and some parents reported that SMotOs were preferred. The reader is able to correlate the quantitative results with the qualitative evidence presented. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Hypoglossal Nerve Stimulator Placement for Pediatric Trisomy 21 Patients with Refractory Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Case Series
Children 2020, 7(8), 81; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7080081 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1147
Abstract
Background: Hypoglossal nerve stimulators (HNS) are an increasingly popular form of upper airway stimulation for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults who are unable to tolerate positive pressure treatment. However, HNS use is currently limited in the pediatric population. Case presentation: We present [...] Read more.
Background: Hypoglossal nerve stimulators (HNS) are an increasingly popular form of upper airway stimulation for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults who are unable to tolerate positive pressure treatment. However, HNS use is currently limited in the pediatric population. Case presentation: We present a case series detailing the anesthetic management of three pediatric trisomy 21 patients receiving HNS for refractory obstructive sleep apnea. The patients tolerated the procedure well and experienced no complications. The average obstructive apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) change was 87.4% with the HNS. Conclusions: Proper anxiolysis, safe and controlled induction, multimodal analgesia, and minimization of post-operative respiratory compromise are all necessary to ensure anesthetic and surgical success. After a tailored anesthetic regimen, proper device placement and close follow-up, our patients had a marked improvement in obstructive symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Anesthesia)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Subjective Family Socioeconomic Status and Adolescents’ Attention: Blacks’ Diminished Returns
Children 2020, 7(8), 80; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7080080 - 23 Jul 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1383
Abstract
Background: Racial minorities, particularly non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs) in the US, experience weaker effects from their families’ socioeconomic status on tangible outcomes, a pattern called the Minorities’ Diminished Returns (MDRs) theory. These MDRs are frequently shown in the effects of the families’ socioeconomic status [...] Read more.
Background: Racial minorities, particularly non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs) in the US, experience weaker effects from their families’ socioeconomic status on tangible outcomes, a pattern called the Minorities’ Diminished Returns (MDRs) theory. These MDRs are frequently shown in the effects of the families’ socioeconomic status (SES) on NHB adolescents’ school performance. As a result of these MDRs, NHB adolescents from high SES families show a worse than expected school performance. The existing knowledge is, however, minimal about the role of attention in explaining the diminished returns of the families’ SES with regard to the adolescents’ outcomes. Aim: To investigate the racial differences in the effects of the subjective family SES on adolescents’ attention, we compared non-Hispanic white (NHW) and NHB adolescents to assess the effect of the subjective family SES on adolescents’ attention. Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis that included 4188 adolescents from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. The independent variable was the subjective family SES. The primary outcome was the adolescents’ attention to be measured by the stop-signal task (SST). The attention domain of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was also measured. Results: Overall, a high subjective family SES was associated with a higher task-based and CBCL-based attention. Race showed statistically significant interactions with subjective family SES in terms of adolescents’ attention outcomes. These interactions suggested that a high subjective family SES has smaller tangible effects on increasing the attention of NHB than NHW adolescents. Conclusion: The boosting effect of subjective family SES on attention is diminished for NHB rather than NHW adolescents. To minimize the racial gap in attention-related behaviors, such as school performance, we need to address the diminished returns of resources in the lives of NHB families. Not only should we equalize SES, but also increase the marginal returns of SES for racial minorities, particularly NHB families. Such efforts require public policies that empower NHB families to better leverage their SES resources and turn them into tangible outcomes. In addition, social policies should directly aim to alter the societal barriers that limit NHB families’ ability to effectively utilize their resources. Discrimination, segregation, and racism should be targets of our policy solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Child Neurology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop