Next Issue
Volume 9, April
Previous Issue
Volume 9, February

Dent. J., Volume 9, Issue 3 (March 2021) – 11 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): An in vitro study was conducted to identify the relationship between oral bacteria growth in dentistry students in differing concentrations of turmeric mouth rinses. Bacteria sampled from five test subjects were exposed to treatments of chlorhexidine gluconate and prepared turmeric mouth washes of increasing concentration. Comparison of growth rates of oral bacteria suggested that turmeric solutions within a concentration range of 7.357 and 29.5mg/mL were unlikely to produce a bacteriostatic or bactericidal effect, and, conversely, increased bacterial growth. This study suggests that homemade turmeric mouth rinses may contribute to oral bacterial growth. View this paper.
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Review
Is There an Association between the Gingival Phenotype and the Width of Keratinized Gingiva? A Systematic Review
Dent. J. 2021, 9(3), 34; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9030034 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1006
Abstract
The concept of gingival phenotype and width of keratinized gingiva influencing the diagnosis and treatment in the periodontal scenario is relatively new. Soft and hard tissue dimensions of oral tissues are considered essential parameters in daily clinical practice. Factors such as the biotype [...] Read more.
The concept of gingival phenotype and width of keratinized gingiva influencing the diagnosis and treatment in the periodontal scenario is relatively new. Soft and hard tissue dimensions of oral tissues are considered essential parameters in daily clinical practice. Factors such as the biotype category and the width of the keratinized gingiva help dentists seek the perfect therapy plan for each patient to achieve long-term stability of periodontal health. Several methods have been proposed to categorize phenotypes and each phenotype is characterized by various clinical characteristics. This review aims to discuss the possible association between the gingival phenotype and the width of keratinized gingiva along with the results appeared. After a rigorous search in major electronic databases, the results of the included studies indicated that the width of keratinized gingiva seems to be associated with the periodontal phenotype, with thick biotypes being characterized by a more pronounced keratinized gingival width. However, the heterogeneity of the included studies did not allow to make a conclusion about a direct relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Hygiene, Periodontology and Peri-implant Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Sport and Dental Traumatology: Surgical Solutions and Prevention
Dent. J. 2021, 9(3), 33; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9030033 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 949
Abstract
Trauma is a worldwide cause of millions of deaths and severe injuries every year, all over the world. Despite the limited extension of the oral region compared to the whole body, dental and oral injuries account for a fairly high percentage of all [...] Read more.
Trauma is a worldwide cause of millions of deaths and severe injuries every year, all over the world. Despite the limited extension of the oral region compared to the whole body, dental and oral injuries account for a fairly high percentage of all body traumas. Among head and neck traumas, dental and facial injuries are highly correlated to sport activities, and their management can be a real challenge for practitioners of any specialty. In case of trauma directed to periodontal structures, restorative and endodontic solutions may not be sufficient to achieve a definitive and long-lasting treatment. This article aims to illustrate surgical options and appliances to prevent dental injuries that may be available to the clinicians treating dental trauma involving oral soft and hard tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Dental Traumatology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Oral Symptoms Associated with COVID-19 and Their Pathogenic Mechanisms: A Literature Review
Dent. J. 2021, 9(3), 32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9030032 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2389
Abstract
Since the worldwide spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been challenging for healthcare providers. The oral cavity is referred to as a target of SARS-CoV-2. The aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
Since the worldwide spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been challenging for healthcare providers. The oral cavity is referred to as a target of SARS-CoV-2. The aim of this study was to review oral symptoms specific to COVID-19 patients from the point of view of symptom prevalence and pathogenesis and to speculate the pathogenic mechanisms underlying them. Scientific articles were retrieved by searching PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, medRxiv, and bioRxiv from 3 February 2020 to 31 December 2020, and they were reviewed by title, abstract, and text for relevance. The literature search indicated that COVID-19 patients frequently present with gustatory dysfunction, xerostomia, and oral mucosal lesions, while their prevalence is likely to vary by country, age, gender, and disease severity. Gustatory dysfunction and xerostomia appear at an early stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection and last relatively long. One of possible pathogenic mechanisms of both symptoms is attributed to the expression of viral cellular entry-relevant receptors in taste cells and salivary glands. Dental professionals who can first become aware of oral symptoms associated with COVID-19 will play a more active role in and make a greater contribution to diagnosis and prevention of COVID-19. Full article
Article
Primary Evaluation of Shape Recovery of Orthodontic Aligners Fabricated from Shape Memory Polymer (A Typodont Study)
Dent. J. 2021, 9(3), 31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9030031 - 10 Mar 2021
Viewed by 887
Abstract
As an innovative approach to overcome the rate-limiting staging of conventional aligners, using shape memory polymers (SMPs) as aligners’ materials was investigated in this in vitro study. The ability of SMPs to shape recover and consequently move tooth, upon appropriate stimuli, was evaluated [...] Read more.
As an innovative approach to overcome the rate-limiting staging of conventional aligners, using shape memory polymers (SMPs) as aligners’ materials was investigated in this in vitro study. The ability of SMPs to shape recover and consequently move tooth, upon appropriate stimuli, was evaluated on a typodont model before clinical application. The study design was to achieve 1.9 mm correction movement of an upper central incisor by one aligner after multiple steps/activation. A custom-made aligned typodont model with a movable upper central incisor was scanned. Using an orthodontic software and a 3D printer, resin-models were generated. Seven aligners of ClearX sheets (SMPs) were fabricated by thermoforming on the resin aligned model. Each aligner was tested for repositioning of the central incisor in the typodont model. The model was scanned after each step and the corrective movement was measured through the superimposition of scans. Results showed that the total correction efficiency of the SMPs’ aligner was ≈93% (1.76 mm). The corrective movement was 0.94 ± 0.04 mm after the reforming step, 0.66 ± 0.07 mm after the first activation step, and 0.15 ± 0.10 mm after the second activation step. It was concluded that aligners made of SMPs could have a promising future-use in orthodontic aesthetic treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Science and Technology in Orthodontics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Diagnostic Value of Fluorescence Methods, Visual Inspection and Photographic Visual Examination in Initial Caries Lesion: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Dent. J. 2021, 9(3), 30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9030030 - 06 Mar 2021
Viewed by 978
Abstract
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy of fluorescence-based methods, visual inspections, and photographic visual examinations in initial caries detection. A literature search was undertaken in the PubMed and Cochrane databases. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) [...] Read more.
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy of fluorescence-based methods, visual inspections, and photographic visual examinations in initial caries detection. A literature search was undertaken in the PubMed and Cochrane databases. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed, and eligible articles published from 1 January 2009 to 30 October 2019 were included if they met the following criteria: they (1) assessed the accuracy of methods of detecting initial tooth caries lesions on occlusal, proximal, or smooth surfaces in both primary and permanent teeth (in clinical); (2) used a reference standard; (3) reported data regarding the sample size, prevalence of initial tooth caries, and accuracy of the methods. Data collection and extraction, quality assessment, and data analysis were conducted according to Cochrane standards Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2. Statistical analyses were performed using Review Manager 5.3 and STATA 14.0. A total of 12 eligible articles were included in the meta-analysis. The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of fluorescence-based methods were 80% and 80%, respectively; visual inspection was measured at 80% and 75%, respectively; photographic visual examination was measured at 67% and 79%, respectively. We found that the visual method and the fluorescence method were reliable for laboratory use to detect early-stage caries with equivalent accuracy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Histologic Analysis of Clinically Healthy Human Gingiva in Patients with Altered Passive Eruption
Dent. J. 2021, 9(3), 29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9030029 - 06 Mar 2021
Viewed by 817
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to histologically examine the clinically healthy gingiva of patients with altered passive eruption (APE). Five patients with type 1 APE were enrolled. They underwent scaling and polishing and received oral hygiene instructions. After 6 months of supervised [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to histologically examine the clinically healthy gingiva of patients with altered passive eruption (APE). Five patients with type 1 APE were enrolled. They underwent scaling and polishing and received oral hygiene instructions. After 6 months of supervised plaque control and uninterrupted gingival clinical health (Gingival Index (GI) = 0 and no Bleeding on Probing (BoP)), upper anterior teeth were surgically treated. During the surgical procedure, the excised gingival margin was collected to be histologically examined. In four out of five patients, signs of inflammation including spongiosis and neutrophil exocytosis could be found in the epithelium of the gingival sulcus. Ulceration with exposure of the lamina propria and inflammatory granulation tissue were evident in the most severe cases. Normal density and orientation of collagen fibers could be seen within the superficial and the deep portions of connective tissue, with an increase in size and number of the deep collagen fibers and a reduced laxity of the superficial ones. In conclusion, the clinically healthy gingiva of APE patients showed features compatible with persistent inflammation, possibly due to recurrent traumatisms caused by an incisally placed gingival margin. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Assessment of Health-Promoting Lifestyle among Dental Students in Zagreb, Croatia
Dent. J. 2021, 9(3), 28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9030028 - 06 Mar 2021
Viewed by 828
Abstract
As future healthcare professionals, dental medicine students are expected to exhibit healthy lifestyle behaviors. This study aims to assess the health-promoting behaviors among undergraduate dental medicine students of all six academic study years at the University of Zagreb, and determine their predictors. Students [...] Read more.
As future healthcare professionals, dental medicine students are expected to exhibit healthy lifestyle behaviors. This study aims to assess the health-promoting behaviors among undergraduate dental medicine students of all six academic study years at the University of Zagreb, and determine their predictors. Students were invited to complete a two-part survey, consisting of a self-reported sociodemographic questionnaire and the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP II). Three hundred and forty-nine students completed the survey; the response rate was 60.3%. The total mean HPLP II score was 2.64 ± 0.34. Students in the second academic study year scored the lowest (2.50 ± 0.33), and students in the sixth academic study year scored the highest (2.77 ± 0.32). Health responsibility was the overall lowest scored subcategory, while interpersonal relations was scored the highest. Female students reported lower spiritual growth and stress management than male students. Higher body mass index (BMI) was related to lower health responsibility. Smoking, place of residence and the age of participants did not seem to have an impact on health-promoting behaviors. Dental students at our faculty exhibit moderate health-promoting behaviors, even in the absence of a formal health-promoting course in the existing curriculum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Education)
Case Report
Management of the Sequelae of a Sport-Related Traumatic Dental Injury Using Ultrasound Examination in the Diagnosis and Follow-Up
Dent. J. 2021, 9(3), 27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9030027 - 02 Mar 2021
Viewed by 725
Abstract
About a quarter of all oral pathologies involving the oral cavity and dental apparatus are traumatic injuries, and a substantial number of these cases are the result of sports injuries affecting adolescents and young adults. Here, we report the case of a 25-year-old [...] Read more.
About a quarter of all oral pathologies involving the oral cavity and dental apparatus are traumatic injuries, and a substantial number of these cases are the result of sports injuries affecting adolescents and young adults. Here, we report the case of a 25-year-old healthy female referred to the department of Endodontics for the evaluation and management of teeth 1.2 and 1.1 because of a chronic apical abscess in an area involved in a sport-related dental trauma in the past. A multi-modular diagnostic assessment, comprising conventional periapical radiographs, CBCT imaging, ultrasound, and histopathologic examination, led to a final diagnosis of an apical granulomatous lesion connected to both teeth, and an associated sinus tract. During the follow-up period of three years, the patient was reviewed twice a year and showed progressive healing of the bone and absence of the sinus tract. The present report shows the challenges of diagnosing complications arising from past dental trauma. Furthermore, it is the first documented traumatic case where ultrasound examination was fruitfully used. Emphasis should be put on introducing diagnostic ultrasound for the management of both apical periodontitis and the related sinus tract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Dental Traumatology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effect of Turmeric Concentrations on the Rate of Growth of Oral Bacteria—An In-Vitro Study
Dent. J. 2021, 9(3), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9030026 - 01 Mar 2021
Viewed by 819
Abstract
Background and Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of varying concentrations of a turmeric solution on the growth rates of oral bacteria sampled from dental students. Methods: Bacterial cultures were grown overnight in aerobic conditions from plaque samples [...] Read more.
Background and Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of varying concentrations of a turmeric solution on the growth rates of oral bacteria sampled from dental students. Methods: Bacterial cultures were grown overnight in aerobic conditions from plaque samples obtained from five test subjects. With the exception of the control, samples were exposed to different treatments; including chlorhexidine gluconate 2 mg/mL, prepared turmeric solution (TS) mouthwash: TS 0.25 mL (7.375 mg/mL), TS 0.5 mL (14.75 mg/mL), and TS 1 mL (29.50 mg/mL). Growth rate of the bacterial cultures were assessed by monitoring changes in optical density readings at 600 nm at hourly intervals for a six-hour period. The data were plotted and the exponential trend was used to calculate individual rates of growth. Data was analyzed using a one-way ANOVA with the significance confirmed using the Tukey-HSD test. Results: Growth observed in the bacteria exposed to the turmeric solution, was significantly greater (p < 0.05) when compared with the bacteria exposed to the medium alone. There was a significant difference found between the bacterial growth rate of the 1 mL turmeric solution against the growth rate of the bacteria in the 0.25 and 0.5 mL turmeric solutions. Conclusion: Comparison of growth rates of oral bacteria suggested that turmeric solutions of concentrations between 7.357 and 29.5 mg/mL (0.25–1 mL) were unlikely to exhibit bacteriostatic or bactericidal properties, and, conversely, increased bacterial growth. Considering this result, it is unlikely that turmeric mouthwash made from store-bought turmeric would have any antibacterial effects against oral bacteria, and may even promote bacterial growth. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Sleep Bruxism and SDB in Albanian Growing Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Study
Dent. J. 2021, 9(3), 25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9030025 - 27 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 790
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible correlation between sleep bruxism and risk factors of developing obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in a sample of growing subjects and to assess parental awareness about sleep bruxism in their children. Methods: The [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible correlation between sleep bruxism and risk factors of developing obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in a sample of growing subjects and to assess parental awareness about sleep bruxism in their children. Methods: The sample was composed of 310 subjects (173 females and 137 males), with a mean age of 8.9 years, attending “Ndre Mjeda” school of Tirana (Albania). All parents of the children participating in the study were asked to fill in a questionnaire manually or via a digital version. The questionnaire was composed of three sections: personal data, sleep quality data, and OSAS risk factors, and it was filled out by both parents. Results: Of our samples, 41.3% presented with bruxism, and 16.5% of the parents ground their teeth. Oral breathing was reported in 11.9% of the subjects, and among these, 40% of the subjects were affected by bruxism (p > 0.05). Of the subjects, 18.7% snore overnight. Comparing it with sleep bruxism, the two phenomena are often related (p = 0.00). Conclusions: Heredity, night-sweating, nycturia, oral breathing, and snoring seem to have a significant correlation with bruxism. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Perspective
Diagnosis of Biofilm-Associated Peri-Implant Disease Using a Fluorescence-Based Approach
Dent. J. 2021, 9(3), 24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9030024 - 27 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1036
Abstract
Dental implants have become a routine component of daily dental practice and the demand for dental implants is expected to increase significantly in the future. Despite the high success rates of dental implants, failures do occur, resulting in discomfort, rampant destruction of the [...] Read more.
Dental implants have become a routine component of daily dental practice and the demand for dental implants is expected to increase significantly in the future. Despite the high success rates of dental implants, failures do occur, resulting in discomfort, rampant destruction of the oral health, or painful and costly surgical replacement of a failed implant. Peri-implant diseases are inflammatory conditions affecting the soft/hard tissues surrounding a functional dental implant. Plenty of experimental evidence indicates that the accumulation of dental plaque at the soft tissue–implant interface and the subsequent local inflammatory response seems to be key in the pathogenesis of the peri-implant mucositis. Such peri-implant–soft tissue interface is less effective than natural teeth in resisting bacterial invasion, enhancing vulnerability to subsequent peri-implant disease. Furthermore, in certain individuals, it will progress to peri-implantitis, resulting in alveolar bone loss and implant failure. Although early diagnosis and accurate identification of risk factors are extremely important to effectively prevent peri-implant diseases, current systematic reviews revealed that a uniform classification and diagnostic methodology for peri-implantitis are lacking. Recent progress on fluorescence-based technology enabled rapid diagnosis of the disease and effective removal of plaques. Here, we briefly review biofilm-associated peri-implant diseases and propose a fluorescence-based approach for more accurate and objective diagnoses. A fluorescence-based diagnosis tool through headlights combined with special-filtered dental loupes may serve as a hands-free solution for both precise diagnosis and effective removal of plaque-biofilms. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop